KANSAS COLLECTION BOOKS


Andreas' History of the State of Nebraska

Nebraska as a State
Produced by Ted and Carole Miller.



Part 1:


Nebraska as a State | First State Officers
Congressional Representation
Legislative | Political | Removal of the Capital

Part 2:


Impeachment of Gov. Butler:   Article I | Article II | Article III
Article IV | Article V | Article VI | Article VII | Article VIII | Article IX
Article X | Article XI

Part 3:
Impeachment of Gov. Butler (cont.):   Answer
Part 4:
Constitution of 1871 | The James Regime | Proclamation
Part 5:
The James Regime(cont.) | Supplementary Resolutions
Part 6:


Constitution of 1875:
Preamble | Article I--Bill of Rights | Article II--Distribution of Powers
Article III--Legislative | Article IV--Legislative Apportionment

Part 7:







Constitution of 1875 (cont.):
Article V--Executive Department | Article VI--The Judicial Department
Article VII--Rights of Suffrage | Article VIII--Education
Article IX--Revenue and Finance | Article X--Counties
Article XI--Corporations:   Railroad Corporations
Municipal Corporations | Miscellaneous Corporations
Article XII--State, County and Municipal Indebtedness
Article XIII--Militia | Article XIV--Miscellaneous Provisions

Part 8:


Constitution of 1875 (cont.):
Article XV--Amendments | Article XVI--Schedule
Propositions Separately Submitted | Legislative and Political

Part 9:

Legislative and Political (cont.) | Popular Votes | State Roster
State Judiciary

Part 10:

Senatorial Succession | The Political Status of Nebraska
County Boundaries

Part 11:

The Population of Counties | Omaha in 1858
Per Cent of Increase in Population | Prof. Wilber's Address

Part 12:
Hon. J. M. Woolworth's Address | Public Lands
Part 13:
Educational Lands in Nebraska | Educational
Part 14:
Slavery in Nebraska
Part 15:
The Woman Suffrage Question


Part 10


SENATORIAL SUCCESSION.

   The crowning honor which any State can confer upon one of its citizens is the privilege to sit in the national Senate as its representative. Toward this bright goal, the eyes of ambitious men are lovingly turned; nor does the experience of others serve as a warning to those who aspire to this high place. It is a fact beyond the hardihood of dispute that political aspiration ends in disappointment. Where the rare exception can be pointed out, there do we find the proof of the truth and verity of the rule. A man may reach the full height of his desire for rank and station, but hidden beneath the surface and concealed with more or less success from the world, lies the canker which eats the vitals of enjoyment or realization. It is also a truism that no man finds participation equal in pleasure to the satisfaction derived from anticipation. Somewhere and at some time is met the blight, and this, too, before the measure of expected happiness is reached. Men toil eagerly for half a life-time to attain political distinction, only to reach it in the comparatively few instances, when it is reached at all, to find, through private woe or the hollowness of public applause, an empty shell which was supposed to hold the sum of their earthly happiness. Of all the men who have graced the Senate Chamber, it is doubtful if one could say, without reservation, that he had found the reward worth the struggle. For Senatorial honors are attained mainly through bitterest contest, wherein old friendships are sacrificed, old ties sundered and old associations forever ruthlessly smothered with the iron-velvet glove of ambition. Where the candidate is the unqualified of choice of the people and the phenomenal spectacle of uncontended election is presented, the ease of attainment gives birth to still greater expectant hopes, which end in disappointment made keener by contest. But usually there is a "Senatorial contest," in which several men participate, and which almost always results in the choice of a candidate theretofore unthought of. The truth is also apparent that when once in high office a man cannot relinquish his desire for continuance therein. The advice given by a Western Senator to a young friend sums up the bitterness of spirit which the glory of eighteen years in the Senate and a seat in the cabinet of Abraham Lincoln could not soothe with the memories of a most extraordinary life. Said he: "'My young friend, abandon political life before the infatuation becomes fatal, as in the end you may hope for nothing but disappointment." It was the sad verdict on a career which had inspired in the listener aspiration of a public life. Yet all the moralizing of the centuries cannot change man's nature. The magic spell which the possession of power weaves around the thought of office is irresistible.

   From among the numerous throng of men who deemed themselves worthy of the Senatorial toga, when Nebraska assumed the qualities of Stateship, Gen. John M. Thayer was chosen for the long term, or for six years, and Thomas W. Tipton for the short term. Senator Gere was told of the election of these distinguished men, and we need not repeat what has already been said. The new Senators were inducted into office March 4, 1867. Two years later, upon the expiration of Senator Tipton's term, a warm contest ensued in the State, over his return. When the Legislature assembled, the names of Gov. Butler, Hon. T. M. Marquette and others were offered by the friends of the several candidates, but Senator Tipton was re-elected for a full term of six years.

   In 1871, Senator Thayer's period of service ended. There was the most pronounced opposition manifested to his return, and this spirit was so emphatic that the Republicans of the Legislature were unable to unite in caucus upon candidate. On the 11th of January, a vote was taken in each House, showing that Senator Thayer was the choice, in the Senate, of but three members, and in the House, of but fourteen.

   Hon. P. W. Hitchcock received eight votes in the Senate and twenty-three in the House. The balance of the vote was cast for different persons. On the 18th, a joint ballot was taken, in convention, resulting: Hitchcock, 23; Thayer, 17; Saunders, 7. The second ballot gave: Hitchcock, 29; Thayer, 16; Saunders, 5. This secured the election of Mr. Hitchcock, who entered upon his office March 4, 1871.

   In 1875, Senator Tipton's term ended, and Algernon S. Paddock was named as his successor, from March 4 of that year.

   In 1877, Senator Hitchcock's term expired, and Alvin Saunders was elected Senator for six years, or until March 4, 1883.

   In 1881, Senator Paddock was followed by Charles H. Van Wyck, whose term will end March 4, 1887.

   Of these gentlemen, all are still living except Senator Hitchcock, and of the living, who are yet making history, we have no right to speak. But when a man folds his mantle about him and "lies down to pleasant dreams"--dreams which can no longer be broken by earthly ambitions--it is well to pay that tribute which is due the memory of a leader in the events of State.

   Phineas Warren Hitchcock was born November 30, 1831, at New Lebanon, Columbia Co., N. Y. His father was a farmer of more than ordinary intelligence, and was able to afford his son the advantages of a liberal education. In 1855, the subject of this sketch graduated from Williams College at the age of twenty four. From that time he pursued studies of scientific and literary character and kept his mind well stored with knowledge on general topics. He was versed in the French and German languages. Among his associates at college were the late President Garfield and James Gilfillan, Treasurer of the United States. Senator Ingalls, of Kansas, was a class-mate, and the two friends parted in 1855 to meet for the first time in 1872, as brother Senators. In 1857, Mr. Hitchcock came to Nebraska and engaged in the profession which he had selected, that of the law; but, as was then customary, he combined with his professional labors the business of operating in real estate. He was then poor in purse, but possessed that rich fund of sterling qualities which made success in later years so easy of accomplishment. He displayed shrewd political powers and won the confidence of his contemporaries. He was among the first to perceive the inevitable growth of Republican strength, and became a prime-mover in the work of organizing that party in Nebraska. The eventful year of 1860 saw Mr. Hitchcock at the front. He was sent as a delegate to the National Republican Convention, at Chicago, which nominated Abraham Lincoln, whom he favored from the first. His ballot was cast each time for the Great Emancipator. In the campaign which followed, he was a strong advocate of the principles of the new party, and expressed his firm conviction of its triumph. After the election of President Lincoln, Mr. Hitchcock was a candidate for the Secretaryship of the Territory, being opposed by E. D. Webster, a "second man" before the convention. Neither of these men were appointed, however, as the President chose to name A. S. Paddock for that office, but Mr. Hitchcock was given the place of United States Marshal. In 1864, he was elected delegate to Congress, and, at the admission of the Territory into the Union, he was appointed Surveyor General of Iowa and Nebraska. This office he hold about two years, or, until 1869. In 1871, as has been already stated, the Legislature elected Mr. Hitchcock to the United States Senate for six years.

   Mr. Hitchcock was not so much an orator as he was a practical worker, and, in this fact, lies the secret of this success as a national legislator. The new State needed such a man, and the Senator was equal to the task imposed upon him. He was given place upon the three important Committees of Territories, Railroads and District of Columbia, at the outset of his career in the Senate. His previous experience in the House had prepared the way to efficient labor. In commenting upon the faithfulness with which he discharged the duties of his office, the Omaha Republican said: "He was not more quick to understand every need and detect every opportunity of meeting it than he was ready in the use of every means and the seizing of every occasion for the advantage of his State and people.  *   *  There are to-day more statutes in force popularizing the sale of public lands and protecting settlers upon them, which were devised by Senator Hitchcock, than were originated by any other member." The timber law was his creation, and that alone is enough to keep his memory forever fresh in the minds of those who live upon the broad prairies of the West. As Chairman of the Committee on Territories, he mainly carried through the bill admitting Colorado, in 1878, as a State, and thereby secured the success of his party candidate for President. He secured appropriations for the post office buildings in Omaha and Lincoln, two of the finest public structures in the Northwestern States. By his instrumentality, the sufferers from the grasshopper plague of 1876 were relieved through Congressional aid. He caused the increase of land districts from four to seven in number, thereby rendering great service to pioneers. These are but the more salient points in his eventful career as Senator, which witnessed many stirring scenes in a national and State life.

   From the Omaha Republican of July 12,1881, is quoted the following tribute to the domestic life of the deceased:

   "On December 27, 1858, Mr. Hitchcock was married to Miss Annie M. Monell, daughter of Dr. G. C. Monell and Laura Monell, of this city. To Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock three children were born, a daughter, Grace, and two sons, Gilbert M., now twenty-one years of age, and John G., aged sixteen. The home life was one of ideal beauty and happiness. The wife and mother was a lady of great native talents and refinement and of rare cultivation. To the advantages of a good education for their children, the parents added those of a residence abroad, Mrs. Hitchcock spending some two years with their children at Dresden. On the completion of their education in German, Mr. Hitchcock accompanied his family on a tour of the Continent. On their return, they re-established their home at Omaha. Soon after, in 1877, Mrs. Hitchcock died, and, three years afterward, just after the completion of her academic course, the daughter was called away. The intimate friends of Mr. Hitchcock alone have some realization of the hopeless depth of his affliction. He never recovered from it. It always had for him a pain, as though it was but yesterday. He mourned as one 'who would not be comforted.' Life, to his last well day, seemed to have no attractions and no consolation to his bereaved heart, except in tender recollections of his wife and daughter, and lively anticipations of a re-union through death. It cannot be said that he sought diversion from his sorrow by incessant occupation, either business or travel, but his active nature instinctively sought occupation, and, between overwork and a quenchless grief, the physical man became worn down to the last limit of endurance. And when, at length, a local ailment of long standing had become a fixed source of suffering, he sunk under it with no strength and no courage to resist it. His last sickness was brief and his death was sudden. Unlike Garfield, he did not seize upon the 'one chance' of life; but, rather, he too willingly embraced the many chances of death. He anticipated a fatal result almost from the beginning, and some days before his death set about putting his house in order. He did not long for life or regret it; if he did not welcome death, or at least, he did not dread or deprecate it. He was a man of few words, as respects matters of intimate personal interest, but enough is known for us to know that little by little his thought was turned from his earthly life and its dead past to the deathless life on the other shore in which he ardently believed, where he saw his loved ones awaiting his coming. He talked of many things, but his mind was pre-occupied with 'the one thing needful' to his spiritual solace. Let us hope and trust that, entered into immortality, that noble, loving, tender heart, like the poor worn and shattered body, has entered consciously into eternal peace and rest."

   Senator Hitchcock's death occurred July 10, 1881, at 10.30 in the morning of that day. The obsequies were observed at 5 o'clock in the afternoon of the following day, and were of a character commensurate with the affectionate esteem in which he was held. The evidences of respect and even stronger sentiments with which the press was laden after his death, betoken in an unusual degree the standing of this good man. The peculiarly strong ties between the husband and wife, the father and daughter, are of too sacred a nature to be here spoken of. It seems clear that the honors of earthly success were as nothing to this good man when compared with the prospect of an eternal union with them after death.

THE POLITICAL STATUS OF NEBRASKA.

SHOWN BY COUNTIES FROM THE FIRST VOTE AFTER ITS ADMISSION.

[The table showing the votes was too large to include within this page.]
View table.


COUNTY BOUNDARIES.

   The subdivision of so vast a domain as that embraced by the limits of Nebraska was no slight task. Not only was it necessary to observe the wishes of the petitioners at the moment of original designation, but also the future probabilities of development through settlement. The natural barriers of streams or other impediments to easy travel entered largely into the problem, before the conveniences of rail communication were known. When all facts are taken into account, one is amazed at the comparatively few alterations which have been made. At first, the Legislature governed the decision of boundaries, but now the popular voice is required to first determine whether re-arrangement is advantageous or not. The reader is referred to Article 10 of the constitution, already given in this chapter.

   For convenience, we have compiled a statement of all changes effected in county lines, giving them in chronological order.

   The original division of the Territory into eight counties, viz., Burt, Washington, Dodge, Douglas, Cass, Pierce, Forney and Richardson, as previously described in this chapter, was amended by the first Legislature, and legal subdivisions created after the following order:

   Burt.--Act of February 18, 1855. From northeast corner Washington County, in Missouri River, up said channel twenty-seven miles northerly from north line of Washington County, west twenty-four miles, south twenty-seven miles, east to northwest corner of Washington County, and east to place of beginning. County seat, Tekamah.

   Washington.--Act of February 22, 1855. Commencing at a point on Missouri River two miles north of Florence, north up channel of Missouri, on Territorial boundary, twenty-four miles; west to dividing ridge between Elkhorn and Missouri Rivers; the eastern boundary of Dodge County; south twenty-four miles; east to place of beginning. County seat, Fort Calhoun.

   Dodge.--Act March 6, 1855. From a point on Platte River, at southwest corner of Douglas County, west along channel to mouth of Shell Creek; north twenty-five miles; east to west line of Washington County; south along line of Washington and Douglas Counties to place of beginning. County seat, Fontanelle.

   Loup.--Act March 6, 1855. From where Shell Creek empties into Platte River; north along west line of Dodge County to its terminus; due west to a point due north from mouth of Beaver Creek; north to said mouth; down main channel of Loup River to the Platte; down Platte River to place of beginning. County seat, Pawnee.

   Greene.--Act March 6, 1855. From southwest corner of Lancaster County west with same line of Cass and Lancaster Counties twenty-four miles, north to the Platte; east along that channel to northwest corner of Lancaster County; southwesterly with line of said county to place of beginning.

   Lancaster.--Act March 6, 1855. From southwest corner Cass County west twenty-four miles; north to the Platte; east along said channel to west line of Cass County; south along said line to place of beginning.

   Douglas.--Act March 2, 1855. From a point in channel of Missouri River opposite the middle of mouth of Platte River, north along Missouri to a point three miles north of town of Florence; west eighteen miles; south to main channel of the Platte; east along the channel of the Platte to place of beginning. County seat, Omaha City.

   Otoe.--Act March 2, 1855. From a point one and a half miles north of where Weeping Water empties into Missouri; west twenty-four miles; south to a line running west from where Camp Creek runs out of Missouri Bluffs; due east to center of Missouri; north in channel of Missouri to place of beginning. County seat, Nebraska City.

   Pawnee.--Act March 6, 1855. From northwest corner of Richardson County due west to a point twenty-four; due south to Kansas line; along said line to southwest corner of Richardson County; north along said line to place of beginning. County seat, Pawnee Village.

   Saline.--Act March 6,1855. From northwest corner of Clay County, due west twenty-four miles; due south until it intersects a line due west from southwest corner of Clay County; due east to southwest corner of Clay; thence north along west line of Clay to place of beginning.

   McNeale.--Act March 6, 1855. From northwest corner of Dodge, north along the line of Cuming County twenty-four miles; west thirty miles; south twenty-four miles; east to place of beginning. County seat, Manitou.

  Izard.--Act March 6, 1855. From northwest corner of Cuming County, north thirty-four miles; west thirty miles; south to northwest corner of McNeale County; west along north line of said county to place of beginning. County seat, Hunton.

   Johnston.--Act March 2, 1855. From northeast comer Forney County due west twenty-four miles; due south to north line of Pawnee County; east along said line to southwest corner of Forney; north to place of beginning.

   Jackson.--From northeast corner of Johnston County west twenty-four miles; south to north line of Pawnee County; east to southwest corner of Johnston; north to place of beginning. County seat to be called Jacksonville.

   Clay.--From northwest corner of Pierce County west twenty-four miles; south to intersect a line running due west from the southwest corner of Pierce; east to said southwest corner of Pierce; north along west line of Pierce to place of beginning. County seat to be called Clayton.

   Cuming.--From north line of Burt twenty miles west from center of Missouri River south to a point six miles south from north line of Dodge County; west to west line of Dodge; north along east line of McNeale twenty-four miles; east to a point as far east as the place of beginning, thence on a due line to place of beginning. County seat, Catharine.

   Gage.--Act of March 16, 1855. From the northwest corner of Pawnee County west twenty-four miles; south to Kansas line; along Kansas line to southwest corner of Pawnee; thence to place of beginning. County seat to be named.

   Cass.--Act of March 7, 1855. From a point in main channel of Missouri opposite the center of mouth of the Platte, down Missouri channel to north line of Pierce; west twenty-four miles; north to center of main channel of Platte; east along said channel to place of beginning. County seat, Plattsmouth.

   York.--Act of March 13, 1855. From southwest corner of Greene County, west twenty-four miles; north to the Platte; east along that channel to northwest corner of Greene; south with line of that county to place of beginning. County seat to be named.

   Buffalo.--Act of March 14, 1855. From a point in the center of Platte River ten miles east of mouth of Wood River west to southern channel of Platte to mouth of Buffalo Creek; north thirty miles; east to a point directly north of place of beginning; south to starting-point. County seat, Nebraska Center.

   Richardson.--Act of March 7, 1855. From Kansas line up Missouri to line between Towns 4 and 5 north, provided it was not above mouth of Little Nemaha, west to northwest corner Town 4 north, Range 13 east; south to southwest corner Town 1, Range 13; thence east to place of beginning. County seat, Archer.

   Nemaha.--Act of March 7, 1855. From northwest corner of Richardson County up channel of Missouri to southeast corner of Otoe County; west along south line of Otoe twenty-four miles; south to a point due west from place of beginning; thence east to starting-point. County seat, Brownsville.

   Blackbird.--Act of March 7, 1855. From northeast corner of Burt County, up Missouri channel to a point two miles north of where Omaha Creek enters the Missouri bottom; west thirty miles; south to a point due west of place of beginning. The act, probably by clerical error, left this county without a southern boundary, as shown above. County seat, Blackbird City.

   Dakota.--Act March 7, 1855. From northeast corner of Blackbird County up main channel of Missouri to line between Ranges 6 and 7 east; south to north line of Black. bird, thence to place of beginning. County seat, Dakota.

   A bill was approved January 26, 1856, defining the boundaries of the following counties:

   Jefferson.--Beginning at the southeast corner of Township 1 north, Range 1 west; thence north to northeast corner Town 4, Range 1 west; thence west to northwest corner Town 4, Range 4 west; thence south to southwest comer Town 1, Range 4; thence to place of beginning.

   Fillmore.--From southeast corner Town 5 north, Range 1 west, north to northeast corner Town 8, Range 1; west to northwest corner Town 8, Range 4; south to southwest corner Town 5, Range 4; thence to place of beginning.

   York.--From southeast corner Town 9, Range 1, north to northeast corner Town 12, Range 1; west to northwest corner Town 12, Range 4, south to southwest corner Town 9, Range 4; thence east to place of beginning.

   Polk.--From southeast corner Town 13, Range 1, north to northeast corner Town 16, Range 1, west to northwest corner Town 16, Range 4, south to southwest corner Town 13, Range 4, thence to place of beginning.

   Monroe.--From southeast corner Town 17, Range 1, north to northeast corner Town 20, Range 1, west to northwest corner Town 20, Range 4, south to southwest corner Town 17, Range 4, thence east to place of beginning.

   Madison.--From the southeast corner Town 21, Range 1, north to northeast corner Town 24, Range 1, west to northwest corner Town 24, Range 4, south to southwest corner Town 21, Range 4, thence east to place of beginning.

   Pierce.--From southeast corner Town 25, Range 1, north to middle main channel Missouri River, up said channel to line between Ranges 4 and 5 west, south to southwest corner Town 25, Range 4, thence cast to place of beginning.

   Jones.--From southeast corner Town 1, Range 4 east, north to northeast corner Town 4, Range 4 east, west to northwest corner Town 4, Range 1 east, south to southwest corner Town 1, Range 1 east, thence to place of beginning.

   Saline.--From southeast corner Town 5 north, Range 4 east, north to northeast corner Town 8, Range 4, west to northwest corner Town 8, Range 1, south to southwest corner Town 5, Range 1, thence east to place of beginning.

   Greene.--From southeast corner Town 9, Range 4 west, north to northeast corner Town 12, Range 4, west to northwest corner Town 12. Range 1, south to southwest corner Town 12, Range 1, east to place of beginning.

   Butler.--From southeast corner Town 13, Range 4 east, north to northeast corner Town 16, Range 4, west to northwest corner Town 16, Range 1, south to southwest corner Town 13, Range 1, east to place of beginning.

   Platte.--From southeast corner Town 17, Range 5 east, north to northesat corner Town 20, Range 4, west to northwest corner Town 20, Range 1, south to southwest corner Town 17, Range 1, thence east to place of beginning.

   Izard.--From southeast corner Town 21, Range 4 east, north to northeast corner Town 24, Range 4, west to northwest corner Town 24, Range 1, south to southwest comer Town 21, Range 1, east to place of beginning.

   Dixon.--From southeast corner Town 25, Range 5 east, north to middle main channel Missouri River, up said channel to range line between Range 1 east and Range 1 west, south to southwest corner Town 25, Range 1 east, thence east to place of beginning.

   Gage.--From southeast corner Town 1, Range 8 east, north to northeast corner Town 4, Range 8, west to northwest corner Town 4, Range 5, south to southwest comer Town 1, Range 5, east to place of beginning.

   Lancaster.--From southeast corner Town 9 north, Range 8 east, north to northeast corner Town 12, Range 8, west to northwest corner Town 12, Range 5, south to southwest corner Town 9, Range 5, thence east to place of beginning.

   Clay.--From southeast corner Town 5, Range 8 east, north to northeast corner Town 8, Range 8 east, west to northwest comer Town 8, Range 5, south to southwest corner Town 5, Range 5, thence east to place of beginning.

   Calhoun.--From southwest corner Town 13, Range 5 east, east to main channel of Platte River, up said channel until it intersects the fourth standard parallel, west to northwest corner Town 16, Range 5 east, thence south to place of beginning.

   By an act approved January 26, 1856, the north line of Douglas County was changed to the fourth parallel.

   Sarpy.--Act of February 7, 1857. From a point in the middle of the Missouri River, from the center of the mouth of the Platte, up the main channel of the Missouri to a point two miles due south of the north line of Town 14 north; west on section line to the middle of the main channel of the Platte; down the Platte to the place of beginning.

   The northern boundary of Washington was fixed, by act of February 9, 1857, as "four miles south of the fifth standard parallel."

   Johnson.--Act of February 10, 1857. From a point on town line three miles west of the northwest corner ot Richardson County; west to southwest corner of Town 4 north, Range 9 east; north to northwest corner of Town 6 north, Range 9 east; east to the center line of Range 12 east; thence south to place of beginning. County seat, Tecumseh.

   By the same act, the east half of Town 4 north, Range 12 east, was attached to Nemaha County.

   L'eau qui Court.--Act of February 10, 1857. This county consisted of all that country once reserved to the Omahas, and exchanged by them for the Blackbird Reservation, lying west of a line drawn due south from a point in the channel of the Missouri ten miles west by the river from a point in Nebraska opposite the center of the mouth of the James River.

   Cedar.--Act of February 12, 1857. From a point in middle of the Missouri opposite Lime Creek mouth, thence along the Missouri channel to a point ten miles above the middle of Jaques or James River, at its junction with Missouri, thence south to a line between Towns 27 and 28; east along said line to a point due south of the middle of the mouth of Lime Creek; thence to place of beginning. County seat, St. James.

   Cuming was re-defined by act of February 12, 1867, as follows: From northwest corner Town 20, Range 9 east, north to northwest comer Town 24, Range 9 east; west to northwest corner Town 24, Range 5 east; south to southwest corner Town 21, Range 5 east; thence east to place of beginning. The name of county seat was changed to Manhattan.

   By act of October 3, 1858, the county seat of Richardson County was permanently located at Salem.

   Nemaha was re-defined November 1, 1858, as follows: "The northeast corner of said county to be where the present line between Nemaha and Otoe running east and west first striking [strikes?] the Missouri River; thence south and down the main channel of said river, including McKissack's Island, to the point where the present boundary line between Nemaha and Richardson Counties strikes the Missouri River, and the boundary of said county of Nemaha, in all other respects, to be and remain the same as now described by law."

   Dixon was re-defined November 1, 1858. From a point where town line between 19 and 30 strikes the Missouri, west along said line to section line between Sections 3 and 4, Town 29 north, Range 6 east; south to south line of Dakota County; west to a point due south of the southeast corner of Cedar County; north to the middle of the Missouri; down that channel to place of beginning.

   The line between Washington and Dodge, by act of November 2, 1858, was fixed as follows: Beginning at the fourth standard parallel, two miles east of the southwest corner Town 17, Range 10 east of Sixth Principal Meridian; thence north twelve miles to line between Towns 18 and 19; thence west two miles to line between Ranges 9 and 10; thence north to the south line of Burt County.

   Calhoun.--Act of November 3, 1858. From the southwest corner of Town 13 north, Range 5 east, thence east to main channel of the Platte; up said channel to dividing line of Ranges 4 and 5; south along said dividing line to the place of beginning.

   By act of November 3, 1858, the county seat of Washington Counry was changed from Fort Calhoun to De Soto.

   Merick (now spelled Merrick.)--Act November 4, 1858, defined the boundaries as follows: From northeast corner Town 16 north, Range 3 west, south on eastern boundary of Range 3 west to south bank of Platte River; west along said bank to southeast corner of Hall County; north along east line of Hall; east along the fourth parallel to the place of beginning. County seat, Elvira.

   Hall.--Act November 4, 1858. From northeast corner Town 16 north, Range 9 west; due south to the southern bank of Platte River; west along that river to its intersection with west line of Range 12 west; north with that line to northwest corner Town 16, Range 12; east with line of fourth parallel to place of beginning. County seat to be thereafter selected.

   The southern boundary of Platte and Dodge Counties was re-defined by act of December 22, 1859, as follows: "The south bank of the Platte River west of the guide meridian."

   Wilson.--Act of January 6, 1860. From a point fifteen miles in a westwardly direction from where the northwest comer of Morton County intersects the Sweet Water River, thence north fifty miles; east thirty miles, crossing the Sweet Water; south fifty miles, west thirty miles to place of beginning. Seat to be thereafter named.

   Morton.--Act of January 6, 1860. From a point fifteen miles up A-la-Prelle River, from the mouth thereof where it empties into North Platte River from the south, north down the A-la-Prelle to its mouth, across North Platte River, and to a point fifteen miles in northerly direction from the North Platte; thence fifty miles west, to the Sweet Water, to a point fifteen miles from where the Sweet Water empties into the North Platte; thence south down the Sweet Water, crossing North Platte, to a point fifteen miles from the North Platte, in a southerly direction; thence fifty miles east, to place of beginning. County seat, Morton.

   Shorter.--Act of January 7, 1860. From southwest corner of Kearney County, due west along Kansas line one degree; north to south bank of North Platte River; east along said river to its junction with South Platte River; east along main channel of the Platte to northwest corner of Kearney County; thence south along west line of Kearney County to place of beginning. Seat to be thereafter named.

   Kearney.--Act of January 10, 1860. From a point in main channel of Platte River fifteen miles east of the flag-staff at Fort Kearney, running due south to Kansas line; due west one degree; north to the center of main channel of the Platte; along said channel to place of beginning. County seat, Kearney City.

   Dawson.--Act of January 11, 1860. From the southwest corner of Buffalo County, in middle of the southern channel of the Platte, up said channel fifty miles; north forty miles; east to west line of Buffalo County; south on said line to place of beginning. Seat to be named thereafter.

   To re-define Washington--act January 12, 1860.--From fourth standard parallel two miles east of the southwest corner of Town 17 north, Range 10 east; west on said parallel to the center of main channel of the Elkhorn; up said channel to a point where the main channel is intersected by the fifth standard parallel; east on fifth parallel to the line of Burt County; along said line to the northern boundary of Washington County.

   By act of January 12, 1860, "all that portion of Monroe County not included in the reservation belonging to the Pawnee Indians [was] attached to the county of Platte, and called by that name.

   Dixon.--Act of January 13; 1860, fixed the west line of this county at range line between Ranges 3 and 4 east of Sixth Principal Meridian.

   Cedar.--Act of January 13, 1860, re-defined the boundaries of this county as follows: From a point in main channel of the Missouri to where range line between Ranges 1 and 2 west crossed the river, south to present south line of that county; east on south line to range line between Ranges 3 and 4 east; north on said range line to middle of main channel of the Missouri, and up the channel to the place of beginning.

   L'eau qui Court.--Act of January 13, 1860, re-defined. On the east by Cedar County; on the north by the main channel of the Missouri; on the west by range line between Ranges 8 and 9 west; the south line as before.

   West.--Act of January 13, 1860. From a point on the south bank of Running Water River, where range line between Ranges 8 and 9 west touches the river, up said stream to a point opposite the mouth of the Keya Paha; south forty miles, east on line between Ranges 8 and 9; north on said line to place of beginning. County seat to be named. This county was set aside by act of January 9, 1862.

   Nuckolls.--Act of January 13, 1860. From a point at southwest corner of Jones County, west twenty-four miles; north twenty-four miles; east twenty-four miles; south twenty-four miles.

   Sarpy--Act of January 11, 1861. The boundaries were re-defined as follows: From southwest comer Section 1, Town 13 north, Range 13 east; east to main channel of the Missouri; up main channel of said stream to north line of Section 19, Town 14; west to northwest corner of Section 24, Town 14, Range 13; south to place of beginning.

   Shorter County was changed to "Lincoln County" by act of December 11, 1861.

   Greene County was changed to "Seward County" by act of January 8, 1862.

   Calhoun County was changed to "Saunders County" by act of January 8, 1862.

   By act of January 8, 1862, the original organization of Pawnee County, called in question as to legality, was duly legalized.

   Holt.--Act of January 9, 1862. Boundaries defined as follows: From a point on the south bank of the Running Water River, where line between Ranges 8 and 9 touches that river, south to the sixth standard parallel; west to the second guide meridian west; north to the main channel of Running Water River; east along said channel to the place of beginning. This county was attached to L'eau qui Court for election purposes.

   Burt.--Act of January 10, 1862, re-defining limits: From the center of main channel of the Missouri, at southeast corner of Omaha Reservation, west with southern boundary of the reservation to range line between Ranges 7 and 8 east of Sixth Meridian; south on this line to north line of Washington County; east on said north line of Washington to the channel of the Missouri, thence up the channel to the place of beginning.

   Cuming.--Act of January 10, 1862, re-defining limits. From where line between Ranges 7 and 8 intersects south line of Omaha Reservation, west with south line of the reservation to southwest corner of said reservation; north with west line of reservation to a point where the line dividing Towns 24 and 25 intersects west line of said reservation; west to northwest corner Town 24 north, Range 5 east; south to southwest corner Town 21, Range 5 east; east to southwest corner Town 21, Range 8; north on range line between Ranges 7 and 8 to place of beginning.

   Stanton.--Act of January 10, 1862. From northwest corner of Town 24 north, Range 5 out, west to the northwest corner of Town 24, Range 1 east; south to southwest corner of Town 21, Range 1 east; east to the southwest corner of Town 21, Range 5; thence north to place of beginning.

   Hall.--Act February 1, 1864. Boundaries re-defined. From northeast corner Town 16 north, Range 8 west, due south to southern bank of Platte; west along said stream to its intersection with west line of Range 12 west; due north with said range line to northwest comer of Town 16 north, Range 12 west; due east with line of the 4th parallel, to place of beginning. The law was repealed February 15, 1864--two weeks after its passage.

   By act of February 8, 1864, the people of Burt were authorized to change the county seat.

   Clay.--County was abandoned by act of February 15, 1864. The northern half of the territory hitherto comprising that county was attached to Lancaster, and the southern half to Gage County.

   An act approved February 15, 1864, legalized the organization of Lancaster County, the validity of original organization having been questioned.

   Cuming.--Act of February 12, 1866. Boundaries re-defined. From Range line between 7 and 8 on south line of Omaha reservation, west along reservation to southwest corner thereof; north along west line of reservation, to dividing line of Towns 24 and 25; west to northwest corner Town 24, Range 4 east; south to southwest corner Town 21, Range 4 east; east to southeast corner Town 21, Range 7 east; north on line between Ranges 7 and 8 to place of beginning.

   Cass.--Act of February 12, 1866. Boundaries re-defined. "A strip of land from the north side of Town 12, Range 9 east, commencing at northeast corner of the town, running south two miles, west six miles, north two miles, east six miles, is detached from Cass County, and attached to Saunders.

   Clay--Act of February 16, 1867. From northeast corner Town 8, Range 5 west, due west to northwest comer Town 8, Range 8; due south to southwest corner Town 5, Range 8; due east to southeast corner Town 5, Range 5; due north to place of beginning.

   Hamilton.--Act of February 16, 1867. From a point where west line of Range 4 west crosses the Platte, running thence up channel of said river to a point where west line of Range 8 west crosses said river; due south to southwest corner Town 9, Range 8 west; due east to southeast corner of Town 9, Range 5; due north to place of beginning.

   Webster.--Act of February 16, 1867. From northeast of Town 4, Range 9 west; thence due west to northwest corner Town 4, Range 12; due south to southwest corner Town 1, Range 12; east to southeast corner Town 1, Range 9; due north to place of beginning.

   Adams.--Act of February 16,1867. From where east line of Range 9 west crosses the Platte, thence up said channel to where west line of Range 12 crosses said river; due south to southwest corner Town 5, Range 12, due east to southeast corner Town 5, Range 9; thence north to place of beginning.

   Franklin.--Act of February 16, 1867. From the northeast corner Town 4, Range 13 west, due west to northwest corner Town 4, Range 16; due south to southwest corner Town 1, Range 16; due east to southeast corner Town 1, Range 13; due north to place of beginning.

   The name of L'eau qui Court County was changed to "Emmett County," by act of February 18, 1867, and again by act of February 21, 1873, name was changed to Knox.

   Jefferson County was enlarged by the addition of the sixteen townships lying adjacent thereto on the east, by virtue of an act approved February 18, 1867.

   Harlan.--Act of June 3, 1871. From the northeast corner of Town 4, Range 17 west, west to the northwest corner of Town 4, Range 20 west; south to the southwest corner of Town 1, Range 20; east to southeast corner of Town 1, Range 17; north to place of beginning.

   Dawson.--Act of June 6, 1871. "So much of Township 8, Ranges 19 and 20, lying north of the Platte River: also Townships 9, 10, 11 and 12, Ranges 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 and 25 west of the sixth Principal Meridian."

   The line between Platte and Butler Counties was fixed by act of March 24, 1871, at the south bank of the Platte.

   Wayne.--Act of March 4, 1871. All that section of country bounded on the east by the Omaha and Winnebago reservations and Dixon County; north by Cedar and Dixon Counties; west by Pierce County; and south by Stanton and Cuming Counties.

   Hall.--Act of March 1, 1871. Townships 9, 10, 11 and 12 north, Ranges 9, 10, 11 and 12 west of the Sixth Principal Meridian.

   Howard.--Act of March 1, 1871. Townships 13, 14, 15 and 16 north. Ranges 9, 10, 11 and 12 west.

   Antelope.--Act of March 1, 1871. Townships 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28 north, Ranges 5, 6, 7 and 8 west.

   Boone.--Act of March 1, 1871. Fractional Town 18 and Towns 19, 20, 21 and 22 north, Ranges 5, 6, 7 and 8 west.

   Sherman.--Act of March 1, 1871. Towns 13, 14, 15 and 16 north, Ranges 13, 14, 15 and 16 west.

   Greeley.--Act of March 1, 1871. Towns 17, 18, 19 and 20 north, Ranges 9, 10, 11 and 12 west.

   Valley.--Act of March 1, 1871. Towns 17, 18, 19 and 20 north, Ranges 13, 14, 15 and 16 west.

   The division of Jefferson County was authorized by act approved March 1, 1871.

   Lincoln.--Act of March 1, 1871. Commencing on the second standard parallel north, at corner of Town 9 north, Ranges 25 and 26 west, thence north between said ranges to the fourth parallel north; west along said parallel nine townships to the corner of Town 16, Ranges 34 and 35; south along said range line, to second parallel north; and east to place of beginning.

   Frontier.--Act of January 17, 1872. Commencing at the northeast corner of Town 8 north, Range 24 west, thence west to northwest corner of Town 8, Range 30; south to southwest comer of Town 5, Range 30; east to southeast corner of Town 5, Range 25; north to northeast corner of Town 5, Range 25; east to southeast corner of Town 6, Range 24, and north to place of beginning.

   Cuming.--Act of February 18, 1873. Re-defining boundaries. Towns 21, 22, 23 and 24 north, Ranges 4, 5, 6 and 7 east of Sixth Principal Meridian.

   By act approved February 18, 1873, the boundary between Merrick, Polk and Hamilton Counties was placed in the middle of the channel of the Platte.

   Cheyenne.--Act of 1867. Commencing at intersection of 41° north latitude and 27° of longitude west from Washington north along 27° to the point of its intersecting 42° north latitude; east along 42°, to a point formed by the intersection with 25° west longitude; south to northeast corner of Colorado; and west to place of beginning.

   Colfax.--Act of 1869. From dividing line between Ranges 1 and 2 east, at intersection of south bank of Platte River, along south bank to where dividing line between Ranges 4 and 5 east intersects same; north to northeast corner Town 20 north, Range 4 east; west to northwest corner Town 20, Range 2; and south to place of beginning.

   Custer.--Act of 1877. Commencing at southeast corner of Town 13 north, Range 17 west of Sixth Principal Meridian, north to northeast corner of Town 20, Range 17; west to northwest corner Town 20, Range 25; south to southwest corner Town 13, Range 25; thence east to place of beginning.

   Dakota.--Law taking effect March 28, 1873. Commencing at the most westerly point where line between towns 29 and 30 north intersects State boundary; west along said State line to northwest corner of Section 3, Town 29 north, Range 6 east; south by section line to west line of Omaha Reservation; east along said line to State boundary, north by said boundary to place of beginning.

   Furnas.--Act of February 27, 1873. Towns 1, 2, 3 and 4 north, Ranges 21, 22, 23, 24 and 25 west.

   Red Willow.--Act of February 27, 1873. Towns 1, 2, 3 and 4 north, Ranges 26, 27, 28, 29 and 30 west.

   Hitchcock.--Act of February 27, 1873. Towns 1, 2, 3 and 4 north, Ranges 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35 west.

   Dundy.--Act of February 27, 1873. From southwest corner of State, east to southeast corner of Town 1 north, Range 36; north to northeast corner of Town 4. Range 36; west to west boundary line of the State; thence south on said line to place of beginning.

   Chase.--Act of February 27, 1873. From intersection of first standard parallel and west boundary of State; thence east to southeast corner of Town 5 north, Range 36; north to northeast corner of Town 8, Range 36; west to West boundary of State; south to place of beginning.

   Keith.--Act of February 27, 1873. Lying between west boundary of Lincoln and east boundary of Cheyenne Counties, and between the Colorado line and between the second and fourth standard parallels.

   Gosper.--Act of 1873. Bounded on the east by Phelps County, south by Furnas County, west by Frontier County and north by Dawson County. The session of 1881 adopted a bill re-establishing these boundaries.

   Hayes.--Act of 1877. Commencing at the northeast corner of Town 8 north, Range 31 west, thence west to northeast corner of Town 8, Range 35; south to southwest comer of Town 5, Range 35; east to the southeast corner of Town 5, Range 31; north to place of beginning.

   Knox (created out of former L'eau qui Court County).--Act of March 3, 1873. Commencing at the southwest corner of Town 29 north, Range 8 west, thence east to southeast corner of Town 29, Range 2 west; north to middle of main channel of Missouri River; along channel to intersection with the Niobrara River; along the Niobrara to range line between Ranges 8 and 9; thence south to place of beginning.

   Phelps.--Act of February 11, 1873. From southwest corner, Town 5 north, Range 20 west, north to the middle of the south channel of the Platte; east along the channel to line between Ranges 16 and 17 west; south to the southeast comer of Town 5 north, Range 17 west; thence west to place of beginning.

   Nance.--Under act of 1879, the Pawnee Reservation became Nance County.

   Thayer.--Act of March 3, 1873. Commencing at the southwest corner of Town 1 north, Range 4 west, thence east to the southeast corner of Town 1 north, Range 1 west; north along the sixth Meridian to first standard parallel; west to northwest corner of Town 4 north, Range 4 west; and south to place of beginning.

   Sioux.--The unorganized region north of Cheyenne County is called, by act of 1877, Sioux County.

   Wheeler.--Act of 1877. Commencing at southeast corner of Town 21 north, Range 9 west, thence north to northeast corner of Township 24, Range 9; west to the northwest corner of Town 24, Range 16; south to the southwest corner of Town 21, Range 16; thence east to place of beginning.




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