|KANSAS COLLECTION BOOKS|
The church and the school, twin hand-maids of civilization, came to Kansas together, and began their work among the Indians. From the time when the mission church and the mission school first gave hope and knowledge to their dusky wards to the present, when they stand as the proud foster-mothers of a rich, prosperous and powerful State, they have dwelt side by side, and, hand in hand, carried on their silent but munificent work.
The earliest churches were established among the Indian tribes settled in Kansas long before it was organized as a Territory. For a detailed account of the labors of the devoted missionaries, the reader is referred to the Indian history in another part of this work.
In 1854, when Kansas became a Territory, and white emigrants began to come in for settlements, the churches had already a habitation in the land.
The Methodists had a church at Shawnee Mission, under the charge of Rev. Thomas Johnson, where he had been since 1829; also a thriving church at Wyandotte, which was established soon after the settlement of the Wyandotte tribe on their Knasas reservation, in 1843.
The Baptists had a mission church two miles northwest of the Shawnee Mission, where Rev. Francis Barker and family lived. This mission was established as early as 1831. It was the early Kansas home of Dr. Johnston Lykins, Rev. Robert Simmerwell, Rev. Jotham Meeker (the first Kansas editor) and others. In 1833, the church numbered sixteen members. There was also a church near the Delaware Post Office, under the charge of Rev. John G. Pratt. Still another Baptist Church was located in what is now Mission Township, Shawnee County, under the charge of Rev. John Jackson. This church was first started by Rev. Robert Simmerwell.
The Friends had a school (and wherever three of them are gathered together they have a church) three miles west of Johnson's Mission.
The Presbyterians were established as a denomination at the Iowa and Sac and Fox Mission, at what is now Highland, Doniphan County. Rev. Samuel M. Irvin, who had lived there since 1837, was the resident minister.
The Roman Catholics had two missions. Saint Mary's was located in what is now Mission Township, Shawnee, County, with three stations within a radius of twenty miles, on Soldier, Mission and Shunganon Creeks. The Catholic population (mostly Indians) connected with this mission in 1854, was 1,600. Four priest officiated. There was also a Catholic Mission on the Neosho River, in what is now Neosho County, under the charge of Rev. John Schoenmaker.
The following early history of the leading churches of Kansas is copied from the Fourth Annual Report of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 1875, pages 449, 450, 451. It is doubtless reliable, but far too meagre:
Presbyterian.* - By Rev. T. Hill, D. D. - The date of first missionary work was about 1837, at Highland, by Revs. William Hamilton and S. M. Irvin, and became very general throughout the Territory. Of the whole number of churches now in the State, all but the one at Junction City and the Westminster, of Leavenworth, were organized under the auspices and by the material aid of the missionary organization.
The first church organization (old school) was at or near where the city of Ottawa now stands, about the year 1840; by whom founded does not appear. The second was in Doniphan County, October 21, 1843, under the labor of Rev. William Hamilton and Rev. S. M. Irvin. The first, after the Territorial organization of Kansas was at Leavenworth, January 1, 1856, by Rev. C. D. Martin. The first "New School" organizations were effected under the labors of Rev. James Brownlee, in 1858, at Brownsville, Olathe, Gardner, Black Jack, De Soto, Centropolis and Spring Hill.
Mr. Hill does not give the date of the construction of the first church edifice, but believes the first, "New School" church was erected at Auburn, Shawnee County, and the first "Old School" at Leavenworth City.
The denomination now (1875) has 181 organizations, 6,826 members, 82 church edifices, and church property valued at $370,300.
Congregational - By Rev. P. McVickar, D. D. - The first missionary work of this church in Kansas was done by Rev. S. Y. Lum, at Lawrence, in the year 1854, and the first church organization was perfected at that place the same year, and with the same pastor.
The first Congregational Church edifice erected in Kansas was also at Lawrence, in the year 1857.
This denomination now (1875), embraces 121 organizations, with an aggregate membership of 4,458; and has fifty-three church edifices, with church property valued at $256,550.
Baptist. - By Hon. James S. Emery - Baptist missionary work was inaugurated by Rev. Mr. Meeker, among the Ottawa Indians, at the date of the first settlement of the tribe within the Territory of Kansas. Mr. Meeker translated and caused to be printed the New Testament Scriptures in the tongue of these Indians. A church organization was perfected, and nine-tenths of the tribe became members thereof. It is a notable fact that at the time white settlers made their appearance in the Territory, seven-eighths of the male members of the Ottawa tribe were professors of religion, and members of the Baptist Church.
The first church of whites was organized in June, 1855, by the Rev. Mr. Hall, with seven members, one of whom was our informant, Mr. Emery. The first church edifice was erected at Atchison, under the Rev. Mr. Alderson - date not given.
The denomination now (1875) has in Kansas 286 organizations, embracing 12,197 members, with sixty-three church edifices, valued at $246,650.
United Presbyterian. - By Rev. B. L. Baldridge - The first missionary work of this church in Kansas was by Rev. J. N. Smith, at Berea, Franklin County, in April, 1857. He represented the "Associate Church" or "Seceders." In July of the same year the General Assembly of the "Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church" sent the Rev. B. L. Baldridge to missionate in Kansas. His labors were divided between Leavenworth, Geary City, Quindaro and Lawrence.
Rev. J. N. Smith organized a church in Berea in 1857, and the Rev. B. L. Baldridge on at Leavenworth in 1858. The former erected a church edifice in August, 1858, and the latter one in Leavenworth in 1859.
The organizations represented by the two ministers above named, united in May, 1858, and formed what is now known as the "United Presbyterian Church," which has, in Kansas (1875) thirty-nine church organizations, a membership of 1,313, possessing fourteen church buildings, and church property valued at $49,200.
Methodist. - By Mrs. Lucy Armstrong and Rev. Joseph Dennison - Mrs. Armstrong says: "From reliable authority in my possession, I find that the first missionary work done in the Territory of Kansas was on the Kansas River, eight miles from its mouth, in the year 1831, by Rev. Thomas Johnson, then a missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The first Methodist Episcopal Church organization was perfected at the same place, and by the same pastor, in March, 1832, one Shawnee and one Delaware - a head man' - being the first converts. I cannot state the date of the erection of the first church edifice by this denomination. I came to the Territory in 1843, and visited two old church buildings soon after - an old log one, near what is now known as White Church', Wyandotte County, and a frame one, some four or five miles west of the large Manual Labor School, among the Shawnees. It is my belief that the log church was the first Methodist Church built in Kansas, and that it was built under the administration of the Rev. Thomas Johnson."
Mr. Dennison claims the organization of the work with the Delawares, Wyandots and Shawnees, at the date of the first settlement of the tribes within the Territory of Kansas, without naming the workers. Further, that Revs. William Goode, A. Still, James S. Griffing and A. L. Downey were accredited as missionaries among the whites of Kansas in 1854, laboring at Wyandotte, Delaware Mission, Shawnee, Leavenworth, Atchison, Fort Riley, and other places, organizing congregations in that and the following year at the several places of their location, church buildings being commenced at the same time in Leavenworth and Lawrence, the latter being first completed.
This denomination, now (1875) has 621 organizations, 22,696 members, 96 church buildings, and church property valued at $340,400.
Episcopal. - By Rt. Rev. Thomas H. Vail - First missionary work done in Leavenworth by the Rev. Hiram Stone, in 1856. The first parish was organized under the name of St. Paul's Church, at Leavenworth, by the Rev. Hiram Stone, December 10, 1856. The first edifice, St. Paul's Church, at Leavenworth, was completed and consecrated by Bishop Kemper, December 7, 1858.
Present (1875) condition of the church in Kansas: 34 organizations, 1,136 members, 22 church edifices, and church property valued at $173,000.
Catholic. - The first missionary work of this church was performed by Father Quickenborn. Superior of the Jesuit house of Florissant, among the Osage Indians, in 1827, near the present site of Osage Mission in Labette County. Missionary work was commenced about the same date among the Pottawatomie Indians. The first organized Catholic congregation of whites was in Leavenworth City, on the 15th of August, 1855. On that occasion the Rt. Rev. Bishop Miege said mass and preached to a congregation of only nine persons.
The first church buildings erected were by Father Odin, at the Osage Mission, and Father Felix Verreydt, at the Pottawatomie Station, both in 1829. They were mere huts, and have long since gone out of existence. The first church building for the use of a white congregation, was erected in 1855, at Leavenworth City, by Rt. Rev. Bishop Miege.
Bishop Miege was consecrated Bishop March 25, 1851, and was a missionary bishop among the Indians. Under his guidance and leadership, the church has grown and expanded to its present condition, embracing (in 1875) 202 organizations, with an aggregate membership of 37, 198. (By the usage of this church, all minor children of parents recognized as members are counted as members of the church also, and are embraced in this enumeration.) And possessing 165 church buildings, amounting in value to the sum of $408,300.
In 1878, a summary of the church statistics of Kansas was as follows:
In 1880, a summary of the church statistics of Kansas was as follows:
The church summary of 1882, in the State census report of the State Board of
Agriculture, is as follows:
In 1880, a summary of the church statistics of Kansas was as follows:
The church summary of 1882, in the State census report of the State Board of Agriculture, is as follows:
The histories of the various religious organizations of the State are given fully and in detail in the county histories which form a part of this work.
The press is the great popular educator of the State. It is also the truest and most comprehensive index of the character and intelligence of its people. The mental force, the intellectual culture, the religious, political and ethical sentiments - are unerringly indicated in the number, character and ability of the literary publications supported. By this test Kansas stands, and has ever stood, as the peer of the most intelligent States of the Union. The detailed history of nearly every newspaper or other journal ever published in Kansas, appears in the histories of the various counties where they were issued.
The first Kansas paper - it could hardly be called a newspaper - was published March 1, 1835. Its name was the Shau-wau-nowe Kesauthwau (Shawanoe Sun). It was published by Rev. Jotham Meeker, in the Shawnee language, and printed on a hand-press which he brought into the Territory in 1833. He had, prior to the issue of his paper, printed several books in the Shawnee language. The type used was such as to express phonetically the sounds of the words. Under the system, the Indians learned readily to read the books printed, and before the issue of the paper, had become quite a reading community. Thus Mr. Meeker did what no other Kansas publisher ever had occasion to do. He taught his subscribers to read, before he printed his paper. Dr. Johnston Lykins was the associate editor, and the printing of the paper was done by Messrs. Meeker & Lykins, until May, 1837, at which time Mr. J. G. Pratt arrived and took charge of the printing office. How long the Shawanoe Sun Continued to be published is not known. The printing-press was removed to the Ottawa Mission farm some time during the summer of 1837. It was probably not published later than that date.
Newspapers appeared in this Territory as soon after the advent of white settlers as a press and type could be obtained. Some of the first numbers of the early papers were printed in the Eastern States, the editorial matter being written, and the local news compiled in the Territory.
The first newspaper issued was the Kansas Weekly Herald. (For full history, see Leavenworth County.) The first number was set up and printed under an elm tree, near what is now the corner of Cherokee street, Leavenworth. The first number was issued September 15, 1854. This paper was pro-slavery in sentiment. It was projected by William H. Adams and William H. Osborn. They had not sufficient funds to start the enterprise, so Lucian J. Eastin furnished the necessary capital, and, in connection with Mr. Adams, under the firm name of Eastin & Adams, published the first newspaper issued in Kansas Territory. Mr. Eastin was the editor.
The second paper published in the Territory was a vigorous Free-State paper - the Kansas Pioneer. Its first issue is dated October 15, 1854. It hailed form Lawrence, Kan., although the first number was printed in Ohio. Its projectors and editors were John Speer and Joseph L. Speer. The second issue did not appear until the first week of January, 1855, at which time the proprietorship was the same as above stated. The name, however, was changed to the Kansas Tribune, under which name it became widely known as one of the boldest Free-State papers in the Territory during the troublous times of 1855 and 1856. (See more detailed mention of this paper in the histories of Shawnee and Douglas Counties.)
The change in the name first adopted for their paper was occasioned by the appearance, during the interval between the issue of the first and second number, of the Kickapoo Pioneer. It was a pronounced Pro-slavery Democratic paper. The first number appeared in November, 1854. It was published and edited by A. B. Hazzard, flourished as flourished the cause it advocated, and went down with it, after a vigorous fight of three years.
The Kansas Herald of Freedom first appeared under date of October 21, 1854. It was printed at Conneautville, Crawford Co., Penn., where G. W. Brown, its editor, had formerly published a paper. It was issued from Wakarusa, Kan. The second number was issued from Lawrence, Kan., January 6, 1855. The paper was unmistakably Free-state in its utterances, but was more conservative than some of its contemporaries.
The Squatter Sovereign, a most rabid Pro-slavery paper, was started in Atchison, February 3, 1855, by Robert S. Kelly and John H. Stringfellow. Kelly & Stringfellow were the publishers, and John H. Stringfellow the editor. It remained the sturdy champion of border-ruffian rule up to 1857, when the office was sold to John A. Martin. Its name was changed to the Champion, and under the editorial management of Robert McBratney and Frank G. Adams, it became a Free-state paper of pronounced type.
In January or February, 1855, the Free State was issued in Lawrence, by Robert G. Elliott and Josiah Miller. It was, as its name implied, a Free-State paper.
The six newspapers above named were the only papers published in Kansas prior to the spring of 1855. The increase of journalism since then, and up to the close of 1882, is shown below from statistics preserved in Wilder's Annals, and in the Reports of the State Board of Agriculture and the Secretary of the Kansas Historical Society.
The following is a list of the newspapers published in the Territory December 1, 1857, with their political standing:
Pro-slavery - The Herald and the Journal, Leavenworth; Pioneer, Kickapoo; Constitutionalist, Doniphan. Democratic - National Democrat, Lecompton; Citizen, Wyandotte. Whig - Young America, Leavenworth. Neutral - Advertiser, Elwood; Gazette Sumner. Free-State - Herald of Freedom and the Republican, Lawrence; Squatter Sovereign formerly Pro-slavery), Zeitung, Atchison; Tribune, Topeka; Times, Leavenworth; Leader, Centropolis; Chindowan, Quindaro; News Emporia; Kansas Chief, White Cloud; Era, Greary City.
The following papers had suspended at that date:
Pro-slavery - Union, Lecompton; and Note Book Tecumseh. Free-State - the Freeman and the Journal, Topeka; Journal, Ottumwa: Free-State, Delaware; Freeman's Champion, Prairie City; Register, Wyandotte.
November 27, 1858, there were twenty newspapers in the Territory. Lawrence had 2; Lecompton, 1; Topeka, 1; Emporia, 1; Junction City, 1; Wyandotte, 2; Leavenworth, 5; Atchison, 2; Palermo, 1; Troy, 1; White Cloud, 1; Elwood, 1; Fort Scott, 1.
February 1, 1868, there were eleven daily and fifty weekly papers in the State.
July, 1869, the following list of newspapers published in Kansas, appeared in a Gazetteer and Directory of the State, published by Blackburn & Co., Lawrence:
January 1, 1874, there were 148 newspapers published in the State, representing the following counties: Allen, Anderson, Atchison, Barton, Bourbon, Brown, Butler, Chase, Cherokee, Clay, Cloud, Coffey, Cowley, Crawford, Davis, Dickinson, Doniphan, Douglas, Ellis, Ellsworth, Ford, Franklin, Greenwood, Harvey, Howard, Jackson, Jefferson, Jewell, Johnson, Labette, Leavenworth, Lincoln, Linn, Lyon, Marion, Marshall, McPherson, Miami, Mitchell, Montgomery, Morris, Nemaha, Neosho, Osage, Osborne, Ottawa, Pawnee, Phillips, Pottawatomie, Reno, Republic, Rice, Riley, Russell, Saline, Sedgwick, Shawnee, Smith, Sumner, Wabaunsee, Washington, Wilson, Woodson and Wyandotte.
January 1, 1876, there were published in Kansas 194 newspapers and periodicals: 12 daily and weekly, 174 weekly, 1 semi-monthly and 7 monthly. There were distributed by counties as follows: Allen, 3; Anderson, 2; Atchison, 3; Barton, 3; Bourbon, 5; Brown, 2; Butler, 3; Chautauqua, 2; Chase, 2; Cherokee, 4; Clay, 1; Cloud, 2; Coffey, 3; Cowley, 3; Crawford, 3; Davis, 2; Dickinson, 2; Doniphan, 1; Douglas, 5; Edwards, 2; Elk, 3; Ellis, 3; Ellsworth, 1; Ford, 2; Franklin, 2; Greenwood, 3; Harvey, 3; Jackson, 2; Jefferson, 4; Jewell, 2; Johnson, 3; Labette, 7; Leavenworth, 6; Lincoln, 1; Linn, 3; Lyon, 4; Marion, 4; Marshall, 5; McPherson, 1; Miami, 3; Mitchell, 3; Montgomery, 4; Morris, 2; Nemaha, 3; Neosho, 4; Norton, 1; Osage, 3; Osborne, 1; Ottawa, 5; Pawnee, 1; Phillips, 2; Pottawatomie, 4; Pratt, 1; Reno, 3; Republic, 2; Rice, 2; Riley, 4; Rooks, 1; Rush, 1; Russell, 1; Saline, 3; Sedgwick, 4; Shawnee, 8; Smith, 1; Sumner, 3; Wabaunsee, 2; Washington, 2; Wilson, 3; Woodson, 3; Wyandotte, 2.
January 1, 1878, there were published in Kansas 237 newspapers and periodicals: 15 daily and weekly, 210 weekly, 1 semi-monthly, 11 monthly. They were distributed in the various counties as follows: Allen, 3; Anderson, 2; Atchison, 6; Barton, 5; Barber, 1; Bourbon, 6; Brown, 3; Butler, 3; Chautauqua, 3; Chase, 2; Cherokee, 5; Clay, 1; Cloud, 3; Coffey, 2; Cowley, 3; Crawford, 4; Davis, 3; Dickinson, 2; Ford, 3; Franklin, 3; Greenwood, 2; Harvey, 4; Harper, 2; Jackson, 2; Jefferson, 4; Jewell, 2; Johnson, 5; Kingman, 1; Labette, 7; Leavenworth, 9; Lincoln, 1; Linn, 4; Lyon, 5; Marion, 3; Marshall, 5; McPherson, 2; Miami, 3; Mitchell, 5; Montgomery, 4; Morris, 2; Nemaha, 3; Neosho, 4; Norton, 2; Osage, 3; Osborne, 1; Ottawa, 3; Pawnee, 3; Phillips, 5; Pottawatomie, 4; Pratt, 1; Reno, 3; Republic, 2; Rice, 3; Riley, 4; Rooks, 1; Rush, 2; Russell, 1; Saline, 5; Sedgwick, 3; Shawnee, 11; Smith, 1; Sumner, 2; Wabaunsee, 2; Washington, 4; Wilson, 3; Woodson 3; Wyandotte, 3.
January 1, 1880, the number of newspapers and periodicals published in the State was 327: one daily, 14 daily and weekly, 300 weekly, 1 semi-monthly, 11 monthly. They were distributed in the counties as follows: Allen, 3; Anderson, 3; Atchison, 8; Barbour, 2; Barton, 4; Bourbon, 5; Brown, 2; Butler, 7; Chase, 3; Chautauqua, 2; Cherokee, 8; Clay, 5; Cloud, 5; Coffey, 3; Cowley, 7; Crawford, 4; Davis, 2; Dickinson, 4; Doniphan, 3; Decatur, 1; Douglas, 7; Edwards, 2; Elk, 6; Ellis, 3; Ellsworth, 2; Harper, 3; Harvey, 5; Hodgeman, 1; Jackson, 2; Jefferson, 6; Jewell, 5; Johnson, 4; Kingman, 1; Labette, 6; Lane, 1; Leavenworth, 9; Lincoln, 2; Linn, 3; Lyon 6; McPherson, 5; Marion, 5; Marshall, 5; Meade, 1; Miami, 5; Mitchell, 6; Montgomery, 5; Morris, 3; Nemaha, 4; Neosho, 6; Ness, 1; Norton, 2; Osage, 4; Osborne, 4; Ottawa, 5; Pawnee, 2; Phillips, 4; Pottawatomie, 5; Rawlins, 1; Reno, 4; Republic, 2; Rice, 8; Riley, 6; Rooks, 2; Rush, 2; Russell, 3; Saline, 5; Sedgwick, 4; Shawnee, 16; Smith, 3; Stafford, 2; Sumner, 8; Trego, 2; Wabaunsee, 2; Washington, 4; Wilson, 2; Woodson, 2; Wyandotte, 5.