KANSAS COLLECTION BOOKS


Andreas' History of the State of Nebraska

Nebraska as a State
Produced by Ted and Carole Miller.



Part 1:


Nebraska as a State | First State Officers
Congressional Representation
Legislative | Political | Removal of the Capital

Part 2:


Impeachment of Gov. Butler:   Article I | Article II | Article III
Article IV | Article V | Article VI | Article VII | Article VIII | Article IX
Article X | Article XI

Part 3:
Impeachment of Gov. Butler (cont.):   Answer
Part 4:
Constitution of 1871 | The James Regime | Proclamation
Part 5:
The James Regime(cont.) | Supplementary Resolutions
Part 6:


Constitution of 1875:
Preamble | Article I--Bill of Rights | Article II--Distribution of Powers
Article III--Legislative | Article IV--Legislative Apportionment

Part 7:







Constitution of 1875 (cont.):
Article V--Executive Department | Article VI--The Judicial Department
Article VII--Rights of Suffrage | Article VIII--Education
Article IX--Revenue and Finance | Article X--Counties
Article XI--Corporations:   Railroad Corporations
Municipal Corporations | Miscellaneous Corporations
Article XII--State, County and Municipal Indebtedness
Article XIII--Militia | Article XIV--Miscellaneous Provisions

Part 8:


Constitution of 1875 (cont.):
Article XV--Amendments | Article XVI--Schedule
Propositions Separately Submitted | Legislative and Political

Part 9:

Legislative and Political (cont.) | Popular Votes | State Roster
State Judiciary

Part 10:

Senatorial Succession | The Political Status of Nebraska
County Boundaries

Part 11:

The Population of Counties | Omaha in 1858
Per Cent of Increase in Population | Prof. Wilber's Address

Part 12:
Hon. J. M. Woolworth's Address | Public Lands
Part 13:
Educational Lands in Nebraska | Educational
Part 14:
Slavery in Nebraska
Part 15:
The Woman Suffrage Question


Part 13


EDUCATIONAL LANDS IN NEBRASKA.

   Amount of lands Of Burlington & Missouri River Railroad in Nebraska unsold January 1, 1881, by Counties:

Counties.

Av. price.

Acres.

Counties.

Av. price.

Acres.

Adams
Antelope
Boone
Butler
Cass
Clay
Cedar
Dakota
Dixon
Fillmore
Franklin
Gage
Greeley
Hamilton
Howard
Jefferson

$5 00 to $8 00
1 50 to 6 00
2 00 to 6 00
5 00 to 6 00
7 00 to 10 00
4 00 to 8 00
1 25 to 6 00
1 25 to 6 00
1 25 to 6 00
5 00 to 9 00
2 00 to 5 00
5 00 to 8 00
1 00 to 5 00
4 00 to 7 00
2 00 to 4 00
5 00 to 8 00

7,500
55,000
67,000
500
500
2,000
6,500
2,500
6,000
2,500
65,000
2,000
83,000
500
20,500
2,000

Kearney
Lancaster
Madison
Otoe
Platte
Pierce
Polk
Saunders
Saline
Seward
Sherman
Stanton
Valley
Wayne
Webster
York

$2 00 to $6 00
4 00 to 10 00
2 00 to 6 00
6 00 to 10 00
1 25 to 6 00
1 25 to 6 00
5 00 to 6 00
3 00 to 7 00
4 00 to 10 00
4 00 to 10 00
1 50 to 5 00
3 00 to 7 00
1 00 to 5 00
1 25 to 6 00
2 00 to 5 00
4 00 to 8 00

8,000
33,000
47,009
3,500
8,000
11,000
500
7,000
8,000
28,500
47,000
25,000
70,000
8,000
14,000
4,000

   Estimate of Union Pacific Railway lands in Nebraska unsold January 1, 1881, by counties:

Name of County.

No. acres.

Av. price, per acre.

Name of County.

No. acres.

Av. price, per acre.

Lancaster
Cass
Sarpy
Douglas
Washington
Cuming
Dodge
Saunders
Butler
Colfax
Platte
Polk
York
Clay
Hamilton
Merrick
Boone

160
240
440
1,280
4,240
400
5,920
12,640
12,740
30,240
50,240
13,880
1,800
500
9,920
44,120
2,560

$12 00
8 30
3 75
6 25
9 00
8 00
7 50
10 00
6 00
6 25
6 25
6 00
5 10
5 00
6 00
4 50
4 25

Howard
Hall
Adams
Kearney
Buffalo
Buffalo, unappraised
Sherman
Dawson
Dawson, unappraised
Phelps
Gosper
Gosper, unappraised
Custer, unappraised
Frontier, unappraised
Lincoln
Lincoln, unappraised

48,280
39,600
2,700
13,560
140,480
4,000
4,960
121,680
140,000
55,880
10,800
50,000
83,120
42,160
62,000
626,000

3 00
6 00
7 00
6 00
3 50
----
2 90
3 50
----
3 50
2 50
----
----
----
2 90
----

   Estimate of Government lands in Nebraska subject to entry at the various land offices in the State January 1, 1881:

Land Office.

Acres

Land Office.

Acres

North Platte
Niobrara
Norfolk
Grand Island

20,000,000
700,000
300,000
600,000

Bloomington
Lincoln
Beatrice

400,000
------
------

   No better indication of the healthy growth of the country, and especially of the Northwest, is afforded than the showing for the fiscal year just closed of the business of the General Land Office. The following table affords a comparative statement of the amount of land taken up during the last nine years:

Fiscal

Sold for cash

Timber

Homesteads

year

--acres.

claims--acres.

--acres

1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880

1,389,982
1,370,320
1,626,266
1,041,315
745,061
640,691
740,686
877,555
622,573
1,455,724

-----------
-----------
-----------
803,945
464,870
607,984
520,673
1,870,434
2,766,533
2,129,705

4,600,326
4,671,332
3,793,612
3,518,861
2,356,057
2,875,909
2,178,098
4,418,334
5,260,411
6,070,507

   It will be seen that the amount of land taken up under the homestead act alone during the year ending June 30, 1880, is far in excess of any previous season. The reasons for this are various, and, among other things, may be traced to increased emigration, the increased price of farm products, and the cessation of Indian hostilities.

   Land is being settled faster than the surveys are made, as the following table will show:

Year ending

Surveyed,

Disposed of,

Year ending

Surveyed,

Disposed of,

June 30.

acres

acres.

June 30.

acres

acres.

1875
1876
1877

26,077,351
20,271,506
10,847,082

7,070,271
6,524,326
4,849,767

1878
1879
1880

8,041,012
8,455,781
8,500,000

8,686,178
9,333,383
9,657,936

   It must be borne in mind that the amount, 9,657,936 acres, does not represent all disposed of this year, but merely that taken under homestead, timber culture and pre-emption acts.

   The aggregate number of acres of lands owned by the State of Nebraska, on the 1st day of December, 1880, was as follows :

Common school lands
University lands
Normal lands
Saline lands
Penitentiary lands

2,434,645 51
45,039 93
12,722 38
13,285 00
67,671 00

Agricultural College lands
Internal improvement lands

Total

89,452 78
480 00
----------
2,596,302 32

   Statement of the sale and leasing of the common school lands belonging to the State: The number of acres remaining unsold on the 30th of November, 1878, was 1,025,556.78. Number of acres deeded during the years 1879 and 1880, 7,991.60. Number of acres unsold November 29, 1886, 1,017,565.18. Estimated number of acres of school lands belonging to the State in unorganized counties, and in counties organized but not having a complete record of their lands, 889,729.33. Estimated number of acres of school lands in unorganized territory belonging to the State, 627,360. Number of acres sold at public sale from November 30, 1878, to November 30, 1879, 11,741.22. Amount of sales, $88,448.78. Number of acres sold at public sale from November 30, 1879, to November 30, 1880, 2,482,03. Amount of sales, $31,055.33. Number of acres purchased by leases at private sales, from November 30, 1876, to November 30, 1880, 16,881.60. Amount of sales, $122,008.20. Number of acres leased during the year 1879, 134,697.04. Value, $572,078.08. Amount leased during the year 1880, 122,843.28 acres. Value, $439,521.17.

   Taxes became due the 1st day of January in each year, and delinquent on the 1st day of May following. After May 1, interest at 1 per cent per month in advance is added, until November 1, when the land will be offered at public sale if taxes are not paid.

EDUCATIONAL.

   The so-called first report of the Commissioner of Education under the Territorial laws amounted to nothing, so far as practical information is concerned. It was made by the State Auditor, ex officio Commissioner of Education, and covers but two pages of the legislative journal, with suggestions as to what might and should be done. The second report, dated January 8, 1861, after a hiatus of two or three years, by Commissioner W. E. Harvey, is really the first report ever issued in Nebraska. This statement is made to account for an apparent incompleteness in the records.

   From Mr. Harvey's report we compile the following statement of the condition of educational affairs in 1860:

   The Territorial school laws were, as is natural to expect, very deficient in many respects; and prominent among others was a lack of penalty attached to the failure of subordinate officials to make annual report to the Commissioner. As a result, many of the districts then existing are not represented in the general report, and therefore it is presumable that a better degree of school facilities obtained than we are able to authoritatively set forth. The laws were not generally understood, and one Clerk remarked that "a common clod-hopper cannot understand them, and even the lawyers do not agree on their meaning."

   The county reports for 1860 showed 19 counties returned, in which there were 84 precincts and 139 subdistricts. There were 3,763 males and 3,278 females enumerated, making a total of 7,041 children of school age. These were attendant upon 4 high and 104 primary schools, of the public system, and 23 private institutions, giving a total of 131 schools of all classes. The high schools contained 376 pupils, of whom 227 were males; the primary schools held an enrollment of 2,554, of whom 1,377 were males. This showed an enrollment of 2,930 out of an enumeration of 7,041. There were 2 male and 2 female teachers in the high schools, and 36 males and 74 females in the primaries, besides 8 males and 17 females in the select schools--or 139 teachers all told. The schoolhouses numbered 34, with a total value of all property of $9,748. The aggregate of wages paid was $4,772, and the aggregate of expenditures reached $8,214.

   Under the act of January 13, 1860, an apportionment was made and an enumeration taken of "the unmarried white youth" of the Territory. The result of this for the year 1860, and the apportionment of money for the year 1861, was:

Counties.

No. Enrolled.

Amount.

Burt
Calhoun
Cass
Cedar
Clay
Cuming
Dakota
Dixon
Dodge
Douglas
Gage
Johnson
Nemaha
Otoe
Pawnee
Richardson
Sarpy
Washington
Platte
Total

115
17
1,106
78
74
26
300
77
87
889
120
124
917
1,222
249
629
393
453
153
7,041

$153 68
.....
1,000 00
38 10
.....
.....
156 30
30 43
80 64
1,000 00
47 12
61 43
700 00
1,491 35
106 65
500 00
500 00
431 38
55 25
$6,852 23


   Commissioner Harvey was empowered, by act of January 13, 1860, to select lands in lieu of those taken by settlers on Sections 16 and 36. The original grant of school lands to this State was a generous one, double in extent that of most Territories; but early settlers chose "claims" prior to the surveys, and in many instances located on what was afterward found to be "school sections." To make good these losses, other lands were allowed. In 1800, there were designated 4,509 acres in the Dakota Land District; 3,884 acres in the South Platte; and 1,440 acres in the Nemaha Districts respectively.

   The report entered into the details of the sub-reports, which we have summarized, and also contained many suggestions as to the improvement of school facilities. But the foregoing gives all that need be here preserved as indicative of the Territorial schools at the date of the first regular report.

   In the following table is shown the growth of the educational work, beginning in 1870, or one decade after the foregoing report was made:

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS. TWELVE YEARS OF THE SYSTEM.

[This table showing the summary was too large to include within this page].
View table

   The State system is now under the charge of a Superintendent of Public Instruction, an office created by act of February 15, 1869. The station has been filled by the Hon. Seth W. Beals, 1869; J. M. McKenzie, January 10, 1871; S. R. Thompson, January 4, 1877; W. W. W. Jones, January 6, 1881.

   The twelfth annual report, for the year ending December 31, 1881, contains many interesting facts. The zeal manifested by the educational fraternity finds exemplification in the numerousness of the county and district normal institutes held in the State. The county institutes are gatherings of teachers for mutual conference over their work; for the study of the various problems that continually arise in school management; and for the discussion of educational questions relating to ways and means of instruction. These meetings usually last from two to five days. To allow time for more formal instruction than an institute of four days can give, normal institutes, as they are commonly called, lasting from two to six weeks, have become quite common in the West. About thirty-five of such meetings were held in Nebraska during 1879 and 1880. The first held in the State was at Lincoln, in 1872, and for several years but two or three a year were found practicable. Nineteen were held in 1880, showing a great change for the better in the popular estimate of utility of such meetings.

   Usually, some well-known and skilled teacher is employed to conduct these institutes; sometimes the conductor is the County Superintendent. As many other teachers as may be necessary are provided. The expenses are paid by a tuition fee charged upon those who attend. The utility of these meetings is beyond question, their popularity is steadily increasing.

   Two conventions of County Superintendents were held in 1880--one at Lincoln, January 27, and the other at Wisner in the following week.

   The convention at Lincoln organized by electing Supt. J. J. Points, of Douglas County, Chairman, Supt. Philip Crother, of Nemaha, Secretary; and Supt. Lucy A. McFadden, of Adams County, Assistant Secretary. The attendance was large, the discussions interesting and able, and the result no doubt highly beneficial to all who took part. A State Teachers' Association is in existence, and annual meetings are held.

   In that portion of this work relating to local or county histories will be found the history of each of the State institutions of learning, described as a special feature. For example, the State University is given in the chapter devoted to Lancaster County; the State Normal School, in that devoted to Nemaha County; the Institute for the Blind, in that devoted to Otoe; and the Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, in Douglas County. The city schools are treated fully in the several city histories. We have endeavored to make this a prominent characteristic of this work.

   Denominational and select schools are also given in the localities where they exist.

   The State permanent school fund is rapidly increasing. A close approximation of the amount December 1, 1880, was:

Invested in State Bonds

$326,267 35

Invested in County Bonds

221,500 00

Invested in School District Bonds

12,800 00

Invested in United States Bonds

15,000 00

Invested in private securities

37,900 00

Cash on hand not invested

20,876 00

Total

$634,343 35

Unpaid principal of school lands

$955,618 03

Valuation of school lands leased

1,733,255 81

Total

$2,688,873 84

Grand total

$3,323,217 19




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