William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas


[TOC] [part 8] [part 6] [Cutler's History]


DAVID HUBBARD, of Hubbard & Jones, proprietors of the Pearl Mills, was born in Charleston, N. H., in 1833, and reared on a farm until twenty-one years of age, when he moved to Carrollton, Ill., where for four years he was engaged in teaching school. He came to Kansas in 1857, locating in Douglas County, where he farmed for four years. In 1861 he was appointed County Surveyor, and filled it for a term, having obtained a knowledge of surveying in his early education. After this was for two years employed as a clerk in the United States Commissariat Department, and in 1865 was appointed Assistant-Assessor United States Internal Revenue, for Wyandotte, Johnson, and other counties in Kansas; this position he filled until 1870. He came to Olathe to reside in 1869, and for a time was engaged in farming pursuits. In 1873 was elected to the office of County Surveyor, and the following year engaged in milling business in company with A. Buch, conducting the Ott Mill for three years, after which they conducted a mill at Cherryvale, Kan., for three years. In April, 1881, Mr. H. joined E. C. Jones in present mills. In 1863, while residing on his farm in Douglas County, Mr. Hubbard was called out from his home by Dick Yaegar, one of Quantrill's band, and shot through the left lung, an injury from which he has never thoroughly recovered.

W. J. HULL, Superintendent of Public Instruction for Johnson County, was born in Warren County, Ill., June 2, 1854, and came to Kansas with his mother, November 27, 1865, residing on various farms in Johnson County until the spring of 1869, when he came to Olathe, and for three years attended school at this place, after which he went to Delavan, Ill., and attended the high school there for a year. Returning to this county in the fall of 1873, he was employed in teaching district schools until the fall of 1880, at which time he was elected to his present office, and entered upon the duties of the same January 1, 1881.

M. W. & C. W. HUTCHISON, editors & proprietors of the Olathe Mirror, are the sons of Rev. S. M. and Emily P. Hutchison, of Washington, Guernsey County, Ohio, and both graduates of Muskingum College, located at New Concord, Muskingum County, Ohio. The senior member of the firm was for four years a teacher in Muskingum County, Ohio, conducting normal schools during the summer. In 1879 he went to Peoria, Ill., and engaged in teaching graded school near that city. Afterwards he turned his attention to journalism, establishing the New Concord Enterprise, being connected with several Ohio newspapers as correspondent. In September, 1880, he purchased the Cambridge (Ohio) Herald, conducting it as a Republican newspaper until March 1, 1882, when he sold out, came to Kansas, purchased the Olathe Mirror and News Letter, and at once began such improvements in the office as has made it the leading newspaper in Johnson County, and one of the best on the eastern border. C. W. Hutchison, the junior member of the firm, came to Kansas July 4, 1882, having, like his brother, some experience as a journalist, a well-developed business knowledge, and a fine education. They received the endorsement of many leading Ohio newspapers. M. W. Hutchison was born at Zanesville, Ohio, September 24, 1854. S. W. Hutchison was born at Mount Vernon, Ohio, May 13, 1861. Besides the brothers in the newspaper business, the remaining members of the family, including the mother, are residents of Johnson County: L. M. Hutchison, M. D., a graduate of Kentucky School of Medicine, who practices his profession in Olathe; Miss Luin A. Hutchison, an elocutionist of more than ordinary ability, and Miss Leora E. Hutchison, the youngest of the family who is largely endowed with musical gifts. All are popular in the community, in which they reside.

PETER JULIEN, physician and surgeon, was born in Warren County, Ohio, April 15, 1811; moved to Shelby County in 1813; there lived and studied medicine with Dr. L. Houston, and practiced for fifteen years, after which he attended for three terms at the Physio-Medical College, Cincinnati, graduating in the class of 1848-'49, then continued his practice in Shelby County until 1851, afterwards in Logansport, Ind. He came to Kansas in 1857; traveled all over Kansas and South Missouri, and settled in Wyanet City in 1858, and practiced medicine five years; then moved again to Logansport, Ind., for two years. Returning to Kansas, he settled in Olathe in September, 1865. He resumed his practice at this place, and, since August, 1881, in company with Dr. R. A. Williams. Since 1871 the doctor has also been engaged in conducting an establishment for medical baths. He was married in Shelby County, Ohio, January 8, 1833, to Catherine Castle. She died in 1848, leaving four children--Findley, William, Melvina, Nelson. The doctor was married a second time at Vienna, Ohio, in the fall of 1859, to Margaret Stewart. They have one son--Edward.

JULIEN & MAHAFFIE, livery and feed stables; this business was established by this firm in 1867, and is the oldest of the kind in the city; they began in a small way at first but have increased their business, until now they have some twenty fine horses and ten full livery outfits. William Julien, of this firm was born in Shelby County, Ohio, April 9, 1841; nine years later removed with his father to Logansport, Ind., and was educated in the Seminary there. He came to Kansas, in August, 1857, and was for a short time engaged in prospecting, finally settling on a claim in Linn County, in the spring of 1858, on which he resided for a short time, then to Wyandotte, about two years in the employ of the Kansas Stage Company. In the fall of 1862 he went to Kansas City and engaged in the livery business in company with B. L. Riggins; he also in that year enlisted in the One Hundred and Thirteenth Missouri Mounted Infantry, and was appointed Second Lieutenant of Company E, and served two years. In the fall of 1864, he sold out his interest in the livery business in Kansas City and came to Johnson County, Kansas. He was, until October, 1868, engaged in farming in Olathe Township, when he sold his farm and came to this city and engaged in his livery business in company with his brother Nelson Julien. Sold out in 1871, to I. N. Phillips and in company with Harry McBride bought grounds and built Elm Park track stables, sold the same in 1873 and engaged with W. A. Mahaffie, in 1874, in the present business. He represented the Second Ward in the City Council four years and held the office of City Treasurer four years and served as Deputy Sheriff during 1871, '72, '73 and '74. He was elected Sheriff of Johnson County in November, 1879, and re-elected in 1881, for two years. Mr. Julien was married in Olathe, December 22, 1864, to Isabel Mahaffie; they have two children--James A,, and Effie M.

JULIUS A. KEELER, house mover, builder, etc.; was born in Norwalk, Ohio, April 28, 1832, there he learned the trade of carpenter and followed that occupation for a livelihood. He came to Kansas, April 20, 1856, and located in Lawrence and was engaged in emigration interests and also worked some at his trade. In January, 1857, he removed to Linn County and engaged in agricultural pursuits. In May, 1861, he enlisted in the Second Kansas Infantry, and served six months, but was forced to retire on account of severe injuries received from being kicked by a horse. He was then engaged in recruiting and for a time in 1862 was in charge of Camp Instruction, near Leavenworth City. In the fall of 1862, he organized the first regiment of colored soldiers that was mustered into the United States service, and drilled them for three months, but was too lame to go into the service. On January 1, 1863, he came to Olathe and worked at his trade for a few months. In May of that year, he was commissioned by Governor Carney, First Lieutenant of the Sheriff of Johnson County's Posse. In the fall of the same year he was commissioned to organize the Johnson County Militia and was elected Colonel in which capacity he served until the organization was disbanded in the spring of 1865. Since the war, he has followed his present business, and has also for several years engaged in agricultural pursuits. Mr. Keeler has a field roller of his own invention which took a diploma at the Kansas Exhibition of 1872, and which he patented July 20, 1875. He is engaged in manufacturing the same, and does considerable business.

WILLIAM KELLY, farmer, was born in Ireland, June 17, 1826, and followed farming as an occupation. In 1851 he emigrated to Boone County, Ill., and for six years worked as a brick mason and plasterer, also farmed to some extent. He came to Kansas in the spring of 1859, and worked a rented farm in Johnson County for two years, and in 1861 moved on his present farm; he now owns 400 acres in this county and is quite extensively engaged in raising stock. During the late unpleasantness Mr. K. served in the State Militia. He was married in Canada, in 1855 to Annie J. Lundy. They have nine children--Mary A., Isabel, Alexander, William J., Sarah J., Kitty, Samuel J., Thomas H. and David C.

JAMES LAMASNEY, dealer in horses and mules, P. O. Olathe, was born in Ogdensburg, N. Y., in 1842. In April, 1860, he came to Kansas and located in Olathe, and assisted his father, John Lamasney on his farm for five years, after which he embarked in that business for himself, following it for about five years. In 1870 he engaged in livery business at the city of Olathe, carrying it on for about eight years, and then commenced his present business. He is a large dealer, and buys principally for the Kansas City markets. He moved to his present residence, known as "Elm Park", in December, 1881, on which he has a fine brick stable and a race-course, know as the Elm Park Track, which he uses for training his horses. In this place he has some eighty acres, and is, in connection with other business pursuits, engaged in farming. He was married in Leavenworth, Kan., in 1865, to Alice H. Hale. They have five children--Catherine Maria, James H., Lena L., Benjamine and Ivory Legate.

IVORY H. LEGATE, druggist, was born in Edinburg, Ind., August 21, 1855, and educated in the schools and college at Hanover and Indianapolis. He came to Olathe in the early part of 1876, and in company with J. R. Brown purchased the drug store of J. H. Blake. They carried on this business until some time in 1877, when they purchased a grocery, bakery and meat market; the entire business being carried on under the style of Brown, Legate & Tilford, until August, 1878, when Mr. Legate withdrew from the firm, taking the drug stock, fixtures, etc., as his interest, and has since carried on that branch of the business alone. He has a fine store, the stock and fixtures of which are worth $5,000; building, $6,000 or more. Mr. Legate is manager of the Hayes Opera House, and also of the Olathe Rifle Band.

ALVA LEWIS, stock farm, was born near Dayton, Ohio, in 1817, and a few years after emigrated to Clinton County, Ill., with his parents, where he was engaged in farming and dealing in stock until he came to Olathe in 1865. He has a fine stock farm on Cedar Creek, and is largely engaged in breeding cattle, hogs, etc. Mr. Lewis owns in this county over 500 acres of land, and is considered one of the leading farmers in this part of the country. He was married in Clinton County, Ill., in 1841, to Augusta Jane Stevens. She died in 1849, leaving two children--John W. and Augusta Jane. In 1851 he married Mahalia Rhoten. They have eight children--Eugene, Oliver, Frank, Walter, Annie, Fannie, Maud and Kate.

JOHN T. LITTLE, attorney at law, was born in Circleville, Ohio, in November, 1844, and was reared in Champaign County, in that State. He enlisted in May, 1864, in the One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Ohio Infantry, serving three months. In September, 1865, he began to read law at Urbana, with Gen. John H. Young, remaining with him until admitted to the bar in March, 1868, at the Supreme Court of Ohio. He came to Olathe in August, 1868, and at once engaged in the practice of law, and in 1877, became associated with the Hon. John T. Burris, his present partner. He was elected City Attorney for Olathe in April, 1882. Mr. Little was married in Olathe in 1875, to Mary Bundy, a native of Iowa. They have two children - Chancy B. and John T., Jr. He was elected Prosecuting Attorney for Johnson County, Kan., at the November election, 1882.

HARVEY C. LIVERMORE, general manager of the Johnson County Co-operative Association, was born in Deansville, Oneida Co., N. Y., in 1850. Here he was reared to general mercantile business, and at the age of eighteen began business for himself, continuing it until he came to Kansas in 1871, locating in Douglas County. Was for one year engaged in farming, after which he moved to Lawrence, where he became associated with the Douglas County Co-operative Association as a salesman, remaining in that employ until July 1878, when he came to Olathe, and at once entered upon his present duties. Mr. Livermore was elected to represent the Second Ward in the City Council in the spring of 1882.

ALEXANDER H. LOTT, Clerk of Tenth Judicial District Court, was born in Seneca County, Ohio, September 27, 1846. Here he followed farming until he enlisted in the fall of 1863, in Company D, One Hundred and Twenty-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He served for two years, principally under Generals Sigel, Crook and Sheridan, and participated in the famous battles of Winchester, Cedar Creek, Fisher's Hill and Opequan Crossing, and was at the capture of Petersburg and Richmond. At the capture of the former he received a shell wound, on the 31st of March, 1865, in the right arm, which necessitated amputation. After the war he attended Baldwin University and Republic Academy Ohio. In the spring of 1868, he came to Kansas, located in Monticello Township on a farm, and was for five years principally engaged in teaching school. He was elected Register of Deeds in 1873, and at that time moved to Olathe. Was elected to present office in 1876, again in 1878, and again in 1880. Mr. Lott was married in Olathe, in May, 1879, to Rose B. Thomas. They have one son--Frank B.

R. M. LOVELL, druggist, is a native of Marion County, Ill. He enlisted in August, 1862, in the One Hundred and Eleventh Illinois Infantry, and having assisted in raising Company H of that regiment, was appointed Second Lieutenant of the same, and promoted to First Lieutenant in the summer of 1864, serving until June 1865. He served principally in the Fifteenth Army Corps, and participated in the engagements of Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw, siege of Atlanta, and many others. He was with Sherman in all his movements after the fall of Atlanta, his regiment being one of those which stormed and took Fort McAllister, thus opening up communication with the outside world. He came to Kansas April 3, 1868, locating in Olathe, at which place he purchased an interest in the drug store of B. E. Martin, and in March, 1869, became sole proprietor of the same. Mr. Lovell has a nice stock, worth about $2,500, and is doing an increasing business.

HARRY McBRIDE, fruit grower, was born in Orange County, N. Y., in 1840, and reared in New York city, where he learned the drug business, and was employed in that business at South Bend, Ind., for four years. In 1860 he came to Kansas, locating in Macamish, Johnson County, and for several years was engaged in the mercantile business in the village of Lanesfield. In 1862 he was appointed United States Assessor, and held the office some three years. In 1864 he came to Olathe, and for a short time engaged in the mercantile business. About 1866 was appointed United States Internal Revenue Collector, and filled that position two or three years, after which he embarked in the speculation of Indian lands, and has been interested in the same since. He has resided at his present location since 1870; has some forty acres, all laid out in fruit trees, grapes, etc. Mr. McBride was elected to the State Legislature in 1864, and served one term. He was married at South Bend, Ind., in 1860, to Mary L. Brown. They have four children--Charles A., Eugene B., Fred and Carrie A.

J. F. McKAIG, farmer, was born at Carlisle, Ohio, April 24, 1833, and reared on a farm; also learned trade of brick-maker, and was for a year employed in that capacity in Danville, Ill., and two years in Logansport, Ind. He came to Olathe March 14, 1857, and located on his present farm, consisting of 160 acres. In September, 1862, he enlisted in the Tenth Kansas Infantry, serving until July, 1865. Mr. McK. now owns 360 acres of land, and is largely engaged in breeding blooded cattle and hogs, and has five acres of his place laid out in fruit trees. He is a charter member of the Lone Elm Grange. Mr. McKaig was married at Olathe, December 25, 1860, to Elizabeth F. Danki. They have eight children--Mary E., Sarah E., Robert H., Flora, John C., Cora G., Nellie R. and Arthur E.

JOSEPH McNULTY, farmer and stock raiser, P.O. Olathe, was born in the city of New York December 19, 1828, and reared in Columbiana County, Ohio. At twenty-one years of age removed to Butler County where he followed farming for some years, and for a year in La Fayette County, Mo. He came to Kansas April 24, 1860, and located on his present farm. He owns 160 acres in Olathe Township, all well improved. He is a large farmer and works considerable rented land. During the late "unpleasantness" he served in the State militia. Mr. McNulty was married in Butler County, Ohio, January 18, 1858, to Bridget Giblin. They have six living children, William H., Annie J., Mary E., Francis, Catherine and Harry.

S. E. MACKEY, dealer in lumber, etc., was born at Frankfort, Ohio, January 31, 1842, and reared in Chillicothe. Was for a number of years in the employ of the Miami & Cincinnati Railroad Company, and for three years engaged in mercantile business. In August, 1872, he came to Kansas, locating in Lawrence, and was for two years engaged in conducting a grocery business. In September, 1874, he came to Olathe, and was for several years in the employ of the St. L. L. & W. R. R. Co., as agent at this place, also at the same time engaged in dealing grain, coal, etc. In the latter part of 1875 he purchased his present business, which was but a small one at that time, but has increased until a stock of $7,000 or so is carried to supply the demands of his trade. He is the proprietor of the oldest lumber yard in Johnson County, and lately purchased the lumber yard, etc., of J. C. Rogers & Co., at Spring Hill, this county, where he also carries on a grain business.

WILLIAM MAHAFFIE, partner of the firm of Julien & Mahaffie, was born in Jasper County, Ind., in December, 1846, and came to Kansas with his father and resided on a farm with him until 1868, when he joined Col. Chapman's engineer corps on the Fort Scott & Gulf R. R. He ran the first line to the Indian Territory that was made for the Fort Scott road. In 1869 he settled on a claim in Labette County, Kas., and remained there until the spring of 1871. He joined Mr. Julien in the livery business in 1873. He was married in Olathe November 25, 1875, to Clara R. Cox, a native of Fayette County, Ohio. They have four children, Miles, Mamie, Nellie and Homer.

DAVID MARQUIS, farmer, P.O. Olathe, was born in Washington County, Pa., in 1828, and fourteen years later removed to Bellefontaine, Ohio, and for several years followed farm work, after which he farmed rented land for two years. Selling out he removed to Dayton and attended school maintaining himself by teaching vocal music. In 1850 he engaged in book business in the firm of Ells, Marquis & Co. This firm continued for some twelve years. In May, 1862, he enlisted in Company B, Ninety-eighth Illinois Infantry, and was almost immediately elected Captain. Two years later was promoted to Major of the regiment, and a year later to Lieutenant Colonel. After the war he settled in Richland County, Ill. Was elected Treasurer of that county in 1866 and held the office two years. Afterwards was for a time engaged in mercantile, stock and grain business, under the style of Byers & Marquis. Mr. Marquis came to Kansas October 31, 1871, and located on his present farm, near the city of Olathe. He has 120 acres of well improved land and an orchard of over 1,000 trees. He is a member of Johnson County Pomona Grange and Olathe Grange No. 118. He was married in Montgomery County, Ohio, in 1859, to Agnes Byers. They have four children.

JOHN B. MARSHALL, insurance and real estate, was born in Porter County, Ind., July 23, 1843. He served about one year in the late war, first as Sergeant of Company C, One Hundred and Thirty-eight Indiana Infantry, afterwards as Second Lieutenant in Company B, One Hundred and Fifty-first Indiana Infantry. After the war he entered into the dry goods business at Valparaiso, Ind., remaining there until the spring of 1868, when he came to Olathe, and engaged in drug business, carrying it on until 1875, when he engaged in his present business; also makes a specialty of collections. In 1870 he received the Democratic nomination for State Senator, that party being largely in the minority, he was not elected. In 1871 he was elected a Commissioner of Johnson County, serving two years. Mr. Marshall was married in Valparaiso, Ind., in June 1869, to Mary Bartholomew. She died in November, 1871, and Mr. Marshall was married a second time, in Olathe, to Mrs. Laura Nelbert (widow). They have four children--Clara, Wade D., John B., Jr., and Maynard G.

MANUEL G. MILLER, dealer in groceries, etc., was born in Branch County, Mich., in 1843. Resided with his parents for some time in Boone County, Iowa, then again in Branch County, following farming. In August, 1864, he enlisted in Company G, Seventh Michigan Light Artillery, serving eleven months. He came to Kansas November 29, 1865, locating at Fort Leavenworth, employed by the United States Government in various capacities until March, 1866, when he went to Lawrence, Kan., and for some months was employed in the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad. In July, 1866, he was given charge of a Section, which position he held until March, 1869, when he came to Olathe. In the following month he opened in his business with a stock of $1,400, which has since been increased to $5,000. In August, 1877, he sold out, and joined C. M. Ott in milling business, but in the fall of that year again started in the grocery business, still retaining his interest in the mill. Mr. Ott is also his partner in the store. Mr. Miller was married in branch County, Michigan, in March, 1867, to Mary E. Phenicie. They have two children--Jessie and Louisa.

BRANSON MILLIKAN, farmer, was born in Monroe County, Ind., November 23, 1824. Emigrated with his parents to Parke County in 1829, and followed farming as an occupation. He came to Kansas in March, 1858; located in Olathe, moving on to his present farm in September, 1857. He is an extensive farmer, has 160 acres in this place and eighty acres in Miami County, and is also engaged in raising stock. Mr. M. served in the militia during the war. He was Treasurer of the School District for thirteen years, and is a charter member of the Lone Elm Grange, organized in 1873. Mr. Millikan is universally esteemed by his neighbors for his honorable dealings and strict integrity. He was married in Parke County, Ind., in 1847, to Harriet Shup. They have nine children--Isabella, Mary C., James B., Amanda, Hannah J., Sarah, Hattie, Allen and Maud.

JONATHAN MILLIKAN, farmer, was born in Monroe County, Ind., in January, 1827, and three years later removed with his parents to Parke County. In 1851 he made a trip to New Orleans on a flat boat, went twice to Iowa, taught school in Indiana, and in 1853, made two more trips to Iowa; not suiting himself, he went to Nebraska, and in May, 1857, he came to Olathe and took up a claim of 160 acres, and on this he still resides. In 1857 he built the first substantial dwelling house erected in the town of Olathe. He is largely engaged in farming; owns nearly 200 acres of land and also rents considerable. Mr. M. was the first Assessor elected in the Township. He was married in Olathe, November 25, 1858, to Emily L. Whittier, of New Hampshire. They have four children--Minnie E., Mardie B., Orion Whittier and Ella L. Mrs. Millikan was the first white lady to locate in Olathe. She is a cousin of Commodore Nutt and second cousin to the poet John G. Whittier.

M. A. MORROW, merchant and farmer, P.O. Bonita, was born in Allegheny County, Pa., in 1855. His parents removed to Mercer County, Ill., four years later. He came to Kansas in October, 1869, residing at Ocheltree; he attended school and also assisted his uncle in his store. He was for a year employed in the mercantile business at Olathe, and in November, 1879, purchased the stock and business of F. Gilbert at Bonita. In November, 1881, he admitted Thomas Stevenson as a partner, and the business is now conducted under the style of M. A. Monroe & Co. Mr. M. was appointed Postmaster at Bonita in November, 1879, and is the agent for the K. C., F. S. & G. R. R. and Adams Express Company. He owns eighty acres of land in partnership with his brother, J. N. Morrow; and is, in connection with his other business pursuits, engaged in farming.

J. W. NORVELL, of Mariner & Norvell, general merchants, was born in Shelby County, Ind., August 2, 1847, and was reared on a farm until he reached the age of nineteen years when he went to Independence, Mo., and was for five years employed as a salesman in the mercantile business with J. May & Son. He came to Kansas in 1872 and located at Olathe and at once established the business in company with E. J. Mariner, with a stock of about $7,000 worth of goods, which has since been increased to $20,000, to supply the demands of their increasing trade. Mr. Norvell was married in Independence, Mo., February 7, 1871, to Eva Mariner, a native of Tennessee. They have four children--Edna May, Mary B. P., Jessie I., and Grace Aileene.

FRANK R. OGG, attorney at law, was born in Lawrence County, Ind., September 15, 1845. He began business life in the office of the Clerk of the Circuit Court, there remaining with him as an assistant about four years, and during that period also read the law with Putnam & Freidley; after which he attended the Indiana State University, graduating in the Law Department January 31, 1868. In February, 1869, he came to Olathe, Kas., and at once began to practice law in company with Gen. W. H. M. Fishback, remaining in partnership with him for a year, since then alone. He makes a specialty of trial cases. In the fall of 1870 he was elected County Attorney; re-elected in 1872; and from October, 1874, to February, 1879, also held the office of Postmaster of that place. He is local attorney for the A., T. & S. F. R. R. Co. Mr. Ogg was married at Bedford, Ind., November 14, 1869, to Mary E. Daggy. They have two children living--William F. and Josephine M.

CHRISTIAN M. OTT, proprietor of the Olathe Roller Flour Mills, was born in Germany, October 31, 1835; came to America in 1849, and resided in Alton, Ill., where he learned the trade of baker and confectioner serving an apprenticeship of four years. He then worked at his trade in New Orleans until the spring of 1857, when he came to Kansas, and was for a short time engaged in the bakery business in Independence, Mo. He then opened a bakery and grocery store in Olathe, conducting it for twelve years. In 1868 he built his present mills and has run them, except for three years, since. He has just added rollers, which are machinery for making new process flour. The engine has the capacity of fifty-horse power, and the mill consumes 500 bushels of wheat daily. In 1873 Mr. Ott also opened a furniture factory and store at Ottawa, Kas., in company with A. Gottschalk. His interest in this is managed by his son Henry. Mr. O. was married in Olathe, in September, 1860, to Justina Schieve. They have four children--Henry, Albert, Charles and Emma.

[TOC] [part 8] [part 6] [Cutler's History]