XVIII.--From St. Paul's, Min., to Fort Wallah Wallah, Oregon.
St. Paul's to
17 1/4. Small brook.--The wood, water, and grass are abundant
as far as the "Bois des Sioux" River.
20 1/4. Cow Creek.--This stream is crossed on a bridge.
23 1/4. Small Lake.--North of the road. The road passes over a
rolling prairie and crosses Elk River on a bridge.
17. Near Sauk Rapids.--The road crosses Elk River twice on
bridges; Mississippi River near.
18. Russel's.--Ferry across the Mississippi River, then
follow the Red River trail. Camp is on a cold spring
6. Cold Spring Brook.--Cross Sauk River, 300 feet wide, 4
1/2 feet deep.
19 1/2. Lake Henry.--Road good.
18 3/4. Lightning Lake.--Cross Cow River in a ferry-boat;
water 4 1/2 feet deep.
17 1/2. Lake.--One mile from Red River trail. Pass White Bean
9 1/2. Pike Lake.--Pass the South Branch of the Chippeway
River. Road runs over rolling prairie, and crosses
a small branch.
19 1/4. Small Lake.--Cross Chippeway River in a boat. Road
passes numerous lakes and the best grass.
9 3/4. Small Lake.--Road passes rolling prairies, and
crosses Rabbit River.
27. "Bois des Sioux" River.--Cross Bois des Sioux Prairie;
11. Wild Rice River.--Cross "Bois des Sioux" River, 70
feet wide and 4 to 7 feet deep, muddy bottom and
banks. Wood, water, and grass at all camps between
this and Maple River.
4 1/2. Small Creek.--Cross Wild Rice River on a bridge.
26 1/2. Sheyene River.--Smooth prairie road.
16 1/2. Maple River.--Cross Sheyene River on a bridge, and
several small branches.
20. Small Creek.--Smooth road; no wood.
20. Pond.--Wet and marshy; numberous ponds in sight; no
15. Pond.--No wood; approaching Sheyene River.
13 1/2. Sheyene River.--Prairie more rolling; camp in the
river bottom. Wood, water, and grass abundant.
7. Slough.--Cross Sheyene River, 50 feet wide, 3 1/2 feet
deep. No wood.
10. Lake.--Rolling prairie, with many marshes. Wood,
water, and grass.
10 1/2. Pond.--Low, wet prairie; no wood; plenty of grass and
18 1/4. Marsh.--Smooth prairie, generally dry.
20. "Riviere a Jaques."--Smooth prairie, with marshes.
Road crosses the river several times. Wood, water,
21 1/2. Pond.--Hilly and marshy prairie, with small ponds, and
12. Small Branch.--Marshy prairie, filled with ponds, with
a thin short grass, and no wood.
19 3/4. Lake.--One a high knoll. Road crosses the South Fork
of Sheyene River; good crossing; thence rolling
prairie, passing "Balto de Morale," also a narrow
lake 4 1/2 miles long.
16 1/2. Pond.--Marshy prairie, ponds, and knolls; cross a
small branch at 7 3/4 miles. No wood.
17 3/4. Pond.--Rolling prairie. Cross Wintering River, a deep,
muddy stream 100 feet wide, also marshy prairies and
ponds. No wood.
16. Small Branch.--Tributary of Mouse River. Road skirts
the valley of Mouse River, crossing the ravines near
15 1/4. Pond.--Undulating prairie with occasional marshes;
the road then turns up the high ridge called "Grand
Coteau." No wood.
20 1/4. Lake.--Hilly road approaching Grand Coteau. No wood.
20. Lake.--Rolling prairie; smooth, good road; no wood.
15 1/2. Pond.--Road passes Grand Coteau at 11 miles, and runs
between two lakes. No wood, but plenty of "bois de
vache" for fuel.
19 1/4. Branch of White Earth River.--Country rolling and
hilly. Road passes wood at eight miles from camp.
23 1/4. Pond.--For two miles the road passes over a low, flat
country, after which the country is hilly. No wood.
23 1/2. Pond.--Rolling and hilly country, with rocky knobs. At
18 miles cross branch of Muddy Creek 15 feet wide.
Wood in ravines near this stream. No wood at camp.
20. Pond.--Rolling country. At 11 miles there is water in
a ravine. To the left there is more water, but the
country is rough. No wood.
16 1/4. Fort Union.--Road descends a hill to the fort; before
this it passes over high, firm prairie. Good grass
near in the hills.
6 1/2. Pond.--No wood; good grass.
6. Little Muddy River.--Good camp.
15 1/2. Creek.--Two good camps between this and the last.
Wood, water, and grass.
10. Big Muddy River.--Drift-wood for fuel.
11. Marsh near Missouri.--Good camp.
18. Poplar River.--Good camp. One or two good camps
between this and the last camp.
23 1/2. Creek near Missouri.--Good camp.
15. Slough near Missouri.--Good camp.
17 1/2. Milk River.--One good camp between this and the last
13 1/2. Milk River.--Several good camps passed.
17 1/2. Milk River.--Good camp.
19 1/2. Milk River.--Several good camps passed.
17 3/4. Milk River.--At the crossing. The road follows a trail
on the bluffs, and descends again to the river.
7 1/2. Lake.--No wood; grass and water plenty.
12 1/2. Milk River.--Second crossing. Good camp.
12. Milk River.--Good camp.
15 1/2. Milk River.--Good camps between this and the last
10 3/4. Milk River.--Good camp.
20. Milk River.--Good camp.
16. Milk River.--Good camp.
18. Milk River.--At the third crossing. Good camp.
7 1/2. Branch of Milk River.--Good camp.
17 1/2. Branch of Milk River.--Several good camps between this
and the last camp.
6. Branch of Milk River.--Good camp.
19 1/4. Prairie Spring.--No wood; water and grass plenty.
13 3/4. Teton River.--Road crosses "Marias River."
8 3/4. Teton River, at Fort Benton.--A trading-post.
2 1/2. Small Creek.--Good wood, water, and grass.
18 3/4. Missouri River.--Good camp.
20 1/2. Missouri River.--Above the falls. Road much broken
into ravines. Wood, water, and grass.
16 3/4. Missouri River.--Road crosses first tributary above
Fort Benton at ten miles.
17. Missouri River.--The road becomes very bad after
fourteen miles, but is better on the north side of
6. Missouri River.--The road is exceedingly rough and
broken; crosses the river.--Good wood, water, and
11. Tributary of the Missouri.--The most difficult part of
the road is passed, but the country is still hilly.
18 1/2. Tributary of the Missouri.--The road follows up the
last-mentioned stream to near its head. Good camps.
15. Near the summit of Little Blackfoot Pass, on a broad
Indian trail; excellent road.
14 3/4. Little Blackfoot River.--Road crosses the summit of
the Rocky Mountains. Good road for wagons, with many
17 1/2. Little Blackfoot River.--Road good, descending along
the river. Near the camp a large fork comes in.
28 1/2. Little Blackfoot River.--Good road, which follows the
broad, open valley for 14 miles. Good camps.
19 1/2. Little Blackfoot River.--The valley contracts so that
wagons will be forced to take the bed of the river
in some places. The river is fordable, and the trail
crosses it five times during the day.
22 1/2. Blackfoot River.--Sixteen miles from the last camp
"Blackfoot" and "Hell Gate" Rivers enter, and about
one mile of this distance is impassable for wagons;
they would have to cross the river, which is
fordable. Good camps.
27 1/2. Fort Owen.--Road runs up the St. Mary's River to Fort
Owen over a broad, good trail in the valley.
40. St. Mary's River.--The south Nez Perces trail leaves
the main trail, which ascends the St. Mary's Valley
to the Forks, and follows the southwest fork to its
source. To the Forks the valley of the St. Mary's is
open, and admits wagons.
24. Southwest Fork of St. Mary's River.--The road follows
a narrow trail, crossing the river frequently, and
is not passable for wagons. The valley is narrow,
and shut in by hills.
5 1/2. Kooskooskia River.--Road leaves the St. Mary's River,
passing over a high ridge to the Kooskooskia River.
10. Branch.--Road runs over wooded hills.
14. Creek.--Road runs over wooded hills.
9. Small Creek.--This is the best camp between the St.
Mary's River and the Nez Perces country.
15. Small Creek.--Road passes over wooded hills.
9. Small Branch.--Road passes over wooded hills, is very
rough and difficult. Poor camp.
14. Small Creek.--Ten miles from last camp the road passes
a high divide, ascending rapidly, though not
difficult. Good grass on the summit, but no water.
13. Small Creek.--Good camp where the trail emerges from
the woods on to the high plateau.
7. Clear Water River.--Large tributary. Road runs over
high table-land, and descends to the valley of the
43. Lapwai River.--The road follows a broad trail down the
river six miles, when it leaves the river bottom and
ascends the plateau, which extends to Craig's house,
on the Lapwai, fifteen miles from the river.
23. Tributary Snake River.--The trail runs over high
ground from Craig's to Lapwai River, 15 miles. This
river is 450 feet wide. No wood. Indians are
generally found here, who ferry over travelers. The
trail follow Snake River for several miles.
26 1/4. Tchannon River.--The trail passes 5 1/2 miles up the
bottom of a small creek; then runs over a steep hill
to another small creek, 8 miles; then along the
valley of this stream 10 1/2 mils; thence over a
high hill to camp on Tchannon River, 3 miles.
11 1/2. Touchet River.--The trail crosses the Tchannon River,
and ascends to a high plain, which continues to
32 1/2. Touchet River.--Road follows a good trail along the
valley, where good camps are found any where, with
wood, water, and grass.
19 1/2. Fort Wallah Wallah.--Leaving Touchet River, the trail
passes over again to the plains, when there is
neither wood, water, or grass to Fort Wallah Wallah.
Total distance from St. Paul's to Fort
Union.......................................712 1/2 miles.
Fort Union to Fort Benton...................377 1/2 "
Fort Benton to Fort Owen....................255 "
Fort Owen to Fort Wallah Wallah.............340 3/4 "
Total distance from St. Paul's, Min., to
Fort Wallah Wallah, Oregon...............1685 3/4 "