William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas


[TOC] [part 26] [part 24] [Cutler's History]


In the Kansas Journal of Education for March, 1868, appeared the following:


EDITORS OF EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL: Allow me to call your attention to the importance of forming a Natural History Society in our State. The benefits flowing from such an organization would be numerous, among which I will mention the following:

1. It would afford the means of associated effort.
2. It would give inspiration to naturalists.
3. It would afford opportunity for exchanges.
4. It would diffuse a spirit of scientific research.
5. It would put the State in direct communication with
the various scientific bodies of our country.
6. Large collections would ultimately be made by such a
society, which would be permanently secured to the State.

Has not the time arrived for the friends of natural science to move in this matter? Some of the leading naturalists of the State are favorable to the organization of such a society at an early day. The State authorities would doubtless aid such a society in publishing valuable reports, and in storing their collections.

Yours very truly,


Consequent upon the publication of the foregoing, in July, 1868, the following call was issued:

We, the undersigned, desirous of securing the advantages arising from association in scientific pursuits; and of giving a more systematic direction to scientific research in our State, do hereby invite all persons in the State interested in natural science to meet at Topeka on the first Tuesday of September next at 3 P. M., at the college building, for the purpose of organizing a State Natural History Society:


The first annual meeting of the society was held in Lincoln College, Topeka, Kan., September 1, 1868. After mature deliberation and thorough discussion, the association was organized under the name of the Kansas Natural History Society, and the following officers were elected for the current year: B. F. Mudge, President; J. S. Whitman, Vice President; John D. Parker, Secretary; Frank H. Snow, Treasurer; John A. Banfield, Curator.

Objects of the Society. - The society aimed at a thorough scientific exploration of Kansas, and its constitution stated its object to be "to increase and diffuse a knowledge of science particularly in its relation to the State of Kansas."

The Second Annual Meeting of the society was held in the Presbyterian Church, Topeka, Kan., September 7, 1869.

The officers of the previous year were re-elected.

The Third Annual Meeting of the society was held in the University building at Lawrence, on the 5th and 6th of September, 1870. The following-named persons were elected officers: President, John Fraser; Vice President, Benjamin F. Mudge; Treasurer, Frank H. Snow; Secretary and Librarian, John D. Parker; Curators, B. G. Mudge and F. H. Snow. James H. Carruth read a paper on the Plants of Kansas; John H. Barrows, on Hugh Miller, or the Workingman's Education; John Fraser, on the Aims, Organization and Advantages of Scientific Associations; B. F. Mudge, on the Moss Agate Formation, and on the Saurian Formation of Kansas; John D. Parker, on the Internal Heat of the Earth; William H. Saunders, on the Comparison of the Coals of Kansas with other Western Coals; Frank H. Snow, on the Fishes of the Kansas River, as observed at Lawrence.

The Fourth Annual Meeting of the Society was held at the rooms of the Board of Education of Leavenworth, on the 25th and 26th of October, 1871.

The following public lectures were delivered: On the Claims of the Natural Sciences by Frank H. Snow; on the Geology of Kansas, by B. F. Mudge.

The officers for the current year were: John Fraser, President; B. F. Mudge and Robert J. Brown, Vice Presidents; John D. Parker, Secretary; F. H. Snow, Treasurer; B. F. Mudge and F. H. Snow, Curators.

At the Third Annual Meeting of the Society, its President, John Fraser, suggested that the scope of the society be enlarged to comprehend the whole field of science within the borders of the State.

On motion, Messrs. John Fraser, F. H. Snow, D. H. Robinson, Frederick W. Bardwell and John D. Parker, having been appointed a Committee on Enlargement of the Scope of the Society, made the following report, which was adopted:

WHEREAS, The unexpected success of this young society, as at present organized, has awakened in many the desire to have its scope enlarged so as to embrace in its membership observers and investigators in other lines of scientific inquiry; and

WHEREAS, It appears to us that such a change in our organization is calculated to promote the interests of science, and thereby the higher interests of our State; therefore,

Resolved, That the name and scope of our society be so changed as to include every line of scientific exploration and observation conducted by residents within our State.

At the Fourth Annual Meeting, held in the rooms of the Board of Education at Leavenworth, on the 25th and 26th of October, 1871, the Constitution and By-laws were so amended as to embrace in the membership of the society, observers and investigators in every line of scientific inquiry, and the name of the society was changed from the Kansas Natural History Society to the Kansas Academy of Science.

The Fifth Annual Meeting of the society was held in the Congregational Church, at Manhattan, on the 8th and 9th of October, 1872.

The following papers were read: On the Peculiarities of the Cherokee Language, by D. H. Robinson; on Ventilation, by Col. William Tweeddale; on the Plants of Kansas (continued from last year), by James H. Carruth; on Two Varieties of Limestone from Junction City, by William H. Saunders; on Two Varieties of Coal from Colorado, by William H. Saunders; on the Birds of Kansas (continued from last year), by Frank H. Snow; on the Geology of the Arkansas Valley, by B. F. Mudge; on the Relation of Light to the Quantity of Gas Consumed, by F. E. Stimpson; on the Remoteness of the Final Catastrophe, by John D. Parker; on What is Good for an Artist, and What an Artist is Good for, by Miss Lee; on the National Park, by Joseph Savage. A public lecture was delivered on the Agreement of the Bible with Geological Science, by Rev. Charles Reynolds, D. D. The officers of the previous year were re-elected. The following commissions were confirmed for the current year: B. F. Mudge, Geology; F. H. Snow and Edwin A. Popenoe, Entomology; D. H. Robinson and J. H. Lee, Language; F. W. Bardwell, Engineering; F. E. Stimpson, Physics; John Fraser, Astronomy; J. H. Carruth, Botany; John Wherrell, Mineralogy; William H. Saunders, Chemistry; John D. Parker, Meteorology.

The Society Incorporated as a State Organization. - Section 2, Chapter 137, of the Session Laws of 1873, reads:

The Academy of Science shall be a co-ordinate department of the State Board of Agriculture, with their office in the agricultural room, where they shall place and keep for public inspection the geological, botanical and other specimens, the same to be under the direction and control of the officers of the said Academy of Science, shall be made on or before the 15th day of November of each year to the State Board of Agriculture for publication in the annual transactions of said Board, this section to be inoperative and void unless accepted by the said Academy of Science in writing, signed by the President and attested by the Secretary thereof.

The Sixth Annual Meeting of the society was held in the University Building at Lawrence, on September 8 and 9, 1873, and was largely attended by the scientific men of Kansas. The subject of auxiliary societies was introduced, discussed and approved, and the Topeka Scientific Institute was admitted as an auxiliary society. Peter McVicar, D. D., delivered a public lecture on Darwinism; Charles Reynolds, D. D., on John Dalton, or the Quaker Man of Science. The following-named persons were elected as officers: Frank H. Snow, President; John A. Banfield, John D. Parker, Vice President; Robert J. Brown, Treasurer; John Wherrell, Secretary; B. F. Mudge, Edwin A. Popenoe and Frank H. Snow, Curators. The following Commissioners were confirmed: Astronomy, John Fraser; Botany, J. H. Carruth, F. H. Snow, John Wherrell; Chemistry, William H. Saunders; Engineering, F. W. Bardwell; Entomology, E. A. Popenoe, F. H. Snow; Geology, B. F. Mudge; Language, J. H. Lee, D. H. Robinson; Meteorology, John D. Parker; Mineralogy, W. D. Kedzie; Ornithology, F. H. Snow; Technology, F. E. Stimpson.

The Seventh Annual Meeting of the Society was held at the Hall of the House of Representatives, October 5 and 6, 1864. The officers of the previous year were mostly re-elected: B. F. Mudge was Vice President in place of John A. Banfield; W. K. Kedzie was added to the list of Curators. Among the new commissioners was that of H. B. Norton, of Emporia, as Ethnologist; M. V. B. Knox, of Baldwin City, had the Mammalia Department. George E. Patrick succeeded William H. Saunders in the Department of Chemistry; H. C. Hovey, of Kansas City, was added to the Geological Department, Prof. Mudge remaining as Associate.

The Eighth Annual Meeting of the society was held in the Senate Chamber, October 12 and 13, 1875. The officers of the society elected for the current year were: President, Frank H. Snow; Vice Presidents, J. H. Carruth, B. F. Mudge; Treasurer, Robert J. Brown; Secretary Joseph Savage; Curators, W. K. Kedzie, E. A. Popenoe, F. H. Snow. The following Commissioners were also appointed: Botany, J. H. Carruth, John Wherrell; Chemistry and Mineralogy, W. K. Kedzie, G. E. Patrick; Engineering, F. W. Bardwell, William Tweedale; Entomology, E. A. Popenoe, Coleoptera; George F. Gamner, Deptera; William Osburn, Hymenoptera; F. H. Snow, Lepidoptera; Geology, M. V. B. Knox, B. F. Mudge; Mammology, M. V. B. Knox; Meteorology, J. D. Parker; Philology, D. H. Robinson; Ornithology, F. H. Snow.

Among the proceedings, was the following resolution, which was adopted:

Resolved, That the increasing popular demand for scientific information makes it a duty of members of this association to embrace every appropriate occasion to aid the efforts of those seeking the introduction of the natural sciences into the schools.

A committee was appointed to draft resolutions in regard to the necessity for a geological survey of the State, to be presented to the Legislature. It consisted of Professors W. K. Kedzie, M. V. B. Knox and B. F. Mudge. Among the most interesting papers presented were: Ozone in Kansas Atmosphere, by Prof. William K. Kedzie; Analysis of Kansas Soils - of chalk - of salt, by Prof. G. E. Patrick; Kansas Mammalia and Calamites (sic), by Prof. M. V. B. Knox; Rocky Mountain Locust and Meteorological summary for 1875, by Prof. F. H. Snow.

The Ninth Annual Meeting of the Society was held at Topeka, November 14 and 15, 1876. The officers of the previous year were re-elected.

The following changes were made in the Commissions of the Academy: E. A. Popenoe was appointed to that of Botany; John B. Dunbar to that of Philology; A. H. Thompson to that of Meteorology; C. K. Jones to that of Geology; B. F. Mudge and J. D. Parker were appointed to the new commission - that of Ethnology. Prof. C. V. Riley gave the opening lecture - "The Locust Problem" Prof. F. W. Bardwell gave the last lecture of the session; his subject was "Our Neighbor the Moon." Prof. M. V. B. Knox read a paper on "Climate and Brains:" Prof. George E. Patrick on the "The Waconda Meteorite" and the "Iola Gas Well."

The Tenth Annual Meeting of the Society was held at Topeka, October 11 and 12, 1877. The old officers were elected, except that E. A. Popenoe succeeded Joseph Savage as Secretary. The lecture of the first evening was on "The Value of Science," by Prof. B. F. Mudge; of the second evening on "The Chemistry of the Sun." Twenty papers were read. F. G. Adams had one on "How to Popularize Practical Science," Prof. B. F. Mudge on "The Internal Heat of the Globe;" Dr. A. H. Thompson on "Science Among the People;" Prof. John D. Parker on "River Bluffs."

The Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Society was held at Topeka, October 8 and 9, 1878; the officers elected were: President, B. F. Mudge; Vice Presidents, J. H. Carruth and Joseph Savage; Treasurer, R. J. Brown; Secretary, E. A. Popenoe; Curators, E. A. Popenoe, B. F. Mudge, F. H. Snow.

The following Commissioners were appointed: Anthropology - F. G. Adams, J. D. Parker, A. H. Thompson. Botany - J. H. Carruth, E. A. Popenoe. Chemistry and Mineralogy - R. J. Brown, W. K. Kedzie, G. E. Patrick. Engineering - William Tweeddale. Entomology - T. B. Ashton, George F. Gaumer, William Osborn, E. A. Popenoe, F. H. Snow. Geology - M. V. B. Knox, B. F. Mudge, Meteorology - J. D. Parker, J. T. Lovewell. Physics - J. T. Lovewell, J. D. Parker. Philology - D. H. Robinson, George M. Stearns. Zoology - M. V. B. Knox, F. H. Snow, Annie E. Mozley.

The following resolutions in respect to the memory of John Fraser and F. W. Bardwell were adopted:

Resolved, That in the deaths of Gen. John Frazer, one of our former Presidents, and Prof. F. W. Bardwell, both active members, the academy has lost two ardent supporters, and the country two men of talent, culture and scientific reputation.

Resolved, That we tender to the families of our departed brothers our warmest sympathies in their great bereavement.

Twenty-five papers were read at this meeting. The nucleus for a library and museum was formed during the summer of 1878. Prof. B. F. Mudge gave a lecture upon "The Rocky Mountains and their Fossils;" Prof. D. H. Robinson upon "The Historical Value of Linguistic Study."

The Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Society was held at Topeka, November 6 and 7, 18779. The officers of the preceding year, and the members of the commissions were continued in office. Prof. B. F. Mudge gave a lecture upon the "Mound Builders of North America;" Prof. J. H. Canfield upon "The Relation of the State to Higher Education." Fifteen papers were read.

The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the society was held at Topeka, November 11, 12 and 13, 1880. The old officers were again elected, except a change in the office of President, J. T. Lovewell, of Topeka, having been chosen. The Commissioners for the ensuing year were as follows: Board of Curators - J. T. Lovewell, E. A. Popenoe, F. H. Snow, Orestes H. St. John. Anthropology - F. G. Adams, G. H. Failyer, J. D. Parker, A. H. Thompson, E. P. West. Astronomy and Mathematics - J. T. Lovewell, J. Lee Knight, H. S. S. Smith, ----- Miller. Botany - J. H. Carruth, E. N. Plant, B. B. Smyth. Chemistry - R. J. Brown, G. H. Failyer, J. T. Lovewell, G. E. Patrick, H. E. Sadler. Entomology - T. B. Ashton, E. A. Popenoe, F. H. Snow. Geology - Robert Gillham, Joseph Savage, O. H. St. John. Herpetology - F. W. Cragin, F. H. Snow, Miss Annie E. Mozley. Ichthyology - D. B. Long, F. H. Snow. Meteorology - G. H. Failyer, H. R. Hilton, J. T. Lovewell, J. D. Parker, F. H. Snow. Mineralogy - E. H. Chandler, George S. Chase, J. C. Cooper, G. H. Failyer, G. E. Patrick. Ornithology - C. P. Blachly, N. S. Goss, F. H. Snow. Philology - George T. Fairchild, D. H. Robinson, George M. Stearns. Physics - I. D. Graham, J. T. Lovewell, L. A. Thomas. George T. Fairchild, President of the State Agricultural College, gave a lecture on "Science in Every-day Life;" Prof. J. T. Lovewell, upon "Science in Schools." Thirty-two papers were read, ranging upon a great variety of interesting and important subjects.

The following preamble and resolutions relating to deceased members of the Academy of Science were adopted:

WHEREAS, The following members of this academy have been removed by death since our last annual meeting: Prof. Benjamin F. Mudge, of Manhattan, for many years State Geologist, and our honored President at the time of his death; Prof. William K. Kedzie, formerly occupying the Chair of Chemistry at the State Agricultural College, for several years Chemist to the State Board of Agriculture, and an active member of this academy, even after his removal to Oberlin College, Ohio; and George P. Cooper, of Topeka, an enthusiastic and promising young entomologist, well known to Eastern specialists as a successful collector of rare Western coleoptera; therefore

Resolved, That, by the death of these members, this academy has sustained an irreparable loss.

Resolved, That the sympathy of the members of this academy is hereby extended to the families of the deaceased (sic) in their great bereavement.

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be entered upon the minutes of this academy.

The Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the society was held November 9-11, 1881. The following named persons were elected officers for the current year:

President, J. T. Lovewell; Vice Presidents, Joseph Savage, J. H. Carruth; Treasurer, Robert J. Brown; Secretary, Edward A. Popenoe.

There was a great number of interesting papers read, and the prominent lectures were from Prof. George E. Patrick, on Chemistry in the Arts; Prof. E. M. Plank, of Independence, on "Botany popularly considered;" Prof. J. H. Carruth, on "Genesis and Geology."

In Memoriam. - Prof. L. A. Thomas, of Topeka, died November 11, and the following resolution was adopted:

Resolved, That the Kansas Academy of Science have heard with profound sorrow of the sudden death of Prof. Linnaeus A. Thomas, a member of this academy, well known and honored through the State, as well as an earnest student of science and a successful teacher of youth. We can only bow in humility at this visitation of Divine Providence, by which our beloved fellow-worker has been cut down in the midst of his usefulness, and we extended our sympathy to his stricken family.

The Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the society was held at Topeka November 17 and 18, 1882. The officers elected for the ensuing year were as follows: President, A. H. Thompson; Vice President, J. R. Mead, G. E. Patrick; Secretary, E. A. Popenoe; Treasurer, R. J. Brown.

Among the interesting papers read were these: "Coal Fields of Cherokee County, Kan.," by Erasmus Haworth, of Empire City; "Kansas Ethnography," by A. H. Thompson; "Observations on Comet B, 1882," by Maj. Henry Inman; "List of Lepidoptera Taken in Gallinas Canon," by Prof. F. H. Snow; "A Plea for our Little Birds," by Col. N. S. Goss.

[TOC] [part 26] [part 24] [Cutler's History]