WITH the purchase of Louisiana by the United States in 1803, removal of eastern Indians to unoccupied territory became a feasible plan, but it was not until the election of Andrew Jackson that settlement of the tribes on lands west of the Mississippi river became established as a national policy. By this time several tribes had removed to the West under treaty arrangements; removal of those remaining was legalized by the act of Congress of 1830.
A step in the development of this program was an exploring expedition ordered in 1828 to permit certain tribes to examine the country west of the Mississippi and select locations. Isaac McCoy, Baptist missionary at Carey, Michigan, was appointed commissioner to accompany representatives of the tribes.  His appointment and instructions were contained in a letter from Thomas L. McKenney, superintendent of Indian trade:
Department of War,
Should it be found indispensable to use more than ten thousand Dollars, in paying the necessary expenses of the undertaking, Genl. Clark will arrange with you at St. Louis for the remainder of the appropriation by placing it within your reach, which, however it is expected will be so managed as to cover the cost of the agents, including your own pay, and which will be made equivalent, as far as that may be possible, to the nature and value of the services which you may render. The Chickasaws and Choctaws are notified to be off as soon as possible. You had better drop Genl. Clark, at St. Louis, a line saying when you will be there. Move quick. I amMcCoy's acceptance was as follows:
SirWith representatives of the Pottawatomie and Ottawa tribes McCoy set out for St. Louis on July 2, 1828. Upon arrival there it was found that delegations from the southern tribes would not reach the city for some time. Fearing that the entire project would have to be abandoned if it became necessary to postpone the starting date until late in the season, McCoy persuaded General Clark to authorize two tours, one for the Pottawatomie and Ottawa representatives who were already on the ground, and a later tour for the Creeks, Choctaws and Chickasaws should representatives of the two last named tribes arrive in time.
McCoy's journal here reproduced covers the journey from Michigan to St. Louis and the first tour with the northern Indians.4 A second tour was made, but the journal record is missing.
Following the journal entries are various statements of account,
provision lists and receipts, suggestive of the needs and costs of the expedition. Unless marked as original these documents are duplicates retained by McCoy for his own records and preserved with his correspondence.
At Camp, Shawaunukwuk, one of the Putawatomies who are to Wednesday, accompany me, went day before yesterday to see some July 2d. 1828 of his friends, and commenced drinking. Yesterday I sent twice after him, but could not get him home. This morning I sent for him early He came but had sold his shirt which we had given him a few days since, for whiskey, and had abused an outer garment which I had lent him.
At ten o'clock I made a short address to our company and set out on our journey to west of Mississippi. Our company consisted of, Naoquah Kozhuk, Gosa, & Wesauogana, Ottawas, and Magaukwok, & Shawaunukwuk, Puts. & Shadenoy, who is half Putawatomie far an interpreter. Several of the neighbors were present at our starting. My wife and child, and Mr. Bay accompanied us this day, and will spend the night with us, and return tomorrow. By the Secretary of War we are directed to proceed to St. Louis, & report to Genl. Clark, of whom we shall receive further instructions.
Wednesday July 3
Friday July 4
Saturday July 5
I may be back. The Putawatomies with me having seen the new country may be of service at this treaty. Mr. Reed, subagent at Carey has promised to write Gov. Cass to the same effect. I had hoped also that the agt. and subagt. A[lexande]r Wolcott and Mr. Doyle of this place, would also commend the same to the Governor but this they declined for reasons which they did not assign. I am of opinion that these gentlemen, tho' very friendly to me personally are unfriendly to the project of the removal of the Indians. Mr. Siliman the Governor's nephew, now on a commission to the Winabago & others, will do what he can for us in relation to the treaty.
Spent some time swiming our horses across Chicago river, and crossed our baggage in a very small Canoe, and encamped on the river Auplain, 12 miles from Chicago Fort, or Fort Dearbourn. Every day we pass Indians traveling or encamped. We are now near an encampment.
River Auplain  12 miles from Chicago. Sunday Jul. 6.
The measure of alocating the Indians in a country of their own under suitable provisions of our government, is the only one in which we can discover grounds to hope for their preservation. This measure is warmly opposed by many in authority. Zealous efforts on the part of a few worthy advocates, obtained for it a majority in the House of Representatives in Congress merely of ten votes. We have laboured more than five years on the subject, and do now rejoice to see that it has gained an ascendency over opposition, and, the more to be dreaded apathy of too many, even in the small degree which authorizes this expedition. Should some disaster, or some mismanagement occur-Should the Indians be dissatisfied with the country they shall see, the business might receive such a check that it could not be resusitated until too late for many almost expiring tribes! We are going to look [for] a home for a homeless people-a people who were once lords of all the Continent of America, and whose just claims have never been acknowledged by others, nor conveyed away by themselves. Half the United States say the
southern Indians shall not come north of the degree of 36-30 NT. latitude. Or in other words we are limited to the regions west of Arkansas territory, and Missouri State. Should the inhospitableness of that country deny them a place there, they will be left destitute unless mercy provides by means unseen to short sighted mortals.
I feel myself inadequate to these responsibilities. The particulars of this inadequacy need not be entered in my journal. But under a sense of dependence on God I have asked of Him the appointment which I now have received-and to Hinz I look for ability to perform its duties. To Him alone must be ascribed the Kingdom and the power and the Glory for ever Amen!
River Auplain Monday July 7
In the afternoon passed a singular hill rising about 40 feet in the level prarie, mentioned by Schoolcraft.  Encamped at the River Page.
Tuesday July 8
Thursday July 10
Friday July 11
We commonly set out at 6 oclock in the morning. Since we passed Chicago we have travelled about 14 miles of every 15 in Prarie. Since we left Illinois river Praries have been more extensive. To our left there is only now and then a small grove or streak of timber along water courses. We usually encamp in the open Prarie contiguous to wood for fuel. Dews fall heavy on us. Where there is no fear of rain I merely pitch my musquito bar, this morning it was so wet that water could be wrung out of it.
We dined in a Prarie where no fuel could be obtained within a long distance except pieces of a Broken bridge of which we availed ourselves of as much as cooked our dinner encamped on a branch of Sangamo[n].
Saturday July 12
Sunday July 13
The difficulties attendant on such tours as this seem small while in tolerable health compared with the magnitude to which they swell in sickness. The parting with my dear wife and babe after they had accompanied us one day & night, was rendered doubly hard by the circumstance of my being so sick as to be scarcely able to sit on my horse at the time of our adieus. My poor wife had mounted her horse-and waited to see me seated on mine then rode off without once looking back.
Monday July 14
breakfast. My health more comfortable. Two men out looking for deer.
Tuesday July 15.
Wednesday July 16
The Southern deputations of Indians have not yet arrived. Some preparations are making for the tour, and it is thought we may leave this by the 27th and return in the course of 50 or 60 days.
Cap. Kennedy appears to be a pleasant man. He has lately resigned an Indian Agency up the Missouri. He is well acquainted with the Country & people we expect to visit. He was spoken of by the Department of war as suitable for our leader, at the same time an opinion was expressed by the Department that he would likely not accept the appointment, and in that case Genl. Clark to whom the trust of appointing was confided was to appoint another person. But he has accepted, and I trust will do well.
In the evening we brought our horses into town to have them fed, and I took lodgings at the City Hotel. The company sleep in their tents tonight.
Thursday July 17
Friday July 18
currred. These were sober. Chandonois & the others kept away in order to get sober and through the day, came to their lodgings and lay down. They had not been much drunk, except Chandonois who came in the evening much intoxicated Mr. Forsythe saw him and as he was taking him up stairs to their lodgings, Chandonois fell and wounded his face. About that time I went into the room. He was becoming noisy as a drunken Indian, when I took hold on him and told him to lay down & become quiet which he did. I was much mortified at this circumstance.
Dined at Genl. Clark's in company of Col. Menard going on to treaties at Green Bay & Carey.
Saturday July 19
Sunday July 20
Monday July 20 
Tuesday 21 
Wednesday July 23
On arriving in town I communicated this inteligence to Cap. Kennedy and Genl. Clark, both of whom approved of the arrangement, though about four of the horses they suppose will be needed in town and will not be sent out. Thursday July 24
I took our company of Indians and our horses and rode out into the country ten miles, to Mr. Brown's where I had procured quarters. Cap. Kennedy has promised to send out ten of the other horses today, keeping four in town for other uses.
Friday July 28
Saturday July 26
While in St. Louis Wesauogana met with a cousin of his, a girl of about 11 years of age, whose parents were dead, and she had fallen into the hand of some poor Sauks. The child wept and begged him to help her. The people whom she was following also desired to get rid of her. On being informed of this and asked by Wesauogana if I would do any thing for her, I obtained the consent of Mrs. Brown to take her in here. Weasauogana and Gosa went into St. Louis today, reached the camp of the Sauks a little before they left the place. And brot. her hither. The child is very sick of a fever. Wesauogana put her on his horse, and led him, but it would have been with difficulty she could have reached this, had not young Mr. Brown, who was returning in a Dearbourne, kindly taken her into his carriage. I have hired Mr. Brown's to take care of her until we return from our tour to the west, when we design to take her with us to one of our schools.
Rode three miles to a Baptist meeting house, heard sermon and preached myself from Prov. 1. 32, 33.
Sunday 27 July
Friday Aug. 1
Worked faithfully on my map.
Saturday Aug. 2
Monday Aug. 4 Received a letter from my Son Rice in Kentucky, containinging the very satisfactory inteligence that my daughter Sarah at School in Cincinnati with a younger sister, herself about 13 years of age, had lately been Baptized by Rev. Vardeman of Kentucky. This little girl is the first of my children which has made public profession of religion. I cannot conceive of any other kind of inteligence that I could have received that would have afforded equal satisfaction, or equally conferred on me a sense [of] gratitude to God. The circumstance seems to have inspired new hopes in relation to my other dear children, and increased fervour to prayers in their behalf. The necessity of having our children scattered, not among relatives & particular friends, but as I may say, among strangers, has given their good mother and me much uneasiness. But hitherto the Lord has been very merciful to us in relation to our children.
Tuesday Aug. 5
I was in bed before they arrived, and on hearing a noise went into the Indians'
apartment to quiet the drunkard. He obeyed me in undressing and laying down, but
as soon as he supposed I had left the room he would again begin his noise, and it
was with difficulty that a young man could hold him. I at length with the
assistance of the young Indian tied his hands and feet, and left him to loosen
him when he would become quiet. They lost a few articles they had bot. in St.
This day I completed my map of the country proposed for Indian territory. It is 2 feet 7 inches by about 3 feet.
Cap. Kennerly sent me a letter he had received from the man sent to the Southern Indians. Information he had received on the way was calculated to cause fears that those Indians would not come at all. The man himself may be back in a few days.
Friday Aug. 8
Monday- Tuesday- Wednesday 13
Thursday Aug. 14.
Thankful for a letter from my Son at Carey, 16 days after I left home, and that all were well.
I called on Col. Benton,  a Senator, and Chairman of the Committee on Indian affairs, whose aid was last winter solicited and afforded in support of the exploring bill.
Friday & Saturday
This evening I received a letter from Cap. Kennerly saying the man whom we had sent to inquire the cause of delay of the Chickesaws, & Choctaws, returned on Saturday, with a letter from Colbert, Principal Chief of the Chickesaws, saying that they and the Choctaws had decided not to go on the exploring expedition until next March. The reasons assigned by him for this conclusion were, it had become so late in the season that cold weather wo [ul] d overtake them, and there would be no grass for horses, it would be severe on the men, and the ground would be covered with snow so that, its quality could not be determined. They said that they had received no orders to march from the war Department, and knew nothing of the time to go, &c. until our express arrived.
Blake who came in the other day with the Creeks, saw the Agent & Subagent of the Chickasaws, on his way. He said they were at variance with each other on the subject.
It is hardly possible that the Sec. War has omitted to give them notice of the time to start-more probable that he wrote orders to the Agent, who is the proper medium and that he, unwilling that the Indians should go, and ultimately remove, and he would lose his salary of $1600 pr. annum, had never informed the Indians.
Monday August 18
I could not approve the course because I did not believe Blake would succeed. If he should, it would be six weeks before he could return, during all that time all who were already here must lay by at great expense and much trouble to some of us on account of the disposition of the Indians to drink. Should Blake not bring the Indians, it would then be too late for our Indians to make the tourTherefore after all the expense of this summer's work nothing would be done, and the Indians who had come this far would return to their homes disappointed and displeased.
I thought that those of us who had already arrived had better proceed, then the business so far as related to them would be done, and let the others make the tour next Spring as they proposed. To going next spring all seemed opposed. They said the flies, high waters, and mires would render it almost impracticable. I plead that I travelled in the wilderness at all seasons. And if they set out next Spring, they would have time to extend the rout[e] as far as they pleased, whereas to go late this fall, their time would be limitted by the approach of winter.
However, when I saw their determination to send again for those Indians, I proposed proceeding on a tour of six weeks, the time they supposed it would require to bring those from the south, with our five Indian:. If on my return I met the Southern deputations, send home our Puawatomies, and Ottawas, and I would turn about and make a second tour. If this could not be allowed, I thought our Indians had better go home now. It would cost less for us to make this tour now, and then discharge our Indians, than to lay by here six weeks and then make the tour.
This course was approved by Genl. Clark & Cap. Kennerly, but a difficulty arose out of the circumstance of the Sec. of War having directed that none should move until the Chickasaws arrived. On this account neither Genl. Clark nor Cap. Kennerly will assume the responsibility of giving me direct instructions to go. I therefore take upon myself the entire responsibility of this measure.
Dr. Todson  also pleads that he cannot go without order to that effect given in direct terms.
I shall hire two young men to assist, and take in an interpreter about 250 miles from this. I sent out to have 12 horses brought in for shoeing, while I remain in town to prepare for the expedition.
Mr. Blake started in a steam boat this afternoon. His three Creeks & interpreter have gone out to spend the six weeks at our place in the country.
St. Louis August 19
Wednesday Aug. 20.
preparing to start- Genl. Clark sent me the following instructions, for which I am very thankful. Cap Kennerly also has given me a number of introductory letters to persons on the frontiers.
Superintendency of Indian Affairs1828 Thursday 21 August 21
Interpreter, five Indians and two hired white men in all 9. We have 12 horses, one of which is to place an interpreter &, guide on, whom we expect to take from Harmony mission Station. We are all armed with guns, and besides I have a brace of horse pistols. We proceeded 14 miles & spent the night at Fishwaters'. The men lodged in their tents, but I lodged in the house.
Friday Aug. 21.
Saturday August 23
We stopped in a little village-Union, obtained breakfast and a feed for our horses. Nooned in the woods- In the afternoon met a man in the wilderness going 13 miles to mill, & prevailed on him to let us have about one bushel of corn for which I gave him 75 cts. This was all the grain we had for our horses at camp at night.
Sunday Aug. 24
After breakfast, and the morning Service I laid down to rest & fell asleep, In the course of an hour & a half I arose and discovered that my beast was absent from the company. I immediately sent a young man on horseback in pursuit of her. He instead of pursueing the road we had come, listened to an idle story of the woman of the house and went in search of the beast in a direction of all the others the least promising. I had but just started this man when I mounted a horse myself and taking Chandonois, went in pursuit. The man at the house had that moment returned from the rout[e] the beast went-said two travellers had stopped at the farther side of a prarie a mile distant, to feed their horses- They had told him that the beast had passed them, but the man who had come along the road had not met her. We proceeded in a gallop and passed the men before they had set off. They told me the beat had not been gone more than 15 minutes, & that she went. directly along the road. We galloped on, believing she would stop where we had encamped the night before, and had fed the horses on the ground.
But she had not passed that way, we returned and kept three or four persons searching for her till dark Beleiving that the two men who had seen her had caught her and concealed her in the wood.. We thought so because, they stopped at an undesirable place 20 graze or feed-no traveller acquainted with the road as they were, would have stopped there-because they could see a long distance back if any one was persueing the beast, because it was not likely that the beast would so soon have left theirs especially as they were feeding, ours being hungry for grain-because she would not likely have left the road. We suspected the man near whose house we had stopped for having a hand in it, and we set three men to watch his house. They watched until some time in the night thinking he might go out in the night to convey the beast further off. But they
made no discoveries. Those two men whom we had suspected had but two horses, yet our men discovered three places where horses had been fed, hence we inferred that one place was where they had caught our beast.
I scolded some about the carelessness of the men while I was asleep.
Monday August 25 1828
We nooned at the usual hour, and sleep I know not where.
Tuesday Aug. 26.
Wednesday Aug. 27
Thursday Aug. 28
Our Indians have daily tried to take some game but the grass and bushes are so high and thick that they had taken nothing larger than one turkey-Until dark this evening, Gosa brought in a young bear, and reported that he had wounded the dam. This circumstance has raised the Spirits of them all.
Friday Aug. 29.
On leaving our camp Noonday carefully covered the feet & some other pieces of the bears that were left, with brushes at the root of a
tree. When I asked the reason for this Chandonois answered it was the Indian fashion-that the bear in the symetry of its person so much resembled a human being that they were deemed a species of man, and on this account it was becoming in us to bury the remains of such as we killed.
Yesterday we met in the wilderness a fair delicate looking youth in Shirt and panteloons, hat and moccasins. I made some inquiries respecting the way, and he did the same of me. At one o'clock today we reached a house on Osage river & learnt that the youth was a female who lived five miles below, who had taken it into her head, without letting the cause be known, to escape from her father's house in this disguise. Her parents were absent. Her friends had searched for her, particularly in the river supposing she had killed herself- They at length noticed that some of her brothers' clothes were missing, and thought they had discovered her track. Their first inteligence of her was received from us. She had told me she was going to Gasconade. She had 25 miles to walk to the 1st house and about the same distance to the next.
Soon after leaving St. Louis we fell into a poor hill country exceedingly stony. The stones in the road remarkably severe on our horses feet-They are all square & pointed. They diminish in size from the very large rocks down to those of the size of a pea, and all the smaller resemble stone broken by the hammer for making a turnpike-none assume a globular form. They are generally white flint. Among these sterile hills a few people are scattered, most of whom seem to have taken pains to settle remote from every body else. It is not surprising that such inhabitants should be less moral & refined than in many other countries, and that among them a female could undertake an exploit which would scarcely be ventured upon by her sex elsewhere.
We crossed Osage river at 12 o'clock, nooned on travois Creek & ascended and encamped on the same.
Saturday Aug. 30.
and re-crossed at Jefferson City we should have had a settled country all the way except about [blank in MS.] miles of the road we are now on. Today we left the poor hilly country and have entered a beautiful, rolling, healthy looking region, delightfully varied with praries & wood-lands. We nooned at a creek, and encamped a little before night on account of water. Our hunters killed two turkies and a squirril, and wounded two deer neither of the latter was found.
Sunday Aug. 31
Monday Sep. 1.
At this place we had expected to furnish ourselves with supplies for 30 days. But such is the state of things that to our grief, we are told that we can obtain of flour no more than 30 pounds. The only alternative appears to be parched corn. I have stated the case to our company, and all declare their willingness to encounter the journey, and be satisfied with the fare. And say the flour shall be saved for me, while they will live on corn.
Wednesday Sep. 3 1828.
another old Osage. He said he had not expected to go the rout[e] I vas taking-that he was not well acquainted with the country. I at length consented to take the other old man. I inquired where his horse was, when Mograin pointed to the old man's legs and said there was his horse, one he had used many years. Our tent is pitched about half a mile from the mission on account of grass. Attended a prayer with the missionaries having breakfasted & dined with Mr. & Mrs. Austin-& drank tea with Mrs. Jones.
Thursday Sep. 4
To our joy we obtained 69 pounds of flour instead of 30, & 100 lb. corn meal-this with our corn we hope will be such as we can do with tolerably well. We procured pork, & salt, but no sugar-we have partly a supply of our old stock. From this place I have, in obedience to instruction, written to Genl. Clark- Wrote also to Mr. Bolles & to my wife- I have been exceedingly hurried since I arrived here. Am much fatigued, and some distressed for want of sleep.
About 9 oclock we set off-our company now consisting of 11 persons-with 13 horses & Mograin's dog. Our old Osage had agreed to walk. He had Deerskin Moccasins and leggings, and the usual sloth, but was destitute of shirt, or any covering for head or body above the loins. Even hair on his head was scarce. He carried an old gun which I had had repaired for him, a horn and pouch & an additional pair of moccasins. His blanket, which was a mere rag, was thrown across his shoulder under his gun. A small bag that would contain a pint containing his smoking apparatus, was hitched under the belt of his cloth. Thus this almost naked old man of 60 set out on a six week's tour. We steered a little north of west, and soon were without any road.
The weather which had been very hot since we left St. Louis, became cool on Sunday night. on Monday it was almost disagreeably cold in the praries. Tuesday night and Wednesday night there fell white frosts which has killed the vegetation considerably.
The season has been so exceedingly dry in this country that vegetation has become so dried that we can see the praries burning in two or three directions at the same time.
About noon we passed two Osage women, a girl, 2 boys, & two infants They had three small horses, on one was seated a naked
child of a year and a half old, and led by the mother. On another was seated the girl-and on the third, a mother naked above the loins, & scarcely covered any where, and carrying in her arms a naked infant. the hairs of all hung loosely. The above description approaches near enough to that of the others. The boys were naked -one carried an old gun, & the other a bow. These wretched people were going in search of roots. In our Lake country the men & children are commonly naked in summer, but the females wear shirts. Most of the Osage women I have seen have been destitute of shirt.
We did not stop until evening when we encamped on the Miry DeSeinor Miry Swan riverl5-which is the main branch of Osage river. A sluggish, muddy stream, though we are encamped on a limestone bank, & at a pretty ripple.
We have now left the State of Missouri, & entered the Territories west. It therefore becomes my duty to describe the country through which we pass. So far it is a beautiful rolling prarie country, happily diversified with streaks of woodlands. Limestone appears on the sides of hills, and in the rivulets.
This evening I was attacked with Dysentery. But had been so much fatigued with my two past day's labour, that when I could obtain a moment's rest, I slept soundly. At 3 oclock in the morning took a potion of Rheubarb & Magnesia.
Friday Sep 5.
this river appears to be about a mile in width, & that along each large creek half a mile- On smaller branches less-and consisting chiefly of oak & hickory, with sometimes walnut & ash &c. The prarie bottom lands are usually covered with a beautiful grass for hay-but we seldom find a quagmire. We ascended a high natural naked mound from which we saw the country on both sides up the river stocked with timber sufficient for support of a tolerably dense population.
The nature of the soil of the praries may be compared with those on the Illinois river, and generally in the western parts of Illinois State. On the uplands, hills rise up to considerable hight, round, oblong, &c. &c. exhibiting a singular appearance, because each seems to dwell alone, and because in general they are destitute of timber. These hills are peaks of Stone, which appear on the sides-not in large masses, and sometimes on their summits.
Deer are plenty. Yesterday our men had several shoots, as they rose and run before us, but took nothing except a squirril killed for me. Today Chandonois had killed a goose & a turkey before we encamped.
Saturday Sep 6.
stretching out on to the hills. The hills more abrupt on the sides, from their tops spread out a beautiful rolling country. Slopes that wash, steep side hills, and all water courses, disclose a bed of limestone. The stone in appearance may be compared with the condition of limestone in the limestone lands of the middle counties of Kentucky. The soil is almost universally rich-darker than the timbered rich lands of Ky. and possesses the mellowness peculiar to limestone lands. The river, and Creeks here, though still too sluggish, are stony, and more clear than below. Springs we have seen none, along the river & creeks are fertile bottoms of timbered lands, covered with oak, ash, hackberry, walnut, hickory, honey locust &c. &c. But these bottoms in too many instances are subject to inundation.
Sunday Sep. 7 1828
The river here passes about as much water only as would move a common grist mill. In most of the large creeks the water has been merely standing, and all the smaller branches are entirely dry. We have not seen a single spring of water.
Monday Sep. 8
and found the river in less than half a mile. Here the discharge of water is not quite sufficient. at this time for a grist mill. It is a large creek in the Spring season. Its waters have assumed a wholesome appearance- Its bed, as also all those of the Creeks & rivulets, is limestone.
Timber today has been rather more plenty than heretofore, and we have passed over the same fertile, rolling, limestone kind of country that we did on Saturday last. My health much improved.
Tuesday Sep. 9
Wednesday Sep. 10.
Thursday Sep. 11
I took Chandonois and early went forth to look for the Santa Fee road, which we found at the distance of about three miles. We left camp at half past 9, In the course ofabout three miles crossed the stream marked on the map as the river, proceedednorth west several miles and crossed the main stream, and proceeded west up the river on the south side and encamped at 5. We have crossed many small streams today, generally with water in them. High country as before, less stone, land rich, but timber scarce. Only a small patch seen here & there, besides that on the river, which is sufcient to admit of a farm to about every three fourths of a mile along the river.
By my map, the measurement of the Santa Fe road, made our encampment last night eighty one miles west of the state of Missouri. We have travelled since we left Harmony mission seven days, we suppose at an average of 24 miles per day making in our turnings 168 miles. Several deer fired on today as they ran, none killed. Magaukwuk found bees in a tree near camp & climbed and cut with a Tomahawk & took considerable honey. The praries are burning a few miles above us, whence we infer that a hunting party is near.
We find it often difficult to get through the briers, brush, & vines along the small streams. Sometimes we use the knife and sometimes the Tomahawk in opening our way through. We keep much in praries where, excepting the water courses, travelling is fine.
I have for myself, a lonesome time. No one is with me who feels interested in the
enterprize beyond his own immediate comfort, or with whom I can indulge as an
associate. The Indians are exceedingly careless and improvident. Willing to do
anything I tell them, but will not put themselves to the trouble of thinking.
Like children, some of them think the distance great and appear to be somewhat
home-sick. I almost daily show them on the map where we are, and whither we are
going. Were it not for this, some would be ready to fancy themselves near the
edge of the World. Upon the whole, however, they are generally cheerful. The two
white men hired as packmen &c. are poor sticks & give me trouble. Scarce
a day passes that I have not to reprove one of them, and sometimes threaten to
discharge them there in the wilderness, I think however, that they are rather
improving in their ways. Chandonois performs his part well, and is my main
Friday Sep. 12.
game. This is remarkable since it has been so plenty in the country through which we have travelled, We suppose the cause is the proximity of Hunters, which has made the game scarce. Hunting & rain made it half past ten before we left camp. We proceeded Southwest in order to find a branch of Neosho river. Travelled thro. prarie. It rained on us considerably. At the distance of about 12 miles reached the stream we sought, a large creek with deep water, but at a ripple, at which we cross [ed] there was not enough running water to turn a common grist mill. Timber today seen only in small patches until we came to this stream. Here might be a farm on each side of the river at the distance of half a mile. The country high, and very rich, stone less. We encamped on the southwest hank, at 3 oclock, after our men had shot four raccoons on one oak tree which they had ascended for the sake of the fruit, one of which was lost in the river.
Sent out three hunters who returned at dark without game. Our company, except myself supped bountifully on their raccoons.
We have now left the Osage river. The water in it and its tributaries is too stagnant. Streams for mills are abundant, but mills would be still in the dry season of the year. From our Saturday's encampment upward-a distance of 70 miles on a straight line, there can be no want of spring & well water. below spring water appeared scarce, Timber is in plenty to admit a tolerably dense population for 75 miles west of Missouri State afterwards more scarce. The country promises health, except on the immediate banks of the larger streams, where it will be subject to Agues & fevers. The soil is almost universally fertile, and the whole supplied abundantly with limestone. It is the most sightly country I ever saw. I have seen no coal, but have not had time to search. I examined two banks which at a distance appeared to contain coal, but they were slate.
Saturday Sep. 13
horseback in quest of the Elk, & while we wait by the baggage I make this note.
At dusk our hunters returned, having taken one elk, and having enjoyed fine sport in chasing and shooting. No set of men could be better pleased than were those. And I was not much less so, for we were in want of meat, and I was very desirous that they should be allowed thus to enjoy themselves. This circumstance will go further in commending the country to them than a million of acres of rich land. Sunday We remain in camp. The men happy that they have Sep. 14 meat and marrow bones to the full. Religious Services morning and evening as usual on Sundays.
Monday Sep. 15.
We had rain today which is disagreeable enough in these praries. About the time we reached the river, we crossed a trail of foot men going south, might suppose them to be 20 or 30 in number. Sign not recent. Supposed by Mograin to be a war party gone against his people, who mostly reside on this river below.
Tuesday Sep. 16.
Left camp quarter after 8. proceeded up the creek on which we had s[l]ept, north, about 9 crossed & passed between forks of nearly equal size, Saw three antelopes lying on the side of the hill, stopped the company & three went to take them, but failed. These animals appear remarkably nimble in running. At 11 reached the Santa Fe road, and followed it eastward. Halted at a creek between 12 and one. I wished to ascertain at what point on the road we were and must therefore return until I find distances to correspond with the map. But in following the trail I left the surveyors marks, the latter being that only which would explain the map; we left the trail & bore N. east, separating, in order to find the mounds raised by the surveyors, but we did not succeed, then, bore due east. Near 5 oclock, an elk was discovered a little beyond the creek on which we intended to encamp. The men went in chase, there was a large flock, some of them ran near us. They killed a very large male Elk & one wounded a large Deer. The elk they pronounced too lean & old for use, tho. in fact it was pretty good, but we were not in great want, & brought only the horns to camp. This elk chasing kept us till nearly dark before we encamped. Our Indians are wonderfully delighted with their evening's sport.
Mograin is a good natured, simple old man, of no manner of use to us than to add one to our number, & to be our interpreter should we come in contact with Osages or Kanzas, unless we add his capacity for lightening the loads of the packhorses which carry the provision. He says he never before travelled through this country which we are exploring. I am my own pilot solely. Yesterday we recrossed the Indian trail which we crossed on monday, & which Mograin pronounced the trail of a war party. Today I alighted and examined the trail myself and found it to be made in part by horses-am sure therefore it is not the track of a war party, but of a hunting party, no doubt of Kanzas as it comes from that direction.
The country today not quite so well timbered as heretofore, though sufficiently so to allow considerable population. In respect to soil, limestone, and situation, it resembles what we have heretofore described.
Wednesday Sep. 17.
from 12 till five o'clock, when we encamped as I beleived on the waters of Ne[os]ho which we had descended about two miles. Poor old Mograin is fairly lost, and supposed we were here on the waters of a large Creek we crossed the third day's travel from Harmony.
This day's journey lying across the land dividing Neosho & Osage rivers from Kanzas, I had expected to find the country almost wholly destitute of wood. In this I have been happily disappointed. Timber is more scarce than formerly but the country will admit a tolerable settlement the whole way. The country rises to the dividing lands. Then descends towards Kanzas. Still high, rich, and abounding in limestone. One of our horses lame, so that one man has to walk. Tuesday we travelled, we suppose 17-today 20.
We have now left Neosho waters, which country needs no other description than to say it resembles that on the Osage, rather less timber, & perhaps better watered. It may justly be pronounced an excellent country so far as I saw it.
Thursday Sep. 18.
Coming in sight of two houses about two miles from the principal village, the inhabitants became alarmed, some of the women & children hid in the brush, and one man came running to a wood towards us for the purpose of securing his horses. He did not reach his horse until we were within fifty yards of him. I sent Mograin to speak to him who soon allayed his fears. We halted to take some refreshment half a mile from the houses, & sent the man, with some tobacco to inform the main village that we were coming to smoke with them. A woman presently came from the two houses with a kettle of boiled corn. After an hour we proceeded and after much delay to wait Mograin's tedious, & tiresome talkativeness to every one of the many Indians that met us, we encamped a mile & a half from town & went upon foot to talk, leaving the baggage in charge of the two hired men. At camp and every where else, men, women, children & dogs swarmed about us. We were shown into a large bark hut, which was immediately crowded as thick as it could be, with exception of a little room at each fire, such a scene of crowding, of men women & children, talking, scolding, crying of children, a few good mothers singing to quiet them, dogs fighting & the con-
quered begging aloud for quarters, I never before witnessed. Boiled corn in two large wooden bowls, supplied with a few Buffalos horn spoons & ladles, were placed before us.
Sixteen Pawnees had been there, who on hearing of our approach had left except three. I enquired for them, & as they were in a hurry to be gone, I gave them some tobacco, and a little friendly talk, to which they replied in similar friendship, and they departed. The Pawnees & Osages are hostile to each other. The Kanzaus are identified in language & friendship with the Osages. They are indeed a band of the same tribe, they are afraid of the Pawnees, but appear to dread them less than do their brethren. I suppose these Pawnees thought I had some Osages in company, & on this account left as they did, leaving three of their numbers to learn the circumstances of our visit &c.
We smoked with the Kanzaus, & gave them some tobacco, & a little friendly talk. We were obliged to extend our voices in order to be heard amidst the continued noise & confusion.
I then went to view the river. I should judge it to be over a quarter of a mile wide at this place, deep, the water of a milky appearance, & running slowly between sand banks. It much resembles Missouri, tho. so much less, & is less rapid, & muddy. It passes between pretty high hills, & the country, as might be expected, is more broken & hilly near the river. The land fertile, no limestone seen, but. plenty of freestone, Timber too scarce but sufficient to allow a very considerable population.
It was dark when I reached camp, the principal Chief & his wife both aged people, and many others came to camp. I had the chief to eat supper with me, gave his wife also, and a little to some others, gave the chief two or three pounds of flour at his request. And on preparing for rest, they all left us. One old fellow on our arrival had offered his service to assist in the work, &c. We accepted his offer merely for his gratification, & rewarded him with food & tobacco.
The Kanzas appear to be more wretched than even the Osages. Men generally naked with exception of the small cloth & sometimes a blanket thrown over their shoulders. The women with a ragged piece of cloth about the middle, and some of them with a narrow piece of cloth passing awry over one shoulder & under the other arm, to conceal the breasts, which is commonly held over them with one hand. But many of the women were wholly uncovered above the waist & below the knee. Boys entirely naked, girls, with a piece of
cloth about the middly. They were much pleased with our visit, & very friendly.
I am instructed to pass thro. the country north of this river; but, it is remarkable that, I cannot hear of one single canoe, or other craft for crossing anywhere on the river. These people, if ever they cross, swim or cross on rafts, With my lazy company I do not think we should be able to construct rafts, & get ourselves, &c. across in less than four days. I cannot lose this time. Indeed the time allowed me is so far gone that I must bend my course towards St. Louis. This is the upper Indian town on the river, & consists of about 15 houses. It is 125 miles due west of Missouri State.
Friday Sep. 19
We had travelled five or six miles after we parted with the messenger sent with tobacco to the village, when an Indian came riding to us at full speed, from the village, which now must have been seven or eight miles distant, He was entirely naked from head to heels except the breech cloth. Had no other business he said than to get a little tobacco. This we gave him and went on. An old chief he said had started with him, but finding the chase too long had become discourage[d], & went back.
Timber of the Kanza river is sufficient to allow a dense settlement for four or five miles on each side. It appears well watered. Small creeks, & rivulets are numerous, and wooded, and watered.
Saturday Sep 20
Six of the men were hunting three came to us half an hour after the storm. The other three were a little lost, but reached us afterwards with a fine deer. We are much favored by providence, in being allowed to stop at a place favourable for resting on tomorrow, being well supplied with grass for horses, and we are now well supplied with meat.
The country continues the same in appearance. Except that the lands, though excellent, I think are not quite so rich as on Neosho. Wood scattered in streaks & groves all over the country. We are now about 70 miles due west of State of Missouri, & 15 south of Kanza river Yesterday I suppose we travelled 30 miles, and today, 20.
Since we left Neosho, Mograin has said he supposed, from the circumstance of our seeing antelopes, &c. that we were near to the Buffaloe. He says he was afraid to tell us so at the time lest we should be inclined to go further west, which he was afraid to do, lest we should fall in with enemies. He had all along given it as his opinion that it was a long distance to Buffalos. The night we lay farthest west some ravens were croaking about us till pretty late in the evening. The old man said that from that circumstance he judged that enemies were near.
Sunday Sep. 21.
hills on which we were & Kanza there appeared a large tract chiefly prarie, 150, or 200 feet lower than the hills. Along the hills facing Kanza is more wood than is common at the sources of the streams. We are encamped in a tract of woodland along side of which I think we have travelled ten miles. This woodland lies across the sources of many small rivulets. Wood today has been much more plenty than we have heretofore seen it. The country high, healthy, & rich with abundance of limestone. This excellent tract of Kanza land lies adjoining the better parts of Osage, which we were on about the 7th 8th & 9th September. Much sign of Elk & Deer, Hunters brought in three turkeys in the evening.
Tuesday Sep. 23
After a few miles in the morning, wood has been plenty though it might be said that we were in the wood of the river, extending 8 or 10 miles therefrom, tho. not in a solid body. The country high & rich with Limestone in abundance
Travelled on Monday 27 miles-Tuesday 25-Wednesday 28.
I have now returned to the border of the Indian Territory. It is proper therefore to take a retrospect of our tour therein.
I have been favoured, in general with good health-have been favoured with pleasant weather, have been comfortably supplied with food, and not allowed to meet any material accident or loss. Our horses look nearly as well as when we left St. Louis.
The country we have explored, I am ready [to] pronounce excellent. It is admitted that timber is too scarce, but by a judicious
arrangement in settlement, a vast population can be conveniently situated. There is great sameness in appearance of the country. High, rich, healthy in appearance, stone for building, & for lime in abundance. Water without scarcity all over the country, for common use of man & beast. Mill streams in abundance but all fail in the dry season. We might expect water-works to stand still for want of water, in general, 4 or 5 months in the year. There is scarcely a quagmire in all the country. I saw only one pond of water, & that covered about an acre of land. Most travellers seek the higher and more open lands, because it is exceeding troublesome getting thro. the timber, brush, & vines, along the watercourses. The hills rise generally once, twice, & thrice, as high as the trees in the low grounds. The sides of the hill are often abrupt, and on the top becomes sufficiently level for cultivation. On these accounts one may pass at a short distance from a grove of timber at a water course, the streak of wood one fourth, one half-or even a mile in width, and scarcely [MS. illegible] the bough of a tree. The country therefore has been reported to be more scarce of wood and water than is the fact. It is remarkable too that because there is but little timber on the uplands, travellers looking over prarie as far as sight could reach, have fancied the country to be level, when, if the whole country were timbered they would report it to be as high & rolling as the middle counties of Kentucky. The ri [vers?] are broader & the slopes of tillable land more gradual than generally in Kentucky.
Notwithstanding there is so little wet land in the country, yet grass for hay can be obtained in abundance especially on Osage & Neosho.
In settling the country, lands should be so laid out that to each home should be allowed 50 or 80 acres of wood-land, and then as much prarie back as should be necessary. Hogs will thrive in any country while new, but this country will not be particularly favourable to the growth of that kind of stock after the country becomes thickly settled, it is too high & open. It will always be remarkably well adapted to the growth of sheep & cattle. This will be the principal business of farmers. On the settling of Indians there, a small field to each will be sufficient. That is, a little larger than will, in that fertile soil, be enough to furnish his bread and vegetables. The extensive grazing & hay of the praries will supercede the necessity of farm pasturage and meadows.
I extended my tour west of Missouri State 140 miles on a direct
line as measured on the map. Say 160 miles the nearest way that could be travelled, and within 60 miles as measured on the map, of the place where the Santa Fe road crosses Arkansas river,  and not more than 50 miles from that river at a point lower down. I think I have been enabled to form a pretty just estimate of the country 80 miles in width, and 150 from east to west, making 12,000 square miles or 7,680,000 acres. How much further west the country is inhabitable I am not able from observation to say.
The country of the Shawanoe, near the mouth of Kanzas river is best supplied with timber. On the upper branches of the creek of Kanzas named on the map Wahusa,  and opposite, south, & near thereto on Osage river, is the most desirable country for a good settlement, & in that region I am inclined to hope for a mission Station, & perhaps the seat of government of the Indian Territory, say from 30 to 70 miles due west of Missouri.
And now, O thou father of the fatherless & friend of the poor. Grant that in these deserts, where, with a few, I have been allowed the privilege of bowing the knee, and lisping a song, prayers & praises may arise from the thousands of a people Saved by Thee! and all the glory-all the Glory shall be Thine.
The Shawanoes arrived in this country last Spring late. They consist chiefly of about one half of those who resided at Waupaugkonetta in Ohio, some from Merimack, in this State, some from Lewistown, O. & elsewhere. With some aid from government, chiefly in food & clothing, & farming utensils, they are in three or four settlements or villages putting up with their own hands very neat log cabbins.
Thursday Sep. 25
Mograin now chose to return home, & I had no further need of his services. I therefore paid him. But his horse had left the company last night, and having no bell on, could not be found this morning. I was anxious to proceed to the town of Liberty, to which place I had directed all my papers to be sent. At 11, 1 therefore took one man, and leaving the company to search for the horse, set out, crossed Missouri about six miles below the mouth of Kanza river. The Kanzas do not pronounce this as usually written. Their pro
nunciation is truly Kan'-zau, & for Osages Wos-soshe'. We travelled 21 miles & reached Liberty at sun-setting. No news of the southern Indians. Seven letters from various members of my family, and one from Rev. Cone.18 Thankful to hear of the health & comfort of my family. Cone manifests his usual interest in our affairs, and assures me of his readiness to co-operate in carrying forward our designs.
Friday Sep. 26
Saturday Sep. 27
Sunday Sep. 28
Monday Sep, 29
Tuesday Sep. 30
Wednesday Oct. 1
Hoping that I and Mr. Lykins with our families will be able to come to this country next Spring for the purpose of commencing our missionary operations in the west. It is desirable that we, ere that time, have some place selected at which we may temporarily locate our families while we prepare houses for them in the wilderness, and that we have a friend to whose care we may, if we choose, direct some property. I had hoped to find an eligible situation nearer the frontier, but was discouraged in the attempt by the apparent sickliness of the country above. Pleased with the situation of this town and country I have stopped here tonight to attend to that business. I engaged Mr. Wm. Wright of this place, & he commends a Mr. Samuel of Franklin as consignee.
Thursday Oct. 2.
I set off very early. In about 4 miles overtook my company, breakfasted with them and proceeded about in all today, 33 miles, to Wilburn's, where I stopped very much fatigued. I feel much worn down with my journeyings, and greatly in want of rest.
Friday Oct. 3
Saturday Oct. 4.
I am glad to have this matter settled, which was one (& I viewed it as a serious one) of the difficulties which had grown out of the circumstance of employing unsuccessful missionaries.
Shane informs me that the southern Indians are daily expected at St. Louis. There
is therefore great probability that instead of being allowed to proceed direct to
the embraces of my family, I must turn about and make another tour in the
deserts. Disappointments & delays, and the supposed state of affairs at Carey
& Thomas.  render me distressed. A treaty has been held there since I
BARNES: EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1828 263
circumstance deeply involved the interests of the Mission. I have heard that Mr. Slater, dissatisfied that he could not be allowed to do as he pleased, had gone to New England to see the Board. I had heard of his being on the way back, & that Dr. Bolles  was in company intending to examine the state of things at the stations, and to attend the treaty. The burden of affairs have been greatly increased on the brethren at the stations, particularly at Carey, and more especially must the labours of Mrs. McCoy & our daughter, have been increased. Mrs. Simerwell has been absent, with Mr. S-& Mr. Bay has been a journey to Ohio which must have taken several weeks so that much of the time no male missionary was there except Lykins, and for a long time no female missionaries except my wife and Mrs. Lykins.
I had hoped to be able to be at Washington next winter and to have visited the Board, &c. and to have reprinted an enlarged edition of My Remarks on Indian Reform,  preparatory to our coming to this country, & to provide for the situation of Mrs. L-and to afford a little rest to my wife, during my almost constant absence, I had hoped to remove them from Carey, to Ohio, or elsewhere for a few weeks, & then allow them time to visit their relations What now will become of our plans, & arrangements, I cannot guess. My mind is filled with anxiety. I am unworthy of favour, yet I am in many respects favoured-to Him with tears, I appeal for help, for myself & family-to Him who has been our help in days that are past, and who is our hope for days to come. O what should I do had I not a God to go to, and to whose care to commit my dear-lonely--companion, and our dear babes, the mission & all connected therewith! Here alone I find comfort. But since the friends of the Indians are so few-their miseries so great, & their destruction so menacing-who would not toil & suffer in support of this work of benevolence! O that God would prepare me for all the duties of this service.
Since I left St. Louis I have not employed much religion. I have had a troublesome company to manage. Have had no associate, I have been very lonely. My mind seems to have assimilated too nearly to the wildness of the wilderness. I cannot generally enjoy myself in prayer. Prayer and other religious services are accom
panied by too little reverence for him whom I profess to serve. Sometimes however I am blest with a comfortable engagedness.
Monday Oct. 6
Tuesday Oct. 7.
The southern Indians have not yet arrived but are daily expected. I have therefore no prospect but of being under the necessity of turning about and making another tour.
(COPY of my Report to Genl. Clark)
St. Louis, Mo. Oct. 7, 1828.
ance. Stone, and almost universally limestone sufficiently abundant for use. The soil exceedingly fertile with scarcely the occurrence of an exception, and possessing the mellowness peculiar to limestone lands. We suffered no inconvenience from want of water, but found it happily distributed in the creeks & smaller streams all over the country, though not much running. Streams for mills and other water-works are abundant, but all these would fail in the more dry season of the year. Wood is too scarce, especially beyond the distance of sixty miles west of this State; and ten miles south of Kanzas river, nevertheless I suppose the whole country is supplied with groves, and streaks of timber sufficient to sustain a considerable population, if judiciously located. I persuade myself that the scarcity of timber in this country is not so great as has been sometimes reported. The wood is chiefly along the watercourses. The hills, which sometimes are abrupt though sufficiently level on top, and other uplands formed by gentle ascent generally rise once, twice, or thrice as high as the timber in the low grounds. Travellers usually avoid crossing the watercourses as much as practicable because of the unevenness of the way, the brush, and the rocks, and hence most of the timber is unseen by one passing hastily through the country uninterested in the matter of wood. It would be fortunate for this country, if, in its settlement surveys should be so made that to each farm should be allotted so much timber only as would be necessary, and let the residue be prarie.Tuesday Oct. 7 1828
Since our return to the settlements I asked Noonday if he thought the country on Osage river, &c. was a suitable place to settle the pupils of our schools, and for the location of the southern Indians, &c, and he replied in direct terms, "yes, it is a good country for such purpose." He cannot bear the idea of leaving Michigan. Having discovered the others pleased with the country he had repeatedly mentioned objections, such as the scarcity of wood, of sugar tree-of bark for bags and twine, and of bulrushes for mats, &c. Gosa tells me all that passes among them, and I had occasionally made remarks which were intended as replys to his objections. Gosa goes so far as to say that Chandonois also has endeavoured to discourage them, and has not only found fault with the country but said that should the Indians settle in it, they would
soon be driven thence by the influx of white population. Notwithstanding all which Gosa has, of his own accord, frequently told me that he had resolved to come to this country should I come. - He further assures me that Wesauogana, Magaukwuk, and Shawaunukwuk, also, all say the same. I am bound to be thankful that I have so much reason to beleive that, notwithstanding all the disadvantages under which the tour from Michigan has been made, appearances so far promise the result desired.
Wednesday Oct. 8.
Thursday Oct. 9
On reaching St. Louis I entered upon business of fitting out our party &c. & continued busy till bed time.
Friday Oct. 10.
I was extremely anxious to get started today, lest the Putawatomies should begin to drink. I had prepared every thing by one oclock, when they said they wished to see Genl. Clarke, I went with them. After they said they were ready to go, they loitered so that it was near night before we crossed Mississippi. I rode about 5 miles and slept at Belsha's at which place we arrived in the night.
As I am much worn with riding on horseback, Cap. Kennerly has lent me a horse & gig.
They had considerable talk with Genl. Clarke after I left them. I suppose they had begged something of him. I returned to hurry them off and the Genl. told me he thought I had better give them an additional blanket and perhaps something else. I told him that they had already been amply rewarded. However at his suggestion I gave each of them a first rate blanket, and one good one to the girl.
Saturday Oct. 11
I have great reason to be thankful to God that notwithstanding
all the disappointments and delays, so that none others have yet seen the country we were to explore, yet all the objects of the tour in relation to the Putawatomies & Ottawas have been fully accomplished, and promise a favourable result.
By these I have written home to my dear family & brethren from whom, for a few years past I have been much absent. This is a great privation! I feel much anxiety of mind. O that the Lord would strengthen me for my work, and enable me to endure hardness as a good soldier! No one not in similar circumstances can form an idea of my anxiety. O Lord sustain my lonely companion in life, & preserve our dear babes and older children!
Carey, July 1. 1828.
The following articles were furnished by the Mission for the use of Indians on the exploring expedition being second hand and repaired.
3 Coats, 5 vests and 3 pr. pantaloons
5 pair socks and 2 pair suspenders
2 Shot pouch straps 1 hunting shirt & Coat 1 vest and 2 pair Socks
1 pair pantaloons Belt & shot pouch Strap
6 Saddles 3 saddle Bags, 6 Bridles 6 saddle blankets & 6 circingles
1 saddle, saddle bags, bridle saddle Blanket circingle and Buffalo robe
1 Pack saddle circingle & Bridle
5 Bell Collars & 2 Leather hobbles
9 Bags Buffalo Robe Deer & Bear skin
100 lb flour 4 Tin Kettles 1 pan 8 cups 1 canteen
2 spoons & pepper Box
one musquito Bar
2 Rifles & 1 heavy shot gun with pouches & horns
1 lb Tea 2 lb Coffee 1 pr socks & 14 lb sugar
For the above mentioned articles McCoy Received of the U. States $261.81¼
which is accordingly Credited on the mission book for Sep. 1829.
Isaac McCoy Bot of
22¾ lb. bacon @ 8 cts. .....$2.81¼
Farm Creek, near Fort Clark
July 10. 1828
Springfield, Ill., July 12. 1828
Isaac McCoy Dr.
St. Louis, City Hotel
St. Louis, Aug. 14. 1828.
The United States
St. Louis August 14th 1828
The United States
To Robert Payne ..... Dr.
St. Louis August 14th 1828.
For the service of an expedition to the West Isaac McCoy Bought of me one Horse
for which I have this day received sixty Dollars.
Revd. Isaac McCoy
The Reverend Isaac McCoy Dr. 1828 July 24
on an exploring expidition to the west, To John Brown
Received payment in full of the above account from the
The United States
1828 Augt 26th
Received St. Louis Augt 26th 1828 of the Revd. I. McCoy One Hundred & ten dollars and fifty cents in full of the above acct.
(Signed duplicates) Thornton Grimsley
To Thomas Gibson Dr. For Dinners, horsefeed and 10 lb. bacon ... $2.50
Gasconade, Aug. 27. 1828
Recd. payment for said
St. Louis September 10th
To William Everett Dr.
For ferriage of himself and man & two horses Sep. 25
and Do. 7 men & two horses on Sep. 26 $2.50
Received payment Clay Co. Missouri
Sep. 25, 1828
The United States Indian Dept.
Recd. Libert Sept. 27th 1828 of the Revd. Isaac McCoy the sum of eight dollars and twenty five cents in full of the above acct.
To Joseph Erwin Dr.
For ferriage across Missouri river of himself & eight men and 12 horses . . . $2.50
Jack's ferry, Ray County, Mo.
Sep. 29, 1828
To Wm. B. Martin Dr.
1828 Sep. 29
To accomodations for self and eight men & 12 horses 2 nights & one day $10.00
Received, Richmond County, Mo.
Payment in full
Wm. B. Marti
To A.A. Evans Dr.
For ferriage across Tabbo creek for self & eight men and twelve horses.
La Fayette County, Mo.
Sept. 29, 1828
Abner A. Evans
To Littleberry Estes Dr.
For suppers & breakfasts, &c. For himself & eight me, and the keeping one night of twelve horses ...$7.50
For services as interpreter to Osage and Kazas, and for the use of horse from September 3d to Sep. 30th inclusive, being twenty-eight days at $1.50 per day ...$42.00
Received payment in full
Received three dollars in payment
To William Wright Dr.
To Jonah H. Shepherd
Received six Dollars 75 Cents
Howard Co. Mo. Oct. 2. 1828 Jonah H. Shepherd
To Levy McMurtry
Received seven Dollars and twenty five Cents in Payment.
Callaway County, Mo. Oct. 4. 1828
Oct. 4th. 5th. 1828
Mr. Isaac McCoy
To Roger Taylor
Recd. [MS. torn] 1828 of Mr. Isaac McCoy fourteen Dollars & seventy [MS. torn] cents, Montgomery County, State of Missouri Roger Taylor
To George Belsha
For supper & breakfast for himself & six Indians & for one lodging and the keeping one night of nine horses ... $4.87½
Received four Dollars 87½ cts. in full
St. Clair County Il.
Oct. 11. 1828
Received eight Dollars 7½ cts. in payment
Madison County Il.
Oct. 13. 1828
1. For a sketch of McCoy's work with the Indians of Indiana and Michigan, from which developed his interest in Indian reform, see "Isaac McCoy and the Treaty of 1821," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, May, 1936.
2. Isaac McCoy collection of manuscripts, Kansas State Historical Society.
3. Ibid. Autograph draft signed.
5. Des Plaines river.
6. Schoolcraft, Henry R., Travels in the Central Portion of the Mississippi Valley (New York, 1826), pp 330, 331. See, also, "Mount Joliet: Its Place in Illinois History and Its Location," by Robert Knight and Lucius Zeuch in Journal of the Illinois Historical Society, April, 1930.
7. George Hancock Kennedy.
8. Robert Simerwell, Baptist missionary. See The Kansas Historical Quarterly, February, 1932, p. 91, footnote 6.
9. Carey mission, on St. Joseph's ricer, Michigan. For an account of the founding of this mission see ibid., May, 1936.
10. Johnston Lykens, Baptist missionay.-Ibid., February, 1932, p. 90, footnote 3.
11. Thomas Hart Benton (1 182-1858), American statesman, U. S. senator from Missouri 1820-1850.
12. Dr. George P. Todsen was employed as physician and surgeon to accompany the exploring party.
14. A mission in Bates county, Missouri, established in 1821 by the United Foreign Missionary Society.
15. Marais des Cygnes.
16. McCoy probably referred to the first point at which the Santa Fe trail touched the Arkansas river, in present Barton county. The first crossing was in present Ford county, about 280 miles west of the western line of Missouri.
18. Spencer H. Cone, member of the American Baptist Board of Foreign Missions.
19. Baptist mission for the Ottawa Indians on Grand river, 40 miles east of Lake Michigan, established by Isaac McCoy in 1826.
20. Lucius Bones, corresponding secretary, American. Baptist Board of Foreign Missions.
21. The first edition of this pamphlet was printed by Lincoln S Edwards, Boston, December, 1827 ; a second edition, with appendix, was printed by Gray & Bruce, 24 Cherry street New York, 1829. The expense of printing he latter was borne by McCoy, the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions having declined to pay costs because of disapproval of certain statements in the appendix. The manuscript of the work is owned by the Kansas State Historical Society.
22. Article 6 of the treaty which was concluded September 20, 1828, and ratified January 7, 1829, was as follows: Circumstances rendering it probable that the missionary establishment now located upon the St. Joseph, may be compelled to remove west of the Mississippi. it is agreed that when they remove the value of their buildings and other improvements shall be estimated, and the amount paid by the United States. But, as the location is upon the Indian reservation, the commissioners are unwilling to assume the responsibility of making this provision absolute, and therefore its rejection is not to affect any other part of the treaty."-Treaties Between the United States of America and the Several Indian Tribes from 1778 to 1857, compiled by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, 1887.