KanColl: The Kansas  Historical Quarterlies




English Quakers Tour Kansas in 1858
From the Journal of Sarah Lindsey

edited by Sheldon Jackson

February, 1944(Vol. 13 No. 1), pages 36 to 52.
Transcribed by lhn;
digitized with permission of the Kansas State Historical Society.

I. INTRODUCTION

     THE first recorded visit of Friends to theterritory now comprising the state of Kansas was that of Henry Harvey, SimonHadley and Solomon Haddon in 1833. Their purpose was to investigate thepossibility of opening a mission among the Shawnee Indians in their new Westernhome. The mission was established in present Kansas, a short distance southwestof Westport Landing, in 1837. It operated until after the opening of Kansas forsettlement, closing permanently in 1870. [1]

     Quaker families began to enter the territoryfollowing the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act in 1854, the first ones comingto Dragoon creek and to the vicinities of Shawnee Friends Mission, Leavenworthand the present city of Osawatomie. They tended to settle in groups or colonies,of which Springdale (near Leavenworth), Spring Grove (near Osawatomie), andCottonwood (near Emporia) were the largest. Smaller settlements grew up near theShawnee Friends Mission and at Le Roy. By the end of the year 1857 about 200 had come to these settlements.

     The settlers early began to meet in privatehomes on each first day [2] morning, later adding fourth day morning services.The meetings were usually silent throughout, for no Friends minister had yetemigrated to Kansas territory. Interruptions to their routine were frequentduring the border-ruffian conflicts of 1855-1856 and the Friends doctrine of non-resistance received some severe trials. The danger at times became so great thatsome families would drive to the Shawnee Friends Mission for refuge, or crossinto Missouri, until the immediate threat was past.

     In March, 1858, these isolated groups weregreatly encouraged by the welcomed visit of two itinerant English ministers,Robert and Sarah Lindsey. Typical of the traveling ministers among Quakers

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of the nineteenth century, these were a source of strength to the society.Robert Lindsey [3] had begun his ministry in 1844, visiting Friends inneighboring communities to his home town in England. Two years later he informed his monthly meeting [4] of his "concern" [5] to visit the Friends meetings inIreland, for which service he was "liberated," and was absent from home threemonths. When he returned he found that Benjamin Seebohm was soon to make areligious visit to North America, whereupon they decided to make the journeytogether. In October, 1846, Lindsey and Seebohm sailed from Liverpool. Theextensive tour of Friends in North America which followed occupied four years andeight months. During this period, he wrote, they "traveled on the Americancontinent by land and by water 32,373 miles, two-thirds at least of that distancein our own private conveyance. . . . The rest . . . was performed by steamboat,railroad cars, [and] public stage." They "attended in that time 966 Meetings forWorship." [6] Kansas was not included in this tour, however, for it was not yetopened for settlement and the only Friends there were the missionaries at theShawnee Friends Mission.

     Hardly had the two returned to England in 1851 when Robert again felt called to go, this time to Australia, with Frederic Mackieas companion. In the course of this journey he was absent from home three andone-half years and traveled through New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa.

     After spending a year and a half at home, heagain felt it his duty to visit foreign lands. This time his wife accompaniedhim, and they were given a "minute" [7] to visit "all the isolated families ofFriends in the world." They set out in 1857 on this ambitious undertaking, andspent two years in visiting the United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia. It was inthe course of this journey that they visited the

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scattered settlements of Friends in Kansas, enduring "many privations andrough accommodations." They were in Kansas in Mare and April, in Iowa in Apriland May, and then on into the North and East. In June, 1859, they heft New Yorkfor California, going to the Isthmus of Panama by sea, crossing the Isthmus byrail, an continuing up the coast by boat. They spent considerable time o the Westcoast, preparing the way for the establishment of the first Friends meetings inthat area. Hawaii, Australia, Tasmania, and South Africa were also visited beforethey returned to England from this last journey in July, 1861. [8]

     Robert Lindsey kept a careful record in hisdiaries until the last journey, on which Mrs. Lindsey wrote the diary. The diaryitself is preserved in the Devonshire House Library in London. There is anexcellent manuscript copy of it in the Quaker collection of the Haverford CollegeLibrary, and it is from this manuscript copy that the selections were taken whichare here reproduced. [9]

     After landing at New Orleans, the couple had aneventful journey by river steamer up the Mississippi to St. Louis. The portion ofthe diary here printed begins with their departure from St. Louis March 17, 1858.Sarah Lindsey's account of the trip up the Missouri rive from St. Louis to KansasCity is an illustration of the vicissitude of traveling this most popular of theroutes into Kansas in those years. In their ten-mile trip from the landing atKansas City to the Shawnee Friends Mission they got their first taste of frontierhigh prices and speculation-a charge of five dollars for the last six miles.

     The Indians at the mission interested them,especially the severs. who attended the first day meeting. Leaving the mission onMarch 22, they set out for the Springdale settlement, about thirty miles north,with Caleb Harvey and his wife. The road was new to them all and they wererepeatedly host, so that it took them over fourteen hours to make the thirty-milejourney. They finally arrived at the house of Wm. Coffin, however, and held ameeting on the 24th in the meeting house with forty present. Benajah Hiatt hereoffered to convey them to the other settlements of Friends in Kansas in hiscovered wagon. Thus equipped they proceeded to Spring Grove, then across the highprairie to Le Roy and up the Neosho river to the Cottonwood settlement. ThomasStanley's residence (near the present town of Americus) and Henry Harvey's homeon Dragoon

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creek were stops on the way back to the mission. Having completed their tour,Sarah would have been glad to heave Kansas, but Robert had become increasinglyconcerned about a hack of unity between some of the members in the Cottonwood settlement. Returning to Emporia, they were able to relieve the situation in aconference. This completed their work in Kansas. They retraced their journey . tothe Friends mission and were driven to Kansas City by Caleb Harvey, having beenin the territory near four weeks.

     It is interesting to note the reactions of theseEnglish visitors to the rough frontier conditions. Having been used to thecomforts of their English home they were appalled by the inadequate housing, lackof furniture, and rough life in these settlements. This did not deter them fromthe object of their visit, however, and their ministry was a great blessing tothose pioneers who had just gone through the trying slavery controversies andwere enduring the pioneer hardships in their isolated homes. Benajah Hiatt statesthat their ministry was prophetic and inspiring, resulting in many conversions.He relates that most of the meetings were held in groves of trees, the entirecommunity, both Friends and others, coming to hear the English visitors. [10]

     Soon after the Lindseys' visit, permanentmeetings were established among these groups, and others sprang up as moresettlers came in. Kansas Quakers were granted a yearly meeting of their own in1872, with 2,620 members. Subsequent increase has made it one of the largeryearly meetings of America, with a membership of 8,610 and headquarters inWichita.

II. SARAH LINDSEY'S JOURNAL: MARCH 18-APRIL 19,1858

     18th 3 mo. [1858] Left St. Louis at 3 p. m.yesterday on our way to Kansas. Proceeded 125 miles by rail to Jefferson City,& from thence by steam boat up the Missouri river about 325 miles In usualcourse we should have arrived at Jefferson City at 9 o'clock the same evening, but after proceeding about 16 miles the trails stopped and the passengers wereinformed that there was an obstruction in the way, & we were desired to heavethe carriage and walk about 1/2 a mile over a hill thro' which there was atunnel. So taking our light luggage along with us we ascended the rugged &stony hill, partly through the mud where there was no road; and the descent wasvery steep. On regaining the railway we found ourselves at the further end of thetunnel where a quantity of rock & earth had

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fallen. The heavy luggage was carried over the hill on men's shoulders, and anumber of workmen were employed in removing the obstruction, but some of thestones were so large that they had to blaster them with gunpowder. We walked ashort distance to the next station where we waited several hours until the trainarrived from Jefferson City on its way to St. Louis, when the passengers left thetrain to walk over the hill as we had done, & we took their seats andproceeded on our way, but owing to the engine being behind, instead of at thefront of the train, we got along very slowly: and missed getting our afternoonmeal, except a little fruit pie at 11 p. m. After traveling all night about 4 a.m. we breakfasted at a small station and after proceeding a little further we metwith a second detention from another fall of earth. The line of railway runsclose by and parallel with the Missouri river, while high rocks, and almostperpendicular bluffs rise from the other side. From various detentions we lostabout 14 hours, and did not reach Jefferson City until 11 o'clock this morning.The steam boat was waiting for the train, and we were quickly on board, &sailing up the river. The scenery on our right hand is bold & rocky; on theleft the land is flat and mostly covered with a small growth of forest trees. Wehad an abundant supply of good & well cooked provisions set upon the tablewith much taste. The water of the Missouri is very muddy & yellow, yet it isused for all purposes on board the boats.

     20th. 3 mo. Yesterday we passed Miami &Brunswick, small villages: the day was oppressively hot but in the evening thewind arose, and we had a heavy storm, of thunder, lightning, & rain, duringwhich our boat was put close to the shore, where we remained several hours untilthe storm abated. Great care is required to steer clear of sandbanks, & greatnumbers of trees are washed from the shore and carried down by the stream untilthey become fixed in the sand, some with the roots downward and the trunkstanding above the surface of the water: and it is dangerous to get amongst thesnags as they are called. We see numbers of wild geese of dark plumage on thesand banks & along the shore; they rise & fly in the air, seeming toenjoy their unbounded liberty.

     21st. 3 mo. First day morning. At the FriendsMission for the Shawnese Indians in Kansas. About 5 o'clock yesterday afternoonwe arrived at Kansas City on the borders of the Missouri & Kansas states.This place has only been open for white settlers about 2 years, [11] but theFriends Mission has been established much longer

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and occupies many acres of rising ground. The City is rapidly increasing, andcontains many good stores & houses built of brick. We proceeded 4 miles by astage coach; but as the Mission was 6 miles further, & the sun near setting,we seemed obliged to pay the driver 5 dollars as the smallest sum he would convey us for. We soon crossed the boundary line & entered the state [territory] ofKansas, where prairie land opened before us-a deep black soil carpeted withgrass. On reaching the Mission we were kindly welcomed by the SuperintendantSimon Harvey, who with his wife & daughter; a young man Caleb Harvey &his wife-the former of whom has charge of the farm, a female teacher, & adomestic assistant forms their staff. During the winter 24 Indian children wereboarded & taught gratis, but owing to an epidemic only ten remain in theschool at present.

     23rd. 3 mo. Third day. On first day we attendedthe meeting which is held in the schoolroom when we had the company of several Indians who were civilized and well dressed; two of the men & one of thewives dined with us, the men spoke good English.

     During the late disturbances in Kansas two years ago, the Mission friends were threatened with disturbance from the pro slaveryparty: the school was discontinued for some time and the premises left in chargeof a man & his wife. [12] The friends were much discouraged on their returnto find things much out of order and no crops to meet the wants of the family,but their prospects have now brightened.

     We left Missouri [the Mission?] yesterdayaccompanied by C. Harvey & his wife to visit a settlement of friends onStrangers creek 11 miles S. W. of Levensworth City. Our conveyance was an openwagon: all of us being strangers to the road we had to make frequent inquiries.Crossed the Kansas river on a flat owned by a respectable Indian who was welldressed & spoke pretty good Eng

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lish: understanding that some of his children could read we gave him somesmall books. His dwelling was a good frame house, and he owned 800 acres of land,some of which he pointed out lying along the banks of the river. He seemed under discouragement, remarking "White men fight." On enquiry we found that about 2months ago one of his brothers found some white men cutting down timber upon hisland, & on going to expostulate with them, one of the party shot & killedhim. The murderer escaped, but some others were caught & imprisoned.

     The Kansas river is the boundary line betweenthe Kansas & Shawnee Indians. There are at present 850 of the former tribe& 900 of the latter. We are now on the Delaware lands which extend 40 milesin length & 10 in breadth. Passed a Mission [13] for the Indians, &traveled many miles of prairie land without seeing either man, beast, or house.The prairies are now covered with withered grass, which is burnt off in spring& we saw some on fire. In this state [territory] the Indians hold 200 acresof land each: i. e. if a man has a wife & 4 children the family have 1200acres but in general they only cultivate a little for their own support, and therest lies waste, making fine hunting grounds. [14]

     In crossing an unbroken prairie, several milesin extent, & not knowing which way to proceed, we came to a stand, and at a distance observed 3 Indians mounted on horseback coming towards us; on theiradvance the party seemed to consist of a man & his wife & 2 children; the woman had a yellow handkerchief bound round her temples, & a long yellowscarf round her neck, with a red blanket over her shoulders, enclosing a babeupon her knee: various ornaments hung from her saddle, and altogether she hadquite an imposing appearance. On one of the man's boots I observed a large spur,the stirrups were made of wood, & covered with leather which came up to theankle. The Indian was well dressed & tried to give us some information aboutour journey. After proceeding some miles we became uneasy, thinking we were goingin the wrong direction, and on coming to a cross road altered our track. Thereare numerous natural roads over the prairies, and we often see Indian trailswhere they ride on horseback two or 3 abreast, & the roads having been washedwith rain appear like deep furrows. At length we were cheered by the sight of ahouse, and a man directed

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us to Captain Wolfe's for information. Here we found good farm buildings, anda respectable looking family, apparently consisting of 3 generations. As we satwaiting in the carriage the captain, a fine looking man, came from the woodsaccompanied by several men with an ox team. The Indians are generally shy &retiring, some young women were peeping at us in the background, & findingthat some of them could read, we left books. We got some information respectingthe situation of the locality of our friends, but were still at a loss as to thepoint to aim at. After being on the road 14 hours, when within 4 miles of ourplace of destination we fouled a man who knew some of our friends and theirsettlement, so we hired him as guide to Strangers creek, which we forded & in a short time reached the house of Wm. Coffin, [15] which was only 30 miles from the Friends Mission. Wm. Coffin is a son of our worthy friend Elijah Coffin of Richmond, Indiana; he has been here 4 years & is still living in a small logcabin.

     4th. 3 mo. Fourth day. Had a meeting with the friends settled in the locality in a log building, used both as a meeting house& school room. [16] About 40 persons, including children, were present: theLord was mercifully pleased to own us, and my dear husband ministered to us,commencing with the text: "A man's life consisteth not in the abundance of thingswhich he possesseth ;" "Godliness with contentment is great gain." And thewatchword to some seemed to be, "If riches increase, set not your heart uponthem." Counsel & caution followed, and we had a favored time together.

     Dined at Benajah Hyatt's [Hiatt] whose wife isSarah Coffin's sister. In the evening rode a few miles to the habitation of HenryWorthington, a log cabin of one room 12 feet square. This friend who has a wife& 5 children came here from Philadelphia about 6 Mo. ago. They had been usedto the comforts & refinements of good society; but being unfortunate inbusiness, they had taken land come out here. We were much interested in seeingthem all trying

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to do what they could in their humble cot; a little corner was shielded offwhere we slept, the rest of the family sleeping in beds in the same room.

     26th. 8 mo. Yesterday morning H. W. drove us inhis ox team to the house of Thomas Newby, a distance of 6 miles a long &weary drive occupying about 3 hours, & we crossed several ravines. Found ourfriend, with his wife & 2 small children living in a rude log hut. We spent afew hours in social converse, and had a little spiritual refreshment to handthem. On our return called to see James Wilson & wife, an interesting youngcouple with whom we had an interesting opportunity. After a parting opportunitywith our host & his wife, accompanied by our truly kind friend, BenajahHiatt, we set out in a covered wagon to visit the other settlements of ourfriends in this state [territory]. The little company at Strangers creek sufferedmuch during the late disturbances; the pro-slavery party stopping supplies offood. When steamboats reached Leavenworth City from the free states, they wereoften plundered of their stores, & goods &c. sent back. And suppliescoming from the settlers were seized to feed the soldiers of the pro-slavery men,and altho' thus circumstanced, it was perilous to leave their homes. Some of thefamilies removed for a time, & several of their horses were stolen.Leavenworth City is erected on the banks of the Missouri river about 11 milesfrom our friends location on Stranger's creek. 3 years ago this site which hasbeen chosen for the city, was overgrown with high bushes, but now many goodwholesale & retail stores have been erected, and comfortable houses, with apopulation of 9,000 persons. The neighbouring settlers here find a ready marketfor their produce.

     Some of the first settlers in the country gaveonly 21/2 dollars pr. acre for their land which is well situated, with a goodsupply of timber & water. The bluffs abound with good stone; limestone isabundant; & there is plenty of wild fruit, consisting of gooseberries, plums,grapes, &c., &c. There is a constant stream of fresh air on the prairies,& the friends have wisely chosen sites for their cabins on the open groundinstead of amongst the trees & creeks in the valleys, where chill & feveroften prevail. But to proceed with our journey. Passing thro' the DelawareIndians reservation, we rode about 12 miles over the open prairie without passinga single house; the first we came to was a good new frame house belonging to anIndian chief, and was used as an hotel. Some of the best houses we see here aretwo stories high & belong to the Indians. They generally locate themselves onthe margin of rivers & creeks, beside

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the woods. As we rode along, the horses gave a sudden start & turned onone side; when the driver told us he had checked them on observing a rattlesnakein our path, coiled up & ready to strike. We all alighted, & on lookingback observed the reptile with head erect, but our driver soon killed him withhis whip & took the rattle from his tail. It is well that the rattle is setin motion & heard in time to avoid being struck by these venomous creatures.His color was a' light brown, and his length about 2 feet. There is a plantcalled the rattlesnake's master, which grows abundantly on the prairies which,when applied, takes the venom from the bite, hot stimulants being taken at thesame time.

     During the day we forded two rivers, the Ottawa,& Osage. As the day closed we came in sight of a house, & made our way toit, to ask for lodgings; but finding only a company of men, we were directed toanother house at some distance which we found to be a large cabin inhabited by a large family of respectable persons. Being told that they had other company & could only admit us on the condition of occupying beds upon the floor, we werediscouraged but as the next house was some miles further we tried to feelthankful that we had a shelter over our heads. Supper was prepared for us, and onwishing to retire, how thankful we were that without any contrivance of our own,my dear R. L. & self were shown to a good bed with curtains, the man &his wife occupied another bed in the same room; our friend had a bed laid uponthe floor, and the other inmates occupied a loft.

     28th 8 mo. First day. Yesterday we found theprairies more level with high bluffs, & stones were abundant, and we passednumerous creeks enriched by thick belts of trees. Part of our route lay over theOttawa Indian reservation, and as usual found them living on the banks of acreek. In general they are not fond of work, but like to hire white men to workfor them. They receive annuities from the government for land which has been soldwhich makes them feel independent, but some of them begin to copy from the whiteman & farm their land better.

     Made about 35 miles during the day, crossingMiddle creek, & the Pottawattnia [Pottawatomie]. We met with a kind welcomefrom Simon Jones & family who live near Osawattami [Osawatomie]. Elevenfamilies of friends are located around here, some of which are numerous; thereare 59 members including children. For sometime a meeting for worship has beenheld at one or another of their houses which is frequently attended by some oftheir neighbours.

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     This morning the meeting was held out of doors,and an awning put up to shelter us from the wind, planks were arranged for seats,and about 100 persons were present. The canopy of divine love was felt to spreadover us, and ability was afforded to preach the gospel of life & salvation.After meeting we dined at David Mendenalls, [17] and returned to S. Jones in theevening where we were most affectionately waited on by his children whosegreatest pleasure seemed to be anticipating our wants. This family removed herefrom N. Carolina 8 months ago; their farm consists of 160 acres for which theypaid 500 dollars. In the evening we had a meeting with the family which clearedthe way for our departure.

     30th 3 mo. Rode over flat prairies yesterday,bounded by long low bluffs. Passed thro' the town of Hyatt, which consists of twohouses. Some other houses & improved farms lay on our way. We rode 20 miles,and only passed one dwelling house. Crossed the Pottawattania creek at Greely, asmall town consisting of a few huts. Sometimes as far as the eye could reach wecould see neither house nor tree. Most of the creeks have high banks. but some ofthem are nearly dry at present, which is much to our advantage. In summernumerous buffaloes cross the plains & there are many wild deer, but we onlyobserved a solitary wolf at a distance.

     The natural roads over the prairies aregenerally very good, but some are rather indistinct, sometimes a furrow isploughed up to skew the track. It was nearly dark before we came in sight of ahouse, and found shelter under the roof of a settler named Pearson who we foundwas born a member of our society, but did not retain his membership. Two familiesof friends reside at Le Roy where we had a meeting the following day at the houseof R. Davis, who has a wife & one child. Their dwelling is made of rough logslaid one upon another without the interstices being closed; there is no windowbut an opening for a door, tho' it is only an opening, the floor is nature'scovering & very uneven from the projecting roots of trees: and there is arecess for a fire place, but no chimney. The furniture consists of two beds, twochairs, a few boxes, & mirror, &c., &c. A number of chairs werebrought from the neighbours and here in the midst of the woods 15 personsassembled for the purpose of divine worship. The Lord owned us in our solitarysituation, and counsel & encouragement to some present were given, prayer wasalso offered for their preservation.

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     Dinner was prepared for us at a neighbour'shouse after which we rode 15 miles to Hampden, part of the way lying along whatis called Neosia [Neosho river] bottoms, low wet land. On arriving at thevillage, we were received into the house of Perry Mills, who has a wife and alarge family.

     1st 4 mo. We have had a meeting in a schoolhouse, 26 persons present, and my R. L. addressed us from the text: "Allscripture is given by inspiration from God, and is profitable for reproof,correction, doctrine, &c."

     The frequent reading of these records wasencouraged, and the nature of true worship & prayer described, & thedifference shown between those prayers which were conceived in the heart andthose which were only uttered in a formal manner by the lips. Perry Millssuffered much during the late political disturbances, being twice taken prisonerwhile going about his lawful business. The ruffians made preparation & wereintending to hang him, had it not been for the interference of another man whoknew him. A considerable number of his cattle were taken away, besides provisions stores which were for sale. These things reduced their means very much. Theirhouse containing two rooms is a very humble dwelling, but we were lodged &treated with great hospitality. P. M. is a very energetic man, and we hope hewill soon be able to overcome his present depressing circumstances. Our nextstage was to Emporia, distant 35 miles. Part of the road was thro' fine richprairie land, passing the little town of Autumia [Ottumwa?] situated on risingground. The last ten miles was a flat lonely district and we only passed a singlehouse. Night closed upon us, and it appeared as if we should have to remain inthe carriage all night upon the open "plain, but at a distance at last werecheered by seeing a light which proved to be only a store. However we weredirected to a house at a little distance, but found it newly built & in avery unfinished condition, & the man said they were not prepared toaccommodate us; but we were admitted under the roof, and we found two roomswithout windows, and we had to sleep close by a large opening thro' which we hadabundance of damp air from the river close by the house; but by putting up ascreen we did not suffer from the exposure.

     Next morning we crossed the Neosha river andcame to Emporia, but found two of the friends houses locked up, and had to drive2 or 3 miles further before reaching two other families who were living n logcabins. One family consisted of a man & his wife and 8

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children, several of whom were grown up. A meeting was occasionally held inone of their houses; and arrangements were made for a meeting. On returning toEmporia we found a decent inn where we took up our quarters, and were glad tohave a little quiet; and esteemed it a great favor to having a lodging room toourselves.

     2nd 4 mo. Attended the appointed meeting atCurtis Hyatt's, Cottonwood creek on Neosia river where about 30 members of oursociety met us, including children; several of the neighbours were present &there seemed to be great openness in speaking of those things which apertain toour present & eternal welfare. At my dear husband's request the friendsremained after the meeting, when he had a more private opportunity of expressing his feelings of Christian interest on their behalf. It seemed that some of themwere but little known to each other.Dined at Andrew Henshaw's, where we met with Thomas Stanley [18] who gave usdirections to his house where we had fixed to go the following day. Havingendeavored to draw the scattered members of our society in these parts together,and my R. L. feeling his mind relieved, we have much enjoyed a leisure afternoon, spent in writing in our little private bedroom.

     4th 4 mo. First day. At Thomas Stanley's 8 miles from Emporia. This individual along with his wife & children are living in atemporary one roomed house the walls of which are of rough boards driven into theground. T. S. has interested himself a good deal about the Caw Indians, and isnow awaiting the decision, respecting the settlement of land to which this tribeof Indians are supposed to have a claim, but which is disputed by some of thewhite settlers. This tribe moves about, & lives in tents, being but partlycivilized, but they wish T. Stanley to open a mission for them. Our friends gaveus the best lodging their frail house afforded. The wind has been high during thenight.

     5th 4 mo. The night was cold & frosty, &owing to the numerous chinks in the walls & roof, it seemed likely that weshould suffer from such an unusual stream of fresh air, but we do not seem tohave taken cold from the exposure. Held a meeting in a new house where we had thecompany of the neighbours; the room was well filled & the Lord was nearstrengthening for service. Left after dinner, T. Stanley accompanying us, to acreek called 142, where we lodged. In the drive we ran over a rattlesnake &partly killed,

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our friends alighting to complete its destruction. Next day we proceeded toHenry Harvey's, who has been interested, and spent much time & labor onbehalf of the Indians. He lives on Drago[o]n creek, [19] but we were sorry tofind he was not at home, but were kindly cared for by his wife, a delicate woman, & his sons.

     The day has been very cold, windy, & wet,and we were glad to find a shelter, but sorry to see the family of such a selfsacrificing friend living in such an humble dwelling with so few of the comfortsof life.

     6th 4 mo. On the 6th rode 40 miles toBloomington, having had a meeting with the different branches of C. Harvey'sfamily the preceding evening. Lodged at Edwin Stokes' who had a birthright in oursociety & his brother is still a member. Called to see Shubal Sevain, who hadan accident lately & lost several fingers from his left hand; and he is nowconfined to bed with a broken leg. He has a wife & several children; we had a religious opportunity with the family. Had an appointed meeting in a schoolhouse. My dear husband had good service in the ministry, dwelling particularly onthe Atonement; the knee was afterwards bowed in prayer. At the close of themeeting a man arose, & requested leave to ask a few questions; but my R. L.replied that having fulfilled his mission he did not wish to be detained. We hadheard that some noted infidels were in the neighbourhood and he proved to be the leader amongst them. Altho' there are 25 friends settled around, they are not inthe practise of meeting together for Divine worship.

     16th 4 mo. Kansas City, Missouri. I trust ourvisit to Bloomington may have been useful to some who now seem resolved to beginthe reasonable and needful duty of holding religious meetings. Surely we requirethe pure mind stirring up, or we may get into the lukewarm & benumbedcondition. Great is the loss which some persons sustain by going into isolatedsituations where religion is at a low ebb. Taking leave of our kind friends, theStokes family, we forded the river, & drove about [20] miles partly thro' theShawnese reservation, to the house of Henry Wilson who has a wife & 4children. He had been in the employ of a respectable Indian named Charles Fish,but is now renting some land from him, & is living ina log cabin belonging to some of C. Fish's family.[8th 4 me.] On 5th day the 8thhad a meeting in our friends cabin where Levi Wood ward, wife & child came tomeet us. An Indian named Pascal Fish,

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with his wife & son also gave us their company. The Wing of DivineGoodness was felt to spread over us, and we had an interesting season, whereincounsel & close things were spoken to some present. Prayer was also offered.On separating the Indian seemed to regret that we had not taken up our quartersat his house, as he had room &c., and could have found food for ourselves,and corn for our horses: he requested that we would pray for them.

     The Indians were well dressed, & the manspoke good English. In the afternoon rode to the town of Lawrence. As we had nowvisited the different settlements of our friends in Kansas, we should have beenglad to leave the state [territory], but my dear R. L. did not feel his mindrelieved in regard to the friends in Emporia, between some of whom there was awant of unity, so we returned to that place, altho it caused us two days journey.Lodged at the house of Milton Chamness, after which there was a conferencebetween the parties referred to, which ended to satisfaction.

     We called to see Jonathan Wheeler's family; he has a wife & 8 children who reside in a one roomed cabin upon the openprairie. The house had no windows & but few of the comforts &conveniences of life within: the bare uneven ground was covered with a littlehay.

     16th 4 mo. Jonathan Wheeler's house was scantilyfurnished; round the sides of the house several trunks of trees enclosed looselay, which with cross timber, without bed stocks, formed several sleeping placesfor the night. A large box was used as a table, two or three chairs, &smaller boxes served for seats, a few open shelves held the crockery ware, and asmall cupboard contained their stock of books. But in the midst of this humbleabode contentment seemed to dwell, and a smile played upon many of the happyfaces around us. This family have taken up 160 acres of land and seem likely todo well. We had a meeting with them to satisfaction; many of us would think their lot a hard one, but we had cause to believe that the Son of Peace had taken upHis abode in some of their hearts.

JACKSON: QUAKERS TOUR KANSAS 51

     Dined with our young friends A. Henshaw & wife, then had a cold windy ride to Duck creek where we lodged. Next morning theground was covered with snow, and we had a stormy drive over the open prairie, 15miles of our route being through the Sac & Fox Indian reservation where wedid not see a single house, & only crossed two creeks. Dined at Burlingham[Burlingame?], and lodged at Henry Hyatt's at Twin Mounds, the place taking itsname from two oblong natural elevations which are seen from a distance &appear as if they lead been cast in a mold. H. Hyatt was once a member of oursociety. Here we met with a person named William Denton who is a noted infidel,and the individual who attended the meeting which my R. L. had at Bloomington. Heremoved to this country from Darlington about nine years ago; he was acquaintedwith the Pease's family. We could agree with a remark he made; that this countrysuited persons holding views similar to his own better than England.

     On leaving the house H. Hyatt refused to takemoney for our accommodations. Rode to Lawrence next morning where we parted fromour truly kind friend Benajah Hyatt who has been our driver & faithfulcompanion for nearly 3 weeks, during which time he has given us much information upon subjects relating to the recent disturbances in Kansas, some of which wereof a most tragical nature, being cold blooded murders & attrocities, such asare seldom heard of in this age of the world amongst civilized nations. We wereintending to proceed to the Friends Mission by public stage but all the seatswere engaged. A note had been sent to the hotel for my R. L. from L. N. Wood[Samuel N. Wood?], an entire stranger to us, but a descendant of friends, whohaving heard of our arrival invited us to his house to remain either a day, or amonth, as suited our convenience; so we spent the afternoon & lodged there,and his wife, a well educated & sensible woman, treated us kindly. L. N. Wood is a lawyer by profession & seems to be in easy circumstances. The family areliving in a temporary house, but a little snug bed was prepared for us in theloft, the ascent of which was by irregular boards some of which bent as we trodupon them. Took leave of our kind friends the following morning and went to theMission, a distance of 35 miles by public stage. For nearly two weeks there hasbeen a cloudy atmosphere but now the sun shines in the clear blue sky.

     Within the last week we have seen abundance ofwild plum & gooseberry trees in full blossom. The prairie chickens are like alittle speckled pullet, and very numerous, if we come near they take wing &fly a short distance. The larks build their nests upon the ground, & sing ashort sweet plaintive note; but in other respects are unlike our English birdsbearing that name. Spent fifth day with our friends at the Mission: the mid-weekmeeting was an interesting season wherein my dear husband had some service. Afriend named James Stanley20 who had just arrived in the state

52 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

[territory] along with wife & 3 children called in the evening. J. S. is ajoiner by trade and has come here with the prospects of stationing himself amongone of the Indian tribes to instruct them in manual labor & to endeavour toraise their condition in other respects. The poor Indians have been driven fromone place to another, until some of the Shawnese & other civilized tribes areintending to become citizens of the United States. Some of the natives havemarried white persons. In riding along we do not see many Indians & butseldom pass their habitations. They are generally shy & retiring; we saw twosquaws in Lawrence, one of whom was clad in a scarlet, & the other in ayellow dress, & blankets were thrown over their shoulders like a cloak.

     This morning, the 16th, 4 mo., we arose veryearly and taking a final leave of our friends at the Mission, were accompanied byC. Harvey who drove us to Kansas City in a wagon. The road was thronged withemigrants who were just entering the state [territory] : some in covered wagonshad been camping for the night, and having kindled a fire were preparingbreakfast. Others were walking with their bags & bundles. On approaching theriver we had the mortification to see the steamboat by which we expected toproceed, start from the shore & sail without us; not knowing when another ofthat class might be passing, we went to an inn where I spent some hours inposting up my journal, but being on the tiptoe of expectation we had anuncomfortable day. We retired to rest and got a few hours sleep; and at an earlyhour the following morning we heard the steam whistle, & before 6 a. m. wereon board the "Meteor." Much rain fell during the night accompanied by thunder& lightning. Our boat is rather small but a fast sailer; we have not manyfellow passengers. On first day morning we held our meeting in our cabin, rathera dull heavy season to myself; wherein I felt my own weakness & inability tohelp myself. It is not usual for the boats on the Missouri to run thro' the darknights: but our captain being desirous of reaching Jefferson City, ran until 8 P.M., when we struck upon a sand bank, and notwithstanding all the skill &ingenuity which the accident called forth we were not afloat until daylight nextmorning. Reached Jefferson City about 7 A. M. just in time to take the train toSt. Louis where we arrived in 6 hours.


Notes

1. This group of Shawnees had been moved in 1832-1833 from their Ohioreservation to a new location west and south of Kansas City. For a history of themission (located in the SW1/4 see. 7, T. 12, R. 25) see Hobbs, Wilson, "TheFriends' Establishment in Kansas Territory," in Kansas HistoricalCollections, v. VIII, pp. 250-271. This article also gives information onsome of the other early Friends settlements in Kansas.
2. Early Friends refused to use the names Sunday, Monday, etc., for the days ofthe week, because the names had been taken from pagan gods. They called the daysof the week by their numerals: First day, second day, etc. Similarly the monthswere designated as First month, second month, third month, etc.
3. Robert Lindsey was born at Gildersome, in Yorkshire, England, in 1801, the sonof a woolen cloth manufacturer. He learned the drapery business early and beganbusiness for himself when about twenty-four years old. In 1828 he married aQuaker girl, Sarah Crosland, of Bolton, in Lancashire. He was engaged in businessand was heard in ministry only occasionally until 1843 when the family inheriteda small fortune. Soon thereafter Robert Lindsey embarked on the first of his manytravels, Sarah accompanying him on the last one. He died in 1863 and Mrs. Lindseyin 1876.-Travels of Robert and Sarah Lindsey (London, Samuel Harris andCa., 1886), by Elizabeth Lindsey Galleway, a daughter. Although this bookcontains biographical information on the Lindseys and extracts from theirdiaries, it only briefly touches upon Mr. and Mrs. Lindsey's journey through theUnited States in 1858 when Kansas was visited.
4. A monthly meeting is the local business meeting in the organization ofFriends.
5. Friends placed great emphasis upon being "led by the Spirit." When the Spirit"moved" a minister to visit a distant meeting, he expressed this as his "concern"to visit said meeting.
6. Galleway, op. cit., pp. 49, 50.
7. When Friends ministers traveled in other localities they took with themcredentials Called "minutes," prepared by their local meetings.8. Galloway, op. cit., pp. 134-185.
9. From v. I (1857-'58), pp. 175-200, and v. II, pp. 3-9.
10. Letter of Benajah Hiatt to Herman Newman, n. d., in possession of HermanNewman, Newtown, Pa.
11. Kansas territory was opened for settlement in 1854 under the provisions ofthe Kansas-Nebraska act, signed by Pres. Franklin Pierce, May 30, 1854.
12. In the Minutes of Indiana Yearly Meeting for the year 1856 is recorded thisaccount of the affair:

The 20th of 8th month last [1856], . . a body of armed men, 18 in number, came tothe Establishment, took all the horses and saddles on the premises, and theSuperintendent going out, asked them to leave him one of the horses to send toobtain a physician for his wife, who was lying sick in the house, when thecaptain of the band gave utterance to profane and abusive language, andpresenting his gun at him, in that threatening attitude told him, this was only abeginning of what he might look for if he did not leave the place.
The Superintendent returning to the house, the commander told the hired man, whowas present on the occasion, that if he came out again he would shoot him. Theday previous a number of the Indian children had been taken away from the school by their parents, who gave as a reason, their fear that there would be an attackmade upon the Establishment. These facts, together with the reports of threatened violence toward the inmates, and the destruction of the buildings, induced ourSuperintendent to come to the conclusion that the present safety of himself andfamily, and the Friends employed there, required him Present and accordingly onthe 23rd of the 8th month last, they all left the Territory for the safety oftheir homes, returning to their homes in Indiana.
The premises were left in charge of a hired man by the name of John Denny, andhis wife, and we learn from late accounts received from him, that no furtheracts of violence have been committed.
13. Probably the Delaware Baptist mission and school operated by the Rev. John G.Pratt.
14. As early as 1854 treaties with certain Indian tribes permitted Indians undersome conditions, and if they so desired, to hold 200 acres of land each. Thestatement obviously does not apply, however, to every Indian then roaming withinthe boundaries of the territory.
15. William H. Coffin came to Kansas in 1854, settling near Leavenworth in 1855.An excellent account of his coming to Kansas and the establishment and growth ofthe Stranger (later called Springdale) settlement is found in KansasHistorical Collections, v. VII, pp. 322-361.
16, This school is described by V. K. Stanley, the first teacher, in TheKansas Educator, Hutchinson, February, 1905.
This primitive school house . was built of small oak logs. not hewn,cut from a grove nearby. The cracks were stopped with split pieces of timber,commonly called 'chinks' and mortar composed of mud and prairie grass roots. Thebuilding plastered in good shape for that day. It had one three-light and two,two-light windows, the glass being 8 x 10 inches. The flooring was rough and theroof was composed of three foot boards riven out of oak timber, on Stranger rivertwo miles east. The roof was held on by weight poles such as were commonly used in that day. The furniture consisted of seats made of slabs, with no backs, andfour pegs for the legs. Boards were fastened to the wall .near the windows wherethe pupils did their writing. The teacher's stool was a block sawed from the endof the log, about eighteen inches in diameter, and his desk nothing more than aboard, fifteen inches wide and three feet long, fastened to the wall in onecorner.
17. David Mendenhall and his brother, Richard, were the first Friends to settlein the Spring Grove neighborhood.
18. Thomas Stanley was a well-known Quaker missionary to the Indians. Havingserved three years (1842-1845) at the Shawnee Friends Mission, he moved among theKaw Indians in 1857 and carried on an independent work among them until they weremoved to Indian territory. Later he was active in the Friends work among theIndians in present Oklahoma.
19. For an account of the early settlement on Dragoon creek see Stephen JacksonSpear's "Reminiscences of the Early Settlement of Dragoon Creek, WabaunseeCounty," in Kansas Historical Collections, v. XIII, pp. 345-363. See,also, biographical sketch of Henry Harvey, ibid., p. 348, footnote.
20. James Stanley was a younger brother of Thomas Stanley, and was also amissionary to the Indians.

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