KANSAS COLLECTION BOOKS


Andreas' History of the State of Nebraska

Nebraska as a State
Produced by Ted and Carole Miller.



Part 1:


Nebraska as a State | First State Officers
Congressional Representation
Legislative | Political | Removal of the Capital

Part 2:


Impeachment of Gov. Butler:   Article I | Article II | Article III
Article IV | Article V | Article VI | Article VII | Article VIII | Article IX
Article X | Article XI

Part 3:
Impeachment of Gov. Butler (cont.):   Answer
Part 4:
Constitution of 1871 | The James Regime | Proclamation
Part 5:
The James Regime(cont.) | Supplementary Resolutions
Part 6:


Constitution of 1875:
Preamble | Article I--Bill of Rights | Article II--Distribution of Powers
Article III--Legislative | Article IV--Legislative Apportionment

Part 7:







Constitution of 1875 (cont.):
Article V--Executive Department | Article VI--The Judicial Department
Article VII--Rights of Suffrage | Article VIII--Education
Article IX--Revenue and Finance | Article X--Counties
Article XI--Corporations:   Railroad Corporations
Municipal Corporations | Miscellaneous Corporations
Article XII--State, County and Municipal Indebtedness
Article XIII--Militia | Article XIV--Miscellaneous Provisions

Part 8:


Constitution of 1875 (cont.):
Article XV--Amendments | Article XVI--Schedule
Propositions Separately Submitted | Legislative and Political

Part 9:

Legislative and Political (cont.) | Popular Votes | State Roster
State Judiciary

Part 10:

Senatorial Succession | The Political Status of Nebraska
County Boundaries

Part 11:

The Population of Counties | Omaha in 1858
Per Cent of Increase in Population | Prof. Wilber's Address

Part 12:
Hon. J. M. Woolworth's Address | Public Lands
Part 13:
Educational Lands in Nebraska | Educational
Part 14:
Slavery in Nebraska
Part 15:
The Woman Suffrage Question


Part 11


COMPARATIVE STATEMENT, SHOWING THE POPULATION OF COUNTIES

FROM 1855 TO 1880.

COUNTIES.   1855  1856  1860    1870   1874   1875   1876   1877   1878   1879   1880 
Adams                             19   2694   3093   3940   4203   5583   8162  10239 
Antelope                               1387   1289   1303   1036   1575   2178   3959 
Boone                                   798    966   1099   1335   1503   2626   4177 
Buffalo                  114     193   2106   2861   4396   4055   4819   6882   7535 
Burt          89   146   388    2847   3866   4041   4354   4614   4992   5165   6949 
Butler                    27    1290   4027   4440   4730   5223   6025   7310   9193 
Cass         712  1251  3369    8151  10397  10452  10886  11222  11936  13435  16688 
Cedar                    246    1032   1817  *1979   2421  *2615   2400   2775   2898 
Cheyenne                         190    449    457   *476   1568    899   1218   1560 
Clay                     165      54   3622   4183   4787   5652   7012   9373  11299 
Colfax                          1424   3458   3651   4187   4583   5080   5690   6604 
Cuming               8    67    2964   3644   6152  *6402  *6914  *7744  *9095   5577 
Custer                                                      *344    371    696   2211 
Chase                                                                             Ý70 
Dakota        86   646   819    2040   2759   2759   3006   3192   3107   3208   3216 
Dawson                    16     103   *800   1407   2133  *2304  *2581  *3871   2910 
Dixon                    247    1345   3842   2880   3263   3218   3412   4061   4117 
Dodge        139   318   309    4212   6893   7534   8465   8799   9855 *11579 *11191 
Douglas     1028  3165  4328   19982  22670  24698 *25722 *27780 *31113 *36557  37870 
Dundy                                                                             Ý37 
Fillmore                         238   4380   4731   5373   5655   6556   8760  10212 
Franklin                          26   1821   1807   1953   2184   2756   4137   5465 
Frontier                                128    139    243    184    313    626    934 
Furnas                                 1242   1482   1550   1458   1810   2982   6?06 
Gage                     421    3459   5?90   5714   6021   6343   7486   9629  13170 
Greeley                                 209   *227    194   *210    473    753   1460 
Gosper                                 *100    261    250    210    313    622   1674 
Hall                     116    1057   3842   4414   4615  *4984   5119   6375   8562 
Hamilton                         130   3116   3326   6253  *6753   5026   6178   8277 
Harlan                                 1847   2027   2140   2757   2388   4193   6084 
Hitchcock                                       95     90     97   *132   *264   1012 
Howard                                 1339   1708   1680  *1814   2329   3246   4410 
Holt                                                       *1300  *1300   1839   3231 
Hayes                                                       *500   *500   *600   Ý119 
Jefferson                122    2440   3375   3814   4075   4474   5016   6280   8123 
Johnson                  528    3429   4644   4862   4908   4817   5338   6302   7600 
Kearney                  474      58    327    560    803   *867   1517   2840   4075 
Keith                                    95    124    108   *117    137   *274    191 
Knox                     154     261   1133   1524   1248   1191   1446   2088   3664 
Lancaster          125   153    7074  14398  15224  15407  15462  15658  18675  28097 
Lincoln                  117      17  25555   2235   1327   1486   1658   2017   3679 
Madison                         1133   3355   3171   3215  *3505   3683   4280   5587 
Merrick                  109     557   3092   3101   3139   3292   3786   4625   5341 
Nemaha       604  1281  3139    7593   8202   9131   8276   8673   9017 *10504  10458 
Nuckolls                  22       8    942   1104   1381   1608   2159   2964   4233 
Nance                                                                     1000   1208 
Otoe        1188  1862  4211   12345  12380  13270  11756  11826  12411  13863  15736 
Pawnee       142   301   882    4171   5057   4831   4783   4949   5164   5899   6924 
Phelps                                  101   *110    151    326   *365   1275   2447 
Pierce                           152    557   *606   *631   *681    565    684   1215 
Platte              35   782    1899   3944   4378   4689   5196   6045   7587   9534 
Polk                      19     136   2764   3031   3556   3509   3931   5023   6855 
Red Willow                              545    594    663    485    537    963   3044 
Richardson   299   532  2385    9780 *15000 *15000  11327  12233  12509  13433  15044 
Saline                    39    3106   7718   8163   9227   9479  10453  12417  14493 
Sarpy                   1201    2913   3164   3385   3735   3966   4196   4392   4239 
Saunders                        4547   8754  10382  10463 *11300  12514  13528  15827 
Seward                          2953   7429   6601  *6875  *7425   7991  *9389  11095 
Sherman                                 460    496    491   *530   *594   1120   2061 
Stanton                          636   1135   1157   1223   1353   1410   1486   1813 
Sioux                                                              *275   *550   Ý699 
Thayer                                 1781   2139   2410   2769   3391   4535   6129 
Valley                                 *264   *287    563   *809   1073   1540   2334 
Washington   207   751  1249    4452   5304   6114   6286   6789   7116  *8361   8650 
Wayne                            182    272    431    299    344    386    481    805 
Webster                           16   2250   2590   2960   3474   4341   5947   7107 
Wheeler                                                            *350   *700   Ý644 
York                             604   4593   5266   5921   6219   7348   9172  11171 
Unor. Ter'y             2371   *1660   1600                       15000 *17625   3024 
Totals      4494 10716 28841 122993  225257 246280 257747 271561 313748 386410 452542 
         * Estimated.         Ý Unorganized Counties.

OMAHA IN 1858.

   The history of the development of Nebraska is one of great interest, especially so since it is an acknowledged fact that the almost unparalleled growth of substantial prosperity dates from a period much later than that of original settlement. The opening years of civilized life in the Territory were described by Gov. Izard with glowing words, but the thoughtful men who observed the reckless velocity with which prices advanced in those days, could but note with alarm the self-invited disaster which must in all cases--and surely did in this--follow the erection of fictitious in business circles. From an address delivered before the State Board of Agriculture, during the State Fair held at Lincoln, September 26, 1878, by ex-Senator A. S. Paddock, are quoted significant facts. The orator know whereof he spoke, having passed through the experiences incident to an era of unreasoning speculation in the Territory. He arrived just before the wave of desolation, which is known in history as "the panic of 1857," had reached Nebraska; and the description of the reception accorded the steamer from St. Louis, at Omaha, vividly recalls the condition of affairs in that aspiring "city" in 1858. The speaker said:

   "When I first arrived at Omaha, after nearly a week's journey by steamboat from St. Louis, the entire population of that little settlement, as was the custom in those early days, appeared to have swarmed out upon the river banks to give us greeting. The whole number then sojourning there could not have exceeded fifteen hundred at most. And, as I soon learned, not one in twenty of these had any visible means of support, any faith in the country, or any expectation whatever, other than to leave so soon as he could sell his lot in town, or his pre-emption claim in the country, which, quite likely, he had acquired, not by an investment of hard-earned money, but by certain circumlocutory process--the inventions of speculative genius. This description of Omaha life, then, will answer for that of the other towns of the then Territory--nearly all of which were confined to the banks of the Missouri, and no one of which was so large as Omaha. Outside the towns there was nothing--literally nothing--whatever to indicate that either of the factors, labor or capital, whose joint employment with land produces wealth, had begun anywhere to operate agriculturally upon the latter. Never on earth did nature present a fairer field for the use of man; never one more beautiful for his eye to survey, or his heart to admire and love. There were hills covered with richest verdure; valleys whose wealth of alluvium sought in vain to expend itself in vegetation so luxuriant, that rider and horse were lost to view beneath its green waves. There, far as the eye could reach, extended the broad, fertile prairie with its charming undulations, presenting a view for all the world like the ocean's surface when gently wooed by the soft south wind. Here and there, standing up against the horizon, could be seen the white cover of the 'prairie schooner,' typical in its appearance, its movement, its freightage of human life, of the ship in the offing, bearing to our shores from the Old World seekers after new homes and better fortunes. And yet the two factors, or either of them, came not; they rested supinely in town, refusing to accept the invitation thus extended by their rural ally. Why was this so? I will tell you. It was in obedience to a well-established rule of political economy; that the two factors first named, whether acting together or separately, according to the circumstances of the situation, seek these avocations or enterprises first which, with the smallest demand upon their capacity, promise the most speedy--the most liberal returns. So long as men could buy a lot or a pre-emption claim one day and sell it the next for 50 or 100 per cent profit, they would not cultivate farms."

   The first thought of a large majority of those who came to the Territory was not one looking to permanency of residence or ultimate prosperity within the limits of the new West it was the purpose of nearly all to find sudden wealth, that they might return to the East and spend the remainder of their lives. And under such a burdening weight began the existence of a region, in its social character and civilized progression, which has proved its powers to be greater than the accumulated force of adverse circumstances.

   As Senator Paddock remarked in the address already quoted from; "I declare that the panic of 1857 and 1858 was a veritable blessing in disguise to Nebraska. It marked the substantial close of the era of town lot and pre-emption claim speculation and the commencement of our agricultural era. The years 1858 and 1859 witnessed the first labor and travail of that fearful period of transition. It is true that in 1859 there was an attempt by a few enthusiasts to perpetrate a Territorial fair, but nothing was accomplished by it beyond a feeble advertisement of the utter poverty, insignificance and powerlessness of our agriculture at that time. It demonstrated the fact, that whatever efforts had theretofore been made on its behalf were sporadic, immethodical, exceptional, isolated. Not yet even, in 1860, was agriculture wholly disenthralled. Nevertheless, that was the true commencement of its real history in Nebraska."

   The brave effort alluded to as an attempt to "perpetrate a Territorial fair" was, in its results then apparent, worthy of little notice, save that it was the inception of a movement since grown to satisfactory proportions. But all great undertakings begin in modest ways, and to the instigators of that effort is due the credit of having founded the public interest in competitive displays. The history of the State Agricultural and Horticultural Societies are given elsewhere in this volume.

   Considering the improvement of its productive resources to be the only sure and stable source of growth, as logic and experience both teach, it is instructive to note the steps that have been taken along the great highway to wealth.

   In 1860, when the population of the Territory numbered 28,841, but 3,982 were engaged in agricultural pursuits, but it must be remembered, as Senator Paddock said, "that the speculators in pre-emption claims, some of whom yet remained, and generally lived in the towns, called themselves farmers, although their quarter-sections would show, at most, a cabin and a few acres of breaking, often only the cabin with no breaking, and oftener nothing at all. So that, undoubtedly, the actual number of regular proprietary and employed tillers of the soil was very much smaller than that set down by the census taker of 1860. It is probably safe to say that the area of regularly, honestly cultivated land did not exceed 50,000 acres in the whole Territory, while the product was too poor in quality to classify and too insignificant in amount to record. All I am able to state in relation to the churches is, that they were sixty in number, with fifty-seven clergymen; of the schools, that there were eighty-one teachers and 4,760 enrolled school children; of the banks, that there were twenty one persons engaged in that business, which was a probably reduction in number of 500 or more since 1858, when the panic set in, and before which every second man one met was a banker or a real estate agent. The census of 1860 tells us that there were in that year six men in the whole Territory in railroad employment, but none of the roads they represented were in Nebraska, nor within 150 miles of it."

   In 1870, the population had increased to 122,993, fully 23,118 of whom were engaged in tilling the soil. After the war ended and Indian disturbances upon the frontier ceased to alarm the public mind, thousands of men, unsettled in business by long years of patriotic duty in the South, were forced to seek new vocations. To such the fertile West, where free homes and healthful pursuits were offered as strong inducements, forsook the crowded East and joined the mighty caravan moving toward the setting sun.

PER CENT OF INCREASE IN POPULATION.

   Placing the growth of population in tabular form, it is seen that Nebraska, in this twenty-seventh year of its nominal existence, and the fifteenth year of its life as a State, has become a power:

In 1855, its population was
In 1860, its population was
In 1870, its population was
In 1876, its population was
In 1877, its population was
In 1878, its population was
In 1879, its population was
In 1880, its population was

4,494
28,841
122,993
257,747
271,561
313,748
386,410
452,542

   The ratio of increase with the States named, since 1860, is thus stated:

Per Cent.

Nebraska
Kansas
Minnesota
Iowa
Wisconsin

1,340
510
394
203
171

   The ratio of increase of emigration since 1870 stands:

Per Cent.

Nebraska
Kansas
Minnesota
Iowa
Wisconsin

310
176
154
115
105

   From less than 300 miles, in 1867, its railroad systems now extend more than 2,000 miles and afford the most convenient means of transportation and travel.

   Of the nearly 50,000,000 acres embraced in the State, not over 3,500,000 are cultivated in cereals, and the increase of these crops, as reported by the census for the last three decades may be seen in the following table:

---------------- 1880 -------------

1860.

1870.

Increase over

Crop.

preceding year.

Wheat

147,867

2,125,086

1,469,865

13,847,007

Rye

2,495

13,532

34,297

424,348

Oats

74,502

1,477,562

250,457

6,555,875

Indian Corn

1,482,080

4,736,710

1,630,660

65,450,135

Buckwheat

12,224

3,471

1,666

17,562

Barley

1,106

216,481

115,201

1,744,686

   The cattle and sheep interests of the State are increasing very rapidly. The following table is official, and shows the number of the live stock as enumerated by the census of 1870 and 1880:

1870.

1880.

Horses
Mules
Oxen and other cattle
Milch cows
Sheep
Hogs

31,500
1,700
296,026
48,300
25,000
125,000

204,144
19,957
620,363
161,609
285,935
1,241,724

   But this advance in material sources of wealth is not alone confined to agriculture. While it may be true that manufacturing industries must overcome some natural disadvantages, through absence of cheap fuel, still there are demands which must be met, and certain lines can be pursued with profit. The transformation of crude products might here be effected satisfactorily, and this subject will eventually receive careful treatment at the hands of capitalists. The appended statement of the manufacturing enterprises in Omaha and Lincoln, with an aggregate population of less than 100,000, is no insignificant showing of the faith already established at those two centers of wealth:

1860.

1870.

1880.

Number of establishments

107

670

1,377

Hands employed

336

2,665

7,281

Capital invested

$266,575 00

$2,169,963 00

$4,348,780 00

Wages paid

105,332 00

1,429,913 00

1,716,279 00

Materials

237,215 00

2,902,074 00

11,300,587 00

Products

607,328 00

5,738,512 00

16,670,090 00

Per capita product

1,807 52

2,153 29

2,289 53

   None of the Western States or Territories have so rapidly or deservedly taken front rank in development, increase of population and wealth as Nebraska.

PROF. WILBER'S ADDRESS.

   Prof. D. C. Wilber, in an address delivered before the "Cambridge (N. Y.) Union," at Beatrice, Neb., in September, 1879, commented upon the marvel of Nebraska's growth. He said: "The general Western movement of population has been referred to a certain law of emigration that compels humanity along the same parallels. Whatever the cause, the fact must be admitted. In our country, the continuous flow of immigration is mainly within an area of 500 miles in width by 3,500 miles in length--from ocean to ocean along the 40th Parallel. This belt, sometimes called the 'Golden Belt' of our country, on account of grain culture, is more properly called the intelligence belt, because within its limits is found a large per cent of human progress. This favored region will be more accurately located by 200 miles south of the 40th Parallel to 300 miles north of it  *    *   The center of population has marched steadily westward since 1790 at the rate of five miles per year, so that it will be found in the census of 1880 northwest of Cincinnati, on its way toward Nebraska. We should understand, therefore, that our western progress is in accordance with a law of humanity--a law controlling emigration, or the movements of men seeking homes or fortunes; in short, success; and if a law, it is Divine direction. Let no man boast of luck; or chance in the blessings he receives in the West, nor be discouraged at the adverse fates. The great movement of which he is a part has Providence for its mainspring. If the farm of Nebraska, from a population of 400,000 can raise without extra effort 100,000,000 bushels of products, what may we expect when our population has reached 3,000,000? Two terms of this ratio are actual facts, and the conclusion is inevitable. With an area of 47,000 square miles, New York State has a population of 3,000,000 outside of her great city. At least 17, 000 square miles of its area are occupied with mountains and wilderness, leaving only 80,000 square miles for use. Nebraska has an available acreage equal to twice that of New York, or to the combined arable area of both New York and Pennsylvania. The statement just made by Senator Paddock that 'Nebraska can take in the Empire State, and have room left for another of equal size,' is strictly true."

   In a recent work descriptive of the State and its resources, Prof. Wilber thus summarizes the progress during the past few years:

   "Nebraska, most central in the American Republic, has an area of 76,000 square miles, or 48,640,000 acres, of which 45,000,000 acres, according to recent surveys, are capable of farm cultivation. It has 20,000 more square miles than Iowa, 12,359 square miles more than all the New England States and only 4,000 square miles less than twice the size of Ohio. Its entire surface, soil and subsoil, is the loess formation--the richest in the world. Its population in 1855, was 4,500; in 1856, 10,716; in 1875, 246,280; in 1878, 386,000; in 1879, 420,000; in 1880, 452,542--a greater ratio of increase than any other State can exhibit. Nebraska has now nearly 7 inhabitants per square mile; Kansas has 11; it can support 75 per square mile, or 100, or 230, as well as Ohio, New York or Massachusetts. With 75, as in Ohio, its population will be over five and a half millions. Its ratio of increase of taxable property is as follows: In 1868, $32,632,500; in 1869, $42,123,595; in 1870, $53,709,828; in 1872, $69,873,818; in 1873, $78,239,692; in 1874, $80,754,044; in 1879, $75,359,798; in 1880, $90, 000,000.

   "The average valuation of lands in Illinois is $25 per acre; in Ohio, $30 per acre; in Nebraska, only $2, but by the law of increasing real estate values, the lands of Nebraska are certain to reach $20 per acre, or a total valuation of $1,000,000,000. Saline County, for instance, has increased from $487,845, in 1870, to $2,741,932, in 1880; or, from less than $1 to over $7 per acre.

   "Nebraska has 80,000 acres of cultivated timber, bearing of all varieties 38,000,000 trees; besides 1,273,000 apple trees, 1,250,000 peach trees, 36,000 pear trees, 145,000 plum trees, 217,000 cherry trees, 208,000 grape vines and 15,000 miles of hedge.

   "The fruitage of 1877 was: Apples, 90,570 bushels; peaches, 17,878 bushels; cherries, 681 bushels; grapes, 260,000 pounds; 50 per cent may be added for the present time.

   "The grain product of 1874 was 10,000, 000 bushels; in 1879, 100,000,000 bushels. The swine crop of 1878, 295,000 head; of 1879, 700,000; cattle, 260,000 and 200,000 sheep.

   "Prairie lands at $2, $3, $5, $7 and $10 per acre, according to locality, have an annual increase in value of from 15 to 20 per cent. Improved lands at $7, $9, $10, $12 and $15 per acre, are advancing from 20 to 25 per cent annually. Railroad lands, offered at low prices on long time, compel low average land sales. When these lands are disposed of there will be a general advance in values to the general level of real estate in Illinois, Ohio and Michigan.

   "Nebraska contains 3,132 school districts with new schoolhouses and 175,000 pupils. It has 80,000 farmers, whose families and dependents exceed 575,000 persons. Its common school basis is 2,443,148 acres of land, held at $7 per acre, yielding as the years go on a fund of over $18,000,000. It has also a bountiful university endowment of 45,119 acres and 89,452 acres of Agricultural College lands. Over 22,000,000 acres of land are now subject to pre-emption, homesteads and timber claims within the limits of Nebraska. It has 1,200 miles of railway in actual operation, 420 miles being constructed and 350 miles quite certain to be built--in all 2,000 miles, in 1880--making an extra taxable basis of $15,000,000. The, business of Nebraska employs a capital of $20,000,000.

   "The average rainfall in Eastern Nebraska is 38 inches per year, in Middle Nebraska, 26 inches, and in Western Nebraska, 17 inches, with an average increase for year periods sufficient for all farm products after the ground is prepared. Roads are perfect throughout the year. Average winter, 17° F., average summer, 72° F. Climate of unequaled salubrity. Water pure and plenty. Timber enough for ordinary fuel in nearly all portions of the State--ratio of increase, to use, 4.1. It contains 10,000 beautiful valleys, with innumerable springs and clear water streams. It is indeed 'a land of brooks and water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills, a land of wheat and barley, and vines and fig-trees and pomegranates; a land of oil, olives and honey; a land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness; thou shalt not lack anything in it.'

   "Nebraska leads all the States in every ratio of increase; in every comparative test of productive ability and in all inducements that determine the choice of people seeking new farms, new business and now homes in the new Empire of the Northwest."




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