FOR several months previous to his tour of 1828 into what is now Kansas, Isaac McCoy had been preparing to leave the Baptist missionary station at Carey, Michigan,  which he had founded in 1822, and remove to a western field. McCoy had worked indefatigably for the betterment of conditions for the Indian, and his insistence upon the removal of the tribes from the influences of the whites had been a factor in the development of the Indian removal policy of the government. By 1828 this national policy was taking form and McCoy looked to the West as a field for greater service. He had not, however, been able to interest the Baptist mission board in establishing stations in the western territory, the attention of that body being given chiefly to missions in foreign lands. "We did not believe," wrote McCoy, "that they [the board] would grant us permission at that time, to go west, and we therefore did not ask it; for it would have been more painful to go contrary to direct orders, than to go without orders."  He resolved that no work should be undertaken at the cost of the board, but that he would follow the course that lay clear before him-the dedication of his remaining years to the assistance of the tribes in the western territory.
1829 found the McCoy family established at Fayette, Mo. From that point McCoy made a short tour into the country beyond the Missouri in the early autumn for the purpose of securing additional information about the lands. He spent the months from November, 1829, until June, 1830, in Washington, Boston, and other Eastern cities, working for the bill which would legalize the removal of the Indians to the country west of the Mississippi. The bill was approved May 28, 1830.
The apportionment of territory to the tribes was the next step in the removal program and McCoy was commissioned to survey lands which had been assigned by treaty to the Delawares. His appointment and instructions were received in a letter from Thomas L. McKenney, superintendent of Indian affairs:
Dear Sir: The conditional ratification of a supplementary treaty with the Delaware Indians, by the United States' Senate, requires that certain surveys shall be made. The conditions are stated in the accompanying copy of a resolution of the Senate, and the lines to be run are defined in the first paragraph of the treaty aforesaid,  and illustrated by a sketch which accompanies this No. 1.
The Secretary of War, by the authority of the President of the United States, refers the execution of this trust to you. No detailed instructions are necessary, since these are ample in the treaty and the resolution of the Senate which accompanies it. You will be governed by these; and in every particular. To aid you with a better view of the country, contiguous to that which is to be surveyed and marked by you, I enclose a copy (No. 2) of Mr. Langham's survey of the Kansas reservation. 
I am directed by the Secretary of War to say, that your compensation will be at the rate of five dollars a day, for the time that you may be actually engaged in the execution of this trust; that you will be aided by an assistant surveyor, to be chosen by yourself, whose compensation will be at the rate of three dollars a day, whilst actually engaged; and by a corporal's guard, which will be detailed to report to you from Cantonment Leavenworth. This guard will perform the duties of axemen, & c., and marking of the lines, and in aiding in the transportation of your supplies, & c., from place to place.
You will obtain of the Delawares a designation of their agent, for which the resolution of the Senate provides, whose support will be allowed him, or a daily compensation equivalent to it.
You will be careful, in all things, to conform to the provisions of the resolution of the Senate, in obtaining the certificate of the agent who may be appointed by the Delawares, and in transmitting the map of the surveys, & c., to the President of the United States, for his approval and signature, &c. You will be particular in making up your accounts, and these will embrace your own pay, at the rate mentioned, and your assistant, and the number of days the guard may be with you; as to each man, an extra allowance over the pay in the army will be made, at the rate of fifteen cents a day. The voucher will be your. own certificate that the whole is correct as stated.
You will engage in fulfilling this trust with as
little delay as possible.
I have, &c., &c.,
Thomas L. McKenney 
That part of McCoy's journal here published covers his tour to establish the Delaware boundaries. The first survey was that of the western line beginning three and one-half miles west of the center of present Topeka where the eastern boundary line of the reservation of the Kansas Indians crossed the Kansas river; thence north to the northeast corner of the northwest quarter of Section 3, Township 6, Range 15 in present Jackson county. A random line was then run southeast to the Missouri river at Cantonment Leavenworth and the military reservation boundaries established. The party returned to the northwest corner of the Delaware reservation and proceeded to establish the boundaries of the outlet, a strip ten miles wide extending 150 miles westward from the western boundary line.
Isaac McCoy's journal and other manuscripts cited are in the possession of the Kansas State Historical Society.
Memorandum-I actually commenced making preparations for surveying expedition July
19- Dr. McCoy  started to Fort Leavenworth,  and Delaware agency July 26.-
returned August, 7th. On his return I ascertained that the decision of the
commanding officer at the Fort was such that I must purchase and equip at least
five more horses.
My wife and child accompanied me six miles, where I took my leave of them.
We rode 13 miles, was able to get corn for our horses but -no
accomodations for ourselves, therefore slept without a house, and cooked our own
Shawanoes. Shane the Interpreter, who is a half-Indian, united in the request.
The Methodists have been talking of forming an establishment among them, but
their project seems not likely to succeed. They have done nothing yet.
I assured him that at his request a mission should be given them, and that I would enter immediately upon the work of bringing it about. Another man of influence said to me alone that he greatly desired a school that he might send his children, and that his brother might be allowed to send his. Another man, one of Fish's party was pointed out to me, who said that if a school could not be established here he would have to send his daughters into the settlements of the whites, which would occasion an expense which he could not well bear.
Cobern the express sent to the Delawares returned today, and with him the agent of their choice. He is an old man named Johnny Quick is second Chief in the tribe. The interpreter Co [nn] or is bearing the message of the Delaware council- he has not yet arrived.
Tuesday Aug. 24
In the afternoon of this day, J. Connor the Delaware interpreter arrived with the written communications of the Chiefs. The substance of which was that they had been in council on the subject of our surveying. Had chosen and sent as their agt. to see the land marked off-John Quick an aged and respectable Chief- They wished to remove on their lands in the course of two months. While we would be surveying their land, they requested that Maj. Campbell their Agent should be purchasing horses, and wagons, &c. to transport them to their new country before cold weather.
They required that the nature of the whole subject be again explained to their Commissioner, and in event of his being satisfied, he was to proceed.This was done to his satisfaction, and he cheerfully agreed to proceed. But stated that neither the nation nor he wished for him to go farther than to see the bounds of their tract generally marked that they cared not to see their out-let marked. They would be content without it. It would save the agent, who is old, from much fatigue, and would allow him to return in time to aid in removal to their new country.
Wednesday Aug. 25.
hungry. Maj. Campbell, & Mr. Shane and his son are with us accompanying us to
I had told old Plume that he understood it all, for he had last year showed me
where their line crossed the Kanza river.
Sunday Aug. 29
We remain in camp. Receive communications from home. Also a letter from Rev. S.
H. Cone, in which among other things he very kindly states that as it is probable
that we are in want of funds for the support of my family, I was at liberty to
draw on him for one-two-or three hundred Dollars. He does not say how, or when he
would expect to be remunerated. This is an act of kindness [and] generosity worth
recording, in our Journal, and on our hearts, and one that will be rewarded by
Heaven. I am thankful to the Lord for such a friend-and thankful that I am not
under the necessity of accepting the offer. True, we had not funds to fit out Mr.
Lykins,  and to bear his expenses, nor to leave for the use of my family, but
the Lord has given us friends, who have, and will let us have what we need on
credit in Fayette, until I realize the earnings of my present labours. Major
Dougherty spent most of the day at our camp.
A Maj. Davenport had succeeded to the command a day or two before our
arrival, and he perceived difficulties in everything.|
He first appeard unwilling to furnish any men to help me, said that my surveying company might be completed by my hiring men. That he could not send an escort, because if one were necessary, it would require more men than he had to spare-at least two companies. I stated to him the nature of the case, that a guard had from the first been deemed indispensable, and therefore the Secretary of War had ordered it. I returned to my camp, & wrote him an official notice that I was now engaged in the work and de-
sired him to furnish the men needed to complete my surveying company, and also
the necessary escort. When he discovered that I was disposed to proceed in a way
that would tell, he appeared more obliging. He said he expected some orders on
the subject from Genl. Atkinson,  near St. Louis, on Sunday. I also sent him
on Saturday evening, my Commission & instructions, and the ratification of
the treaty by the Senate &c. for his inspection.
I brought on the order to Clark from the Sec. War, and knowing that there
were many crooked sticks about St. Louis, I had the precaution to take a copy.
This I have used to effect with the agents above named. But Dougherty was absent
at the time my son was at the Garrison. He was then in St. Louis, was many days
in Clark's company, both at St. Louis, then at Du Chien, at a treaty, then again
at St. Louis. He asked Clark about it, but Clark gave him no information, and
intimated that he did not believe that the treaty had been ratified. After
Dougherty's return to the garrison, and his hearing that we were certainly going
to work, and knowing that the Pawnees were the only Indians from whom we need
fear any hostility, wrote to Clark, from whom he has not yet heard. Clark's
neglect of duty, and Atkinson's foolish & wicked orders, and Davenport's
childishness are partly unaccountable.
The neglect of Davenport I attribute to his naturally, disobliging
disposition, as he wished to be understood as treating me with politeness. The
unreasonable, and foolish opinion expressed by Atkinson, I attribute to the
influence of Clark. The neglect of duty on the part of Clark, I attribute in part
to his dislike of Dougherty, but chiefly because he dislikes Vashon,  and was
not pleased that Vashon had made a treaty with the Delawares, and more especially
because that treaty does not stipulate for the payment of certain claims of
traders against the Delawares. 
them on the subject of our surveying. This he deems necessary, notwithstanding
the interview I had with some of them the other day.
Pawnees, and the other to the Grand Pawnees on the great Platte -both to steal
horses. This increases the danger to us, of falling in with hostile Pawnees
following in after the Kanza thieves, and to avenge their thefts. We shall be in
danger of having our horses stolen at least, even while we are near to the Kanza
villages. The Company overtook us at night, & we encamped near Boon's.
mence our work, and not more than four or five miles from the place of our
beginning. Jo Jim, the Kanza interpreter whom we hired overtook, and joined our
company at camp.
the garrison, between the two Nemaha rivers, on the Missouri, about ten miles
wide and twenty miles long, which had been set apart at the late treaty for the
use and settlement of half-breeds. The land is to be held by them as other
Indians hold their lands, though the Prest. of the U. S. may grant to any one of
them a tract, not exceeding 640 acres, in fee simple. Maj. Dougherty thought that
some or all of the three thousand dollars mentioned above might be obtained to
aid an institution there (though I am of opinion that there has been a
contrivance among some whites to apply it to Johnson's School)  In conference
with him, he has assured me that he would do all in his power to promote such an
wish him to delay a tour up Missouri on which his business pressingly calls him,
to attend our interview with the Pawnees. I am gratified with Clark's attention
in this case, Dougherty appears to be very prompt and obliging.
Thursday Sep. 16
not find the garrison. I promised to send a man in with him on the following day.
He stayed with us.
to them, enjoining on them to be peaceable to the Delawares. John Quick made a
short speech to them, expressive of friendship &c. Dougherty gave them a
considerable amount of presents which was due them, consisting of powder, lead,
blankets, tobacco, &c. &c.
Maj. Dougherty. The chief difficulty was the Pawnee had understood that the
Delaware had invited him home with him. Whereas the Del. had only stated that
hereafter they should meet and talk more, and that if either should go to the
others place, he should be received with friendship, as also their people
Sunday Was informed that Maj. Campbell had gone higher up Sep. 26 Kanza river
(which turned out to be a mistake) Sent express to intercept him, and inform him
where we are. We remained in camp. In the evening Shane and Connor arrived.
Campbell is sick and cant come.
travelled much, but had never been treated with so much kindness by any as he had
by me, and our company. Wednesday We dined with Dr. Bryant  and attended to
We then went to examine a coal mine we had discovered a few days before, and
found it an extensive stratum in the bottom of Salt creek, a little within the
military reserve, and apparently very good.
additional men for the surveying company. When he found I insisted on these, and
he dare not refuse, he then insisted that I should go on a week, and then send
for them. I let him know that I was in immediate want of them.
Thursday Oct. 7
agreed with our calculations. I was much gratified with the accuracy of our work.
We encamped a little above the mound.
To the latter proposition they replied, that I had lately offered them a
school. They had deferred their answer until I should be returning from the tour.
But they had determined to accept of my offer.
Tuesday Oct. 19.
the great Platt. It is a limestone country. Hilly near the river. Hills much
washed, stony on sides, appearing white with the white limestone, sometimes of
clay appearance-vallies & level up land good.
Monday Oct. 25.
pears, but on reaching it, no timber is found more valuable than cotton wood and
Indian sign-yesterday & today-not fresh. Many old tracks of Elks, tracks of
one drove of Buffaloe. Crossed today three or four old paths leading to and from
the river. Neither of our interpreters can tell whether we are below or above
what is called the old Pani village, though both are half-Indians, and have
been in this country before. We know that we are below, but how far below we are
at a loss to judge. Killed many fat turkies within two or three days. I shot one
several guns last night and this morning to notify him where we were.
Thursday Nov. 4|
Saw two Buffaloes early-did not stop to look after them. Saw a village of prarie dogs. Saw antelopes. In the evening saw five Buffaloes-wounded two, but had not time to follow them. Travelling in a small part of the country which had not been burnt, we were stopped by the fire. We set fire in self-defence, but had barely time to get our horses on to the small place we had burned in time to escape disaster from the approaching fires. For a while we were surrounded by flame, tho. not near enough to injure us, and enveloped in smoke. Encamped on a water of Solomon.
Friday Nov. 5
Completed the line of the outlet to 150 miles, and stopped. For some days we have discovered that our horses were failing so fast, that we must soon return, or lose them all. We have therefore risen before day & made extraordinary efforts to accomplish as much as possible while the horses could live. We are sure that we ought not to proceed further, and hope to get our horses back. We are beyond all Indian villages, and 50 miles, or more, into the country of Bufaloes
Fired on a flock of Antelopes. Passed another Village of Prarie dogs. I fired on one, anxious to examine him, but he disappeared in his hole.
After we completed our survey, we turned on to a creek, and were looking for an encampment-the day calm & fair-when suddenly the atmosphere became darkened by a cloud of dust and ashes from the recently burnt Praries occasioned by a sudden wind from the north. It was not three minutes after I had first discovered its approach, before the sun was concealed, and the darkness so great, that I could not distinguish objects more than three or four times the length of my horse. The dust, sand, & ashes, were so dense that one appeared in danger of suffocation. The wind driving into ones eys seemed like destroying them.
I was more than a quarter of a mile from the pack-horses, with three men, only
one of whom was immediately with me, when the storm commenced. Had I not feared
that Calvin, with the horses and company, would continue to travel to reach me,
and lose himself, I should have sought a low place and concealed my face until
the storm had somewhat abated. I led on my horse, having the man who was with me
to whip him on, sought the bank of the creek on which I had left the horses and
proceeded on it until I reached them. Calvin had prudently halted in a low place,
and was waiting for the abatement of the storm. We had great difficulty in making
ourselves tolerably comfortable. One tent was prostrated after it was pitched.
Mine could scarcely be made to withstand the wind, by tieing to trees.
burnt-food miserable, yet better than we have had for a while. Passed some very
large encamping places of Indians some made the last summer, and others longer
ago. Many buffaloe sculs were placed together at one of them.
Wednesday Nov. 10
started, and these two had run after us (some three or four miles) to speak to
us, & to get a little tobacco. We gave them some, & left them. A horse
tired. Left two men to bring him on, who reached camp before dark. Encamped near
I left the Doctor to bring on the horses and company generally by way of the
garrison, where we have business, after he shall have rested and recruited the
horses two or three days, and Calvin & I set out by way of Shawanoe Agency,
taking two of the stronger of our horses. We had rain-no tent-fixed up a blanket,
which partially sheltered us. No grass for our horses-had corn brot. with us from
Major Campbell, the subagent-in whose house we were, and who is my particular
friend on this business, was transported with gladness that these two Chiefs had
so cordially agreed to have a school, &c. Fish, and others were known to be
friendly, and no unwillingness had been feared except from these two Chiefs.
Campbell gave them his hand, and a present. I must now look out for missionaries
& means, to build up affairs here, as soon as possible. May the Lord
1. For a brief history of the founding of Carey mission, see The Kansas Historical Quarterly, May, 1936. McCoy's journal entries covering his tour of 1828 may be found in the Quarterly for August, 1936.
2. McCoy, Isaac, History of Baptist Indian Missions (Washington, 1840), p. 871.
3. Paragraph 1, supplementary article ratified March, 1831, to the Delaware treaty concluded at St. Mary's, in the State of Ohio, on the 3d of October, 1818: "Whereas the foregoing treaty stipulates that the United States shall provide for the Delaware nation, a country to reside in, west of the Mississippi, as the permanent residence of their nation; and whereas the said Delaware nation, are now willing to remove, on the following conditions, from the country on James's fork of White river in the State of Missouri, to the country selected in the fork of the Kansas and Missouri river, as recommended by the government, for the permanent residence of the whole Delaware nation; it is hereby agreed upon by the parties, that the country in the fork of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, extending up the Kansas river, to the Kansas line, and up the Missouri river to Camp Leavenworth, and thence by a line drawn westwardly, eaving a space ten miles wide north of the Kansas boundary line, for an outlet; shall be conveyed and forever secured by the United States, to the said Delaware nation, as their permanent residence: And the United States hereby pledges the faith of the government to guarantee to the said Delaware nation forever, the quiet and peaceable possession and undisturbed enjoyment of the same, against the claims and assaults of all and every other people whatever. "--Treaties Between the United States of America and the Several Indian Tribes, 1778-1837 (Washington, 1837), p. 444.
4. See footnote No. 28.
5. "Indian Removal," 23d Cong., 1st sess., S. Doc. 512, v.2, p. 5.
6. Rice McCoy, eldest son of Isaac McCoy. In his History of Baptist Indian Missions (Washington, 1840), Isaac McCoy wrote, regarding his son's participation in the tour: "From the time of our reaching Fayette, my eldest son had been employed in the practice of medicine, and his prospects were flattering, but he cheerfully consented to gratify my desire to see him labouring in some manner in the Indian country, and took an appointment as assistant surveyor."-p. 404.
7. In March of 1827 Col. Henry Leavenworth was ordered by the War Department to select a site for a cantonment on the left bank of the Missouri river, near the mouth of the Little Platte river. Colonel Leavenworth, however, upon examination of the site suggested, did not find it favorable and chose instead a location on the right bank of the Missouri river. This choice was approved and the post was officially designated Cantonment Leavenworth by Department Order No. 56, of 1827. The primary purpose in stationing troops at this point was for protection of the rapidly increasing trade over the Santa Fe trail. Fort Leavenworth (official designation under Department Order No. 11 1832) figures prominently in the history of the West and the military history of the United States.
8. Near present Glasgow in Howard county, Missouri. The following notice appeared in Niles Register, v. 17 (1819-1820), p. 30: "Chariton, a new town somewhere in Missouri, containing about eighty houses, and several brick buildings are now erecting. A year ago there were only 'five or six unchined cabins' on the town plot."
9. William Clark, U. S. Indian superintendent at St. Louis.
10. The agency was located on the E. 1/2 of the S. E. 1/4 of Section 10, and the W. 1/2 of the S. W. 1/4 of Section 11, Township 12, Range 25, in present Johnson county, Kansas.
11. In his abstract of disbursements for the tour, McCoy gave the name of the express as J. Cohon.-"Indian Removals, 23d Cong., 1st sess., S. Doc. 512, v. 5, p. 229.
12. Shawnee medicine-man, Tenskwatawa, known as the Prophet, commander of the Indian forces at the battle of Tippecanoe He removed from Cape Girardeau county, Missouri, to the Shawnee reservation in present Kansas in 1828 and located a town known as Prophet Town in what is now Shawnee township, Wyandotte county. For an account of his death, November, 1837, see Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9, p. 164, footnote.
13. S. H. Cone, Baptist minister of New York, loyal friend and supporter of Isaac McCoy.
14. White Plume, Kansas Chief. See Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9, pp. 194-196. 15. Article 1 of the treaty made and concluded at St. Louis, Mo., June 3, 1825, between William Clark, superintendent of Indian Affairs, commissioner on te part of the United States, and representatives of the Kansas was as follows: "The Kanzas do hereby cede to the United States all the lands lying within the State of Missouri, to which the said nation have title or claim; and do further cede and relinquish, to the said United States all other lands which they now occupy, or to which they have title or claim, lying west of the said State of Missouri and within the following boundaries: Beginning at the entrance of the Kanzas river into the Missouri river; from thence north to the northwest corner of the State of Missouri; from thence westwardly to the Nodewa river, thirty miles from its entrance into the Missouri; from thence to the entrance of the Big emahaw river into the Missouri. and with that river to its source; from thence to the source of the Kanzas river, leaving the old village of the Pania Republic to the west; from thence, on the ridge dividing the waters of the Kanzas river from those of the Arkansas, to the western boundary of the State line of Missouri, and with that line, thirty miles, to te place of beginning." Article 2 provided for a reservation 30 miles in width on the Kansas river.-Treaties Between the United States of America and the Several Indtan Tribes, 1778-1837 (Washington, 1837), p. 334.
16. Missing from journal.
17. Maj. William Davenport, Sixth infantry.
18. Maj. John Dougherty received his appointment as Indian agent in January, 1827, and began his work at Cantonment Leavenworth in September of that year.
19. Johnston Lykins (1800-1876), son-in-law of Isaac McCoy, had been associated with him in missionary work in Indiana and Michigan and at this time was planning to continue his labors in the west. He founded the Shawnee Baptist mission in present Johnson county, Kansas, in 1831. The trip referred to was from Fayette, Mo., to Carey, Michigan, where he arrangd for the appraisal of the Baptist mission propety at that place, preparatory to the closing of the mission. 20. Maj. Bennet Riley (1787-1853) for whom Fort Riley, Kansas, was named. For a sketch of his life see Kansas Historical Collections, v. 12, p. 1, footnote.
21. Gen. Henry Atkinson, commanding the western army.
22. "War Department, Office Indian Affairs, June 5, 1830. Sir: The Rev. Isaac McCoy is charged by the executive with the duty of running and marking the lines called for by the treaty with the Delaware. You will instruct the agents who have charge of the Indians, owning the country over which Mr. McCoy will have occasion to travel, to inform them of Mr. McCoy's object; that be is under the protection of the United States, and to require their kind and friendly conduct towards him and his party. I have, & c & c. Thos. L. MCKENNEY. To General Wm. Clark, Superintendent Indian Affairs, & c."-"Indian Removals," 23d Cong., 1st sess., S. Doc. 512, v. 2, p. 8.
23. George Vashon, Indian agent for Cherokees West.
24. Treaty with the Delawares concluded September 24, 1829, ratified March 24, 1831. This was a supplemental article to the Delaware treaty concluded at St. Mary's, Ohio, October 3, 1818, and provided for the cession by the Delawares of all lands in the state of Missouri. George Vashon represented the United States at the treaty.
25. Stranger creek rises in the central portion of present Atchison county and flows in a southeasterly direction, emptying into the Kansas river at present Linwood, Leavenworth county. The stream was named O-keet-sha by the Kansas Indians, the word meaning stranger.
26. Daniel Morgan Boone, son of Daniel Boone, pioneer, was appointed farmer for the Kansas Indians in 1827 and located seven miles west of present Lawrence, on the north bank of the Kansas river, at the Kansas agency.
27. Now called the Delaware river. The stream flows in a southeasterly direction across present Jefferson county emptying into the Kansas river near present Perry.
28. "The first surveys in what is now the State of Kansas were made in 1826-7 by Maj. Angus L. Langham of St. Louis but previously from Chillicothe, Ohio. These were 1st the meanders of the Kansas river from its mouth to a point twenty leagues due west of the western boundary of Missouri as provided by the treaty of 1825 with the Kansas tribe as the east boundary of their reservation thence south about 13 miles to the S. E. corner thereof, then west two hundred miles marking the south line thereof. He passed the winter of 1826-7 on Soldier creek about four miles north of present Topeka and about three miles east [of] the Kaw village of the 'Fool Chief.' He had with him a small guard of infantry detailed from Fort Osage. Cantonment Leavenworth was not established as a military post until 1827. The name 'Soldier Creek' was adopted afterwards in honor of the flag that proudly waved over the Major's shanty and the warlike aspect of the camp . . . . -Letter, John C. McCoy to F. G. Adams, February 9, 1885.
29. Under the terms of the treaty of 1825 with the Choctaw, the sum of six thousand dollars was to be allowed the tribe annually for twenty years for the use of schools. A school for boys was established at Blue Springs, Scott county, Kentucky, under the management of the Baptist church and the sponsorship of Richard M. Johnson. The first students were received in the autumn of 1825. Boys from other tribes were also accepted and for a number of years the institution flourished, but by 1842 the Indians began to withdraw their boys on account of dissatisfaction with the results of the educational plan. Soon thereafter the school closed.
30. Missing from journal.
31. Grasshopper river, later known as the Delaware river, was also at this time called Sautrelle river.
32. "Cant: Leavenworth, 22d. Octr. 1830. To Genl. Wm: Clark, Supt. Ind: Affs. Sir, I have the honor to inform you that in obedience to a message that I sent to the Pawnee Republicans, about one hundred of that tribe consisting of their chiefs and head men assembled at this post, on the 24th ult. My object for calling a council of those Indians at this post,/ was to apprise them, that the Government had sent the Rev. Isaac McCoy to run the Delaware lines; and to point him out to them, and advise them how they should treat him, should they meet with him. This I conceived necessary as a precautionary measure, to guard against any difficulty which might possibly ensue, should they meet with his party, without any knowledge of its character. They made professions of friendship in general, and furthermore promised, that if they met with Mr McCoy they would treat him friendly; and also would advise their young men to do the same. They informed me that they met with our Santa Fe traders last summer on the Arkansas, smoked and talked with them friendly. They left here shortly after the Council for their village, apparently much gratified, well pleased with their visit. I thought it the more necessary that I should assemble and talk with the Pawnees, in regard to Mr. McCoy, as the Kanza Indians have recently committed a breach of the treaty of peace between them and the Pawnees, by stealing several horses, and taking one scalp; and supposing it not improbable that the Pawnees would endeavor to retaliate, in which cases their war parties in passing from the Republican to the Kansas village, might possibly fall in with the surveying party, and finding them not far distant from the Kansas village, might without being apprised of their cr chatter seriously interrupt them. After hearing of the conduct of the Kansas, I went to the Kansas Sub Agency; on finding Genl. M. G. Clark Sub Agent absent, I requested of the Kansas a return of the Pawnee horses, which they declined doing. I have not been informed that the Pawnees have made any attempt at retaliation.
Your Obt. Servt,
Joe. Dougherty, Ind. Agt."
-U. S. Indian Superintendency MSS., v. 6, pp. 58, 57.
33. "The treaty which had fixed the boundary of the Delaware country made no provision for reserving to the use of the United States the site of Fort Leavenworth, and to make the survey according to my instructions would have rendered the site ineligible. I therefore assumed the responsibility of making an arrangement with Quick, who acted in behalf of his people, by which a suitable tract was reserved for the use of te garrison. This measure was afterwards approved by the Secretary of War."-History of Baptist Indian Missions (Washington, 1840), by Isaac McCoy, p. 407.
"The McCoy party arrived at Cantonment Leavenworth in the fall of 1830. . . A feeling of uneasiness . soon became manifest, for very soon it was discovered that no provision had been made for reserving the land upon which the Cantonment stood. In fact, if Issac McCoy had followed his instructions literally, he would have included the Post in the Delaware reservation. However, upon his own initiative, he arranged a conference with the Post Commander, Major William Davenport of the 6th Infantry, and the Indian Commissioner, John Quic. Through arrangements with them, a survey of the land immediately surrounding the Cantonment was made and limits were established generally paralleling the present boundaries."--History of Fort Leavenworth, by Elvid Hunt (Fort Leavenworth, 1926), pp. 39-41.
34. Dr. T. S. Bryant, surgeon of Cantonment Leavenworth.
35. Salt creek flows in a northeasterly direction across present Kickapoo township, Leavenworth county, emptying into the Missouri river.
36. "At frequent intervals along Salt Creek I have found evidences of aboriginal encamp ments, showing that it was a favorite haunt of prehistoric man.
In the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter, section 10, township 8, range 22, is a natural basin of perhaps one-half acre in extent, which was evidently at one time either a largely marshy spring or a small lake. It is situated on the east bank of Salt Creek, just south of the /public highway leading to Fort Leavenworth. On the shores of this now dessicated depression have probably been found more aboriginal relics than at any other spot in Salt Creek valley. It was no doubt the site of a workshop connected with the old Kaw village [the lower of two Kansas villages on the Missouri river, both of which had disappeared when Lewis and Clark visited the region in 1804. On the high hill, along what is known as 'Sheridan's Drive,' overlooking this camp site and the whole valley, is a group of ancient mounds, one of which was opened by Mr. McCoy, the government surveyor, in 1830, being the first Indian mound ever explored in Kansas. . . A chain of prehistoric dwelling sites extends the whole length of the Valley, and mementoes of a vanished race are turned up by every plowshare."="Salt Creek Valley," by George J. Remsburg, Leavenworth Times, February 15, 1905.
37. See footnote No. 29.
38. Vermillion creek rises in present Nemaha county, flows across present Pottawatomie county and empties into the Kansas river near present Belvue.
39. The Big Blue river is the largest tributary of the Kansas river. It rises in present Hamilton county, Nebraska, and enters Kansas through present Marshall county; forms the boundary between present Riley and Pottawatomie counties and joins the Kansas at present Manhattan. One hundred miles of its entire length of 250 miles are in Kansas.
40. See "Ferries in Kansas, Part IV-Republican River," by George A. Root, the Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 3, pp. 240-248.
41. McCoy's reference is doubtless to the Pawnee Indian village thought to have been established in present Republic county, S. 3, T. 2, R. 5w. The surveying party was below this location. John C. McCoy, a member of the party, states in his article "Survey of Kansas Indian Lands," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 4, p. 305: "On the 29th of October we reached the Republican, one hundred and thirty-four miles from Cantonment Leavenworth. This stream was called by the Kansas Indians Pa-ne-ne-tan, or Pawnee river. The river was twelve chains wide where we reached it, at a point near the present town of Clifton, in Washington county. Crossing to the south side, our course took us past near the present site of the town of Concordia. The terminus of our line, one hundred and fifty miles west of the initial points, was in what are now the limits of Smith county, on the top of a ridge west of Oak creek, not many miles from the present town of Cawker City."
42. See "Ferries in Kansas, Part V-Solomon River," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 3, pp. 339-340.
43. McCoy probably intended to add a description of the salt spring but failed to do so and there is only a blank page in the Journal. However, he described it as follows in his History of Baptist Indian Missions, p. 411: "On the Solomon river, a middle branch of the Kauzau, is a salt spring, which is a great natural curiosity. About one hundred yards from the bank of the river, in an extensive level prairie, is a mound of stone, formed by a deep ravine which surrounds it; it is one hundred and seventy yards in circumference at its base, and it rises above the bottom of the ravine thirty feet, and is level on the top, with a diameter of one hundred and twenty feet. The ravine, on one side, is about forty yards wide, and on the other ten. The summit of the mound is about a foot and a half higher than the adjacent plain. No stone of any kind is seen in the vicinity of the place, except that which composes the mound, which appears to be a secondary, shelly, and porous limestone. The sides of the mound, being stone, form a striking contrast with the outer bank of the ravine, which is only earth. The salt water forms a stagnant pool in the centre of the mound, fifty-five feet in diameter, and rising to a perfect level with the summit, so that a wind from any quarter causes the water to run over the opposite side of the basin. About half-way up one side issues salt water, which runs off in a small rivulet into Solomon river. Along this rivulet, and generally on the sides of the mound, salt is chrystallized in such quantities that it might be collected for use. The pool on the top is deep. Solomon river is, by the Kauzaus, called Nepaholla-meaning, water on the hill-and derives its name from this fountain; but the fountain itself is by them called Ne Wôh'kôn'daga--that is, `Spirit water.' The Kansans, Pawnees, and other tribes, in passing by this spring, usually throw into it, as a kind of conjuring charm, some small article of value. Waconda, or Great Spirit Spring, is about two and one half miles southwest of present Cawker City in Mitchell county.
44. Chapman creek, flowing into the Smoky Hill river near present Chapman, Dickinson county.
45. Two Methodist missions were established in what is now Kansas in 1830. The Shawnee Methodist mission was located near present Turner, Wyandotte county. It was moved to present Johnson county in 1839. Thomas Johnson was the first missionary. His brother, William Johnson, was the first Methodist missionary to the Kansas Indians and evidence supports the theory that he began his work among them at the Kansas agency. Marston C. Clark, U. S. subagent at the Kansas agency wrote from that place to U. S. Indian Superintendent William Clark on November 21, 1830: ' . . . Mr. McAllister & Mr. Johnson and myself have selected a site for a school house (near the Agency. Those gentlemen say their school operations will commence at this place in a very short time. I am pleased with those gentlemen, and their views on the subject of teaching Indian children."-U. S. Indian Superintendency MSS., v. 6, pp. 78, 79.
46. There seems to have been a lack of agreement among the Indians themselves on the subject of the proposed mission; also a tendency to accept the proposal of the last one to solicit their consent. Richard Cummins, Indian agent, Delaware & Shawnee agency, wrote/ to U. S. Indian Superintendent William Clark on January 13, 1831:
"I have the satisfaction to state to you, that agreeable to your wishes expressive in a letter dated the 8th Nov. 1830, handed me by the Rev. Mr. McAllister do Thos. Johnson who were appointed to establish a school among the Shawnee Indians, that we have been able to get the consent of the Chiefs to establish a school among what is called Fish's or Jackson's band. The managers of the institution intend instructing the Indian children the arts of mechanism as well as that of literature. Mr. Johnson is at this time making arrangements, and I think shortly after the winter breaks will have the school in operation. I have great hope, that after this school is got into operation, the Indians within my Agency will not be so much opposed to complying with the wishes of the Government, in the arts of civilization."-U. S. Indian Superintendency MSS., v. 6, p. 96.