|KANSAS COLLECTION BOOKS|
Hartford is located in the beautiful valley of the Neosho, sixty miles (airline) south of Topeka, and sixteen miles southeast of Emporia, on the Missouri Pacific Railway. Surrounded by large, well- cultivated farms and stock ranges, with its favorable location, and natural advantages, it has during the past few years grown from a slumbering hamlet to a live business town, with a population of five hundred inhabitants.
In the spring of 1858, a town association was organized, and composed of H. D. Rice and A. K. Hawkes, of Hartford, Conn.; H. W. Martin, E. Quiett, and others. The town site, which was called by its present appellation, was named at the instance of Messrs. Rice and Hawkes, after their native place. In the fall of 1858, the site, of 320 acres, was laid off by Judge Graham and D. P. Bond. One-half of the original town site has since been vacated, leaving it - 120 acres - its present size. The first building put upon the town site was a log structure 14x16 feet, which stood on Commercial street, nearly opposite of the Palace Hotel. This building was used as a store, which was kept by C. P. Bassett. The next building was a two-story frame house, erected by Mr. Longley, and used as a dwelling and lodging house. The building which stood in the northeast part of town, remained intact, until 1870, when it was torn down. During the spring and summer of 1859, dwellings were erected by Messrs. Bond, Hunt, Sears, and Robinson.
In the fall of 1859, occurred the death of --- Sears, whose was the first in the little settlement of pioneers. Mr. Longley, who as a member of the town company, erected the second building in town, afterwards went to Lawrence, and was one of the victims of Quantrell's Raid, in 1863. The first marriage was probably that of W. M. McGinnis and Francis Hunt, who were married November 7, 1860, by Rev. I. Harris, a minister of the Baptist persuasion.
The postoffice was established in 1859, and A. K. Hawkes appointed Postmaster. He was succeeded in the order mentioned by E. B. Bassett, W. K. Norbary, S. M. Morgan, S. G. Britten, G. W. Sutton and T. Campbell, the present incumbent. It was made a money order office, July 2, 1877, and now does an annual business of $15,000.
The first school was taught by Mrs. A. K. Hawkes, at her house, in 1860. About this time it was decided by the Methodist Episcopal Conference, that a branch of the Baker University, should be located at this point. The citizens agreed to donate aid in the shape of funds and land, and work was commenced on the building, which was a two-story stone structure, 32x46 feet. After an expenditure of several thousand dollars, the building was partially completed in 1862. In connection with the District School, several terms were taught, after which the "Collegiate Institute" became defunct. The building was then used by the District School until 1877, when a two-story frame building was erected at a cost of $,2000, T. A. Rogan, being the first teacher.
In 1859, E. Quiett commenced to build a frame saw and "corn mill," a few rods above the present grist mills. It was completed in 1861, by J. H. Hunt, who sold his interest to W. K. Norbary, who operated it for about seven years.
Benjamin N. Hunt, of Hartford, relates an incident illustrating the fears and groundless alarms to which the early settlers were frequently subjected. In May, 1861, the rumor prevailed in the settlement adjacent to Hartford that the Indians would, upon a certain day, make a descent upon them and wipe them all out of existence. Upon the day set for this bloody massacre, Mr. Hunt was ploughing in a field, about a half mile from his house. His wife was left at home with her child and young woman "help." The latter saw some Indians approaching with guns, and, hastily picking up the child, ran screaming to the nearest neighbors. Reinforced by them she ran on to the next, until all the neighbors were aroused to the threatened danger. In the mean time, Mrs. Hunt carried the alarm to her husband, who mounted a horse and rode hastily to town. All the men gathered up their guns and started out to reconnoitre the situation. They soon met with some of the Indians in the woods, and as they showed no hostile intent, they were allowed to approach. Without a suspicion that they were the game being hunted, the red men inquired innocently, "Have you killed anything?" It proved to be merely a hunting party, but the alarm was spread as far as Ottumwa, in Coffey County, and men from all directions were before night hastening with what arms they possessed to the aid of the supposed threatened settlement.
CHURCHES, SOCIETIES, ETC.
Methodist Episcopal Church - Regular services were held at Hartford in 1860, by Rev. J. P. McElfresh, and in 1861 a class was organized by him. Services were held some time at the house of E. Quiett. In 1863, the lower story of the Institute building was used until 1866, when the upper story was and is used at present. The following pastors have had charge of the organization up to the present time (December, 1882): Revs. J. H. Hawley, two years; M. Robinson, two years; G. L. Williams, one year; J. McAnuity, two years; J. McChristian, two years; J. E. Colenour, one year; W. M. Robertson, three years; N. F. Tipton, one year; W. Bristoe, two years; L. W. Thrall, one year; J. W. Howell, one year; J. A. Barker, two years; T. S. Walker, two years. Present membership 125.
St. Mary's Church - The first regular pastor of the Catholic denomination was Father Perrier, at the house of F. Brogan and at Neosho Rapids. In 1879, a frame church edifice, the first in Hartford, 24x40 feet, was built at a cost of $900. The congregation then embraced sixteen families. Father Perrier had charge until 1880, since which time the church has been supplied from Emporia. Present membership thirty-six families.
Evangelical Church was organized in February, 1880, with four members, by Rev. F. Harder, who remained in charge until March, 1880, when he was succeeded by Rev. J. W. Driesback. Rev. Driesback remained two years, and was succeeded by Rev. S. H. Dunkelberger, the present pastor. Regular services are held in the schoolhouse. Present membership thirty.
First Presbyterian Church was organized September 24, 1882, with thirteen members, by Rev. L. F. Dudley, who is the present pastor. Regular services held in the old Institute Building. Present membership (December 1882) twenty.
Mystic Lodge, No. 62, I. O. O. F., was first organized in 1872, and after maintaining an existence for five or six years surrendered its charter. In May, 1882, it was re-organized under the old charter with eighteen members. Its officers are: G. D. Maxson, N. G.; J. B. Chumlea, V. G.; M. Meyer, Treas.; C. Dow, Sec'y. Regular meetings held every Monday evening in Masonic and I. O. O. F. Hall. Present membership (December 1882) twenty-six.
Hartford Lodge, No. 193 A., F.& A. M. was organized under a charter, February 17, 1881, with twenty-two charter members. First officers: G. D. Maxson, W. M.; I. A. Taylor, S. W.; G. W. Lulton, J. W.; M. Weeks, Sec'y; I. Samuelson, Treas. Officers for 1882 are the same, with the exception of secretary, which office is filled by W. J. Combs. Regular meetings are held on Saturday evening, on or before the full moon, at Masonic and Odd Fellow' Hall. Present membership thirty-six.
A lodge of the Ancient Order of United Workmen is in existence here, but owing to a non-interest by its members no data is given.
The Hartford Call is a weekly publication, the first number of which was issued October 7, 1879, by W. J. Means and L. A. Hoffman. In September, 1880, Mr. Hoffman sold his interest to Mr. Means, who is its present proprietor. The paper is a seven-column folio, Republican in politics, and is devoted to local news. Is the only paper published in Lyon County outside of Emporia.
The Hartford Bank, was incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000, in December, 1881, and commenced business January 1, 1882. Its officers are A. Wenger, Pres.; G. W. Sutton, Vice-Pres.; R. T. Snediker, cashier; board of directors, J. Schaefer, H. J. Sutton, J. Rubart, W. P. Gould, L. Kell, R. T. Snediker. Does a general banking business.
The Hartford Water Mills were built in the fall of 1873, on the Neosho, three-eights of a mile north of Hartford, by D. Rogan, A. Wenger, and I. A. Taylor. The mill, which was a frame structure, 35x53 feet, and two and one-half stories high, was operated at first with one run of buhrs, which was subsequently increased to three run of stone. A dam had been built in 1872. In 1875 occurred the death of Mr. Rogan, leaving the surviving members of the firm as proprietors. In 1882 a new dame was built. Present capacity is 200 bushels of wheat and 250 bushels of corn every twenty-four hours. The mill and improvements represent an outlay of $14,000.
FRANCIS BROGAN, farmer, P. O. Hartford, was born in County Donegal, Ireland, March 17, 1823. Came to the United States in 1842, locating in Chester County, Pa., where he resided eight years. He then removed to Clinton County, Iowa, and engaged in farming. Sold his farm of 320 acres in January, 1875, and came to Kansas, and located in Hartford, and bought a farm of 740 acres, part in Lyon County and part in Coffey County. His principal crop is corn. He has also a ranch of 1,600 acres in Chase County, and in connection with his son, William J., is also extensively engaged in stock feeding and dealing. They handle cattle and hogs. Mr. Brogan has also 320 acres of upland in Lyon County, about one half mile from Hartford, upon which he raises hay. He married Miss Annie Cummings, of Clinton County, Iowa, August 14, 1854, by which marriage he has had nine children, of whom William J., Francis A., Mary, Annie E., Joseph N., Louis B., and Lizzie A. are living. He is one of the leading members of the Catholic Church of Hartford. He is an active and prominent Democrat and good citizen, respected by all political parties.
WILLIAM J. BROGAN, farmer, P. O. Hartford, was born in Clinton County, Iowa, August 19, 1855. He was educated in the public schools of Iowa, and St. Francis Academy, Milwaukee, and St. John's College, Prairie Du Chien, Wis. In January, 1875, he came to Kansas, locating in Hartford, in partnership with his father, Francis Brogan. He is engaged in farming, and in stock feeding and dealing in Lyon, Coffey and Chase counties. He married Miss Eva I. Slack, of Hartford, December 11, 1879. Mr. and Mrs. Brogan are members of the Catholic Church.
JOSEPH CAMPBELL, merchant, was born in Columbiana County, Ohio, August 31, 1842. Remained in Ohio until the spring of 1856, when he removed with his parents to Caldwell County, Mo., where he remained until 1862, when he came to Kansas, locating in Morris County. He was engaged in various pursuits until January, 1875, when he entered mercantile business, as a member of the firm of Campbell Bros., at Hartford. In the spring of 1878 he sold his interest in the business and went to Colorado, where he remained about ten months. Returned to Hartford in September, 1879, and again became a member of the old firm, in which he continued. They carry the largest stock in town and do a prosperous business. Is Township Trustee, which office he has held four years. November 7, 1872, he married Miss Margaret E. Crossett, of Clay County, Mo., who died February 23, 1878, leaving one child - Charles.
THOMAS CAMPBELL, merchant, was born in Columbiana County, Ohio, May 2, 1840. He resided in Ohio until the spring of 1856, when he removed with his parents to Caldwell County, Mo., and in September, 1858, came to Kansas; locating in Coffey County, where his father took a claim of 160 acres. Thomas remained upon this claim until April, 1862, when he enlisted as private in Company C, Ninth Regiment Kansas Cavalry. Was promoted to Sergeant, participated in all the battles and engagements in which his company took part. Was mustered out at Duval Bluff, Ark., April 1865. He returned to Kansas and located at Hartford where he engaged in the milling business, in which he continued about five years. In March, 1871, he engaged in mercantile business, in which he has since continued. The firm of Campbell Bros. carries a general stock of dry goods, clothing, boots and shoes, groceries, etc. Mr. Campbell was appointed Postmaster in April, 1877, which position he still holds. He held the office of Township Trustee two years and Township Treasurer eight years. Married Miss Ella Gould, of Caldwell County, Mo., January 1, 1866, by which marriage he has one child - Fay, born November 27, 1877.
ASA D. CHAMBERS, farmer, P. O. Hartford, was born in Richland County, Ohio, April 16, 1837. Was educated in the public schools of Ohio and at Fredericktown Academy, and when eighteen years of age began teaching. Taught in the public schools of Ohio four years. In 1859 he went to the Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa., from which he graduated in June, 1863. While here he was enrolled in the Pennsylvania Contingent forces, and attached to the One Hundred and Eleventh Pennsylvania Regiment. Was sent to Pittsburgh to defend that city from the threatened raid by the rebel general, Early, in 1863. In June, 1863, he returned to Ohio and engaged in teaching. In December, 1864, he enlisted as a private in Company H, Third Regiment Ohio Veteran Volunteers, filling the vacancy caused by the death of his brother, Samuel C., who lost his life in service in the same company. He was promoted to Ordnance Sergeant of the Regiment; served in Wilson's Cavalry Corps in Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia, until he was mustered out at Macon, Ga., in August, 1865. Returned to Ohio on a visit to friends and in January, 1866, came to Kansas, located at Lawrence, and in April of the same year was elected Professor of Natural Sciences, in Baker University, at Baldwin, which chair he occupied one year. In 1867 he removed to Hartford, and for eight years was principal for the Hartford Collegiate Institute. During this time he also held the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction for Lyon County four years, and continued in this office two years after. During these years, he purchased 240 acres of land and started one of the first nurseries in Lyon County. He planted about 3,000 apple trees in orchard besides other fruit trees. Is now engaged in farming and fruit raising. He was the enumerator of the official census of 1880, for a portion of the Second District. Is a member of Emporia Encampment No. 17, I. O. O. F., and a member of Hartford Lodge No. 8, A. O. U. W. Married Miss Anna P. Smith, of Topeka, April 12, 1873, and they have three children - John R., Mabel E., and Anna P. Mr. and Mrs. Chambers are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Hartford.
WILLIAM J. COMBS, builder, was born in Coles County, Ill., November 14 1842. Resided in Illinois until he came to Kansas in June, 1857, with his step-father, M. L. Ashmore, who took a claim about a mile from Eureka. Wm. J. also took a claim, which he held by land warrant and afterwards entered. He helped to survey the town site of Eureka, and was one of the organizers of the town, the leading business being done in his brother's name. Remained in Eureka until March, 1863, when he enlisted as private in Company M, Fifteenth Kansas Cavalry. Participated in all the engagements in which the regiment took part. Was mustered out in October, 1865, and in November settled in Hartford, where he bought twenty acres of land, and for two years tried farming. Not finding that congenial he went into the carpenter business, in 1859, which business he has since followed. He has done a good proportion of the building up of the town. In addition to his business as a builder he now does an undertaking business. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church; also a member of Hartford Lodge No. 193, A., F. & A. M., of which he is secretary, and of Hartford Lodge No. 8, A. O. U. W. He has held the office of Township Trustee five years, that of Township Clerk two years, and for six years was Justice of the Peace; has been Notary Public in Lyon County for ten years. Married, July 5, 1866, Miss Nancy E. Perry, of Elmantaro Township, by which marriage he has had six children, of whom Emery E., John P., and Ora M. are living.
WILLIAM P. GOULD, hardware merchant, was born in Erie County, Pa., June 16, 1835. The commencement of the War of the Rebellion found him still in his native State, and among the first to respond to the call to arms. In May, 1861, he enlisted in Company C, Eighty-third Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, for a term of three months, and at the expiration of his term of service he again enlisted, this time for a three years' term in Company H, One-Hundred and Eleventh Pennsylvania Regiment, which was assigned to the Twelfth Corps, Army of the Potomac, and participated in the battles of Culpepper Court House, Chancellorsville, Antietam, Gettysburg, and others. In 1863 the regiment was transferred to the Twentieth Corps, and served under Gen. Joe Hooker in the Army of the Cumberland. Mr. Gould was wounded at the battle of Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864. He was twice promoted, and held the rank of First Lieutenant when mustered out, in 1865. He then returned to Pennsylvania, but remained only a short time. In the fall of 1865 he came to this State, locating in Lyon County. Engaged in teaching, and taught in the schools of Hartford, Emporia and Americus. In the fall of 1869 engaged in the mercantile business at Hartford. Kept a general store until 1872, when he sold out, and was for the next four years agent of the M. K. & T. R. R. Co. at Hartford, and bought and shipped corn. In 1875 established a hardware store. In 1880, he took a partner in the business, which still continues under the firm name of W. P. Gould & Co. They handle a general stock of hardware, stoves and agricultural implements. Mr. Gould is president of the Hartford Cemetery Association. He has held the office of Township Clerk many years. Is a member of the Baptist Church of Hartford, and a member of Hartford Lodge No. 8, A. O. U. W. Married Miss Olive M. Gillett, of Emporia, September 25, 1867, by which marriage he has had four children, of whom Carl P., Carrie M., and Otis G. are living.
BENJAMIN N. HUNT, Palace Hotel, was born in Randolph County, Ind., July 12, 1835, and continued to reside in that State until the fall of 1859, when he came to Kansas. Located in Lyon County, one mile north of Hartford, where he purchased a farm of 160 acres, which he improved and resided upon until the spring of 1877, when he removed to Hartford, and for three years operated a meat market. In 1881, he built the Palace Hotel at Hartford, which he opened in September, and has since operated. In connection with the hotel he has a livery and feed stable. He is a member of Hartford Lodge, No. 8, A. O. U. W. He married Miss Lettie Burroughs, of Wayne County, Ind., September 5, 1859, and they have had six children, of whom Bruce and Hayes are living.
LEVI KELL, merchant, was born in Perry County, Pa., July 30, 1828. Resided in Pennsylvania until 1854, when he removed to Clinton County, Ill. Was engaged in farming, having a farm 180 acres there. In June, 1881, came to Kansas, and after a residence of about two months in Greenwood County he located at Hartford where, in connection with his son-in-law, D. C. Bernheisel, He built a commodious brick storehouse, and engaged in general merchandising under the firm name of Bernheisel & Kell. They carry a well selected stock and do a good business. Is a member of the Baptist Church. Married Miss Eliza A. Eutrerkin, of Clinton County, Ill., September, 1856, by which marriage he has had six children, of whom Luelia, John M., Henry W., and Bessie F. are now living.
GEORGE D. MAXSON, M. D., was born in Allegany County, N. Y., September 23, 1826. His early life was pent in New York, where he was educated in the public schools and at Alfred University. In 1846 he removed to Milton, Wis., where he was for three years engaged in teaching. During these years he began the study of medicine, and in 1850 graduated from Rush Medical College, Chicago, Ill. The same year he began the practice of medicine in Jefferson County, Wis. After a residence of two years there he went to California, and for about a year was engaged in mining. He then resumed the practice of his profession, and operated a drug business at Camp Seco, Cal., in which he continued ten years. In 1864 he disposed of this business and entered the army as Assistant Surgeon of the United States Army. Was stationed at Fort Stevens, Oregon, during his whole service of three years. He was mustered out in 1867, and after a visit of nearly two years to his old home in New York, he came to Kansas, locating at Hartford in September, 1869, where he has since been engaged in the active practice of his profession, and in the drug business. Has been a member of the School Board of Hartford eight years. Is a member of Hartford Lodge, No. 193, A., F. & A. M., of which he is W. M.; also a member of Mystic Lodge, No. 62, I. O. O. F., of which his is noble grand. Married Mrs. Hulda Lampshear, of Nile, N. Y., June 27, 1869.
WILLIAM J. MEANS, publisher, was born at Dixon, Ill., February 27, 1858. In the summer of 1860, his parents removed to Kansas, locating at Emporia, where they have since resided. The subject of this sketch was educated in the public schools of Emporia, and in the State Normal School. He learned the printer's trade in the office of the Ledger, and in October, 1879, in connection with L. A. Hoffman, established the Hartford Call. In September, 1881, Mr. Means bought the interest of his partner, and has since published the paper alone. It has a circulation of about 800. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of Hartford; is a member of the Mystic Lodge, No. 62, I. O. O. F., also a member of Hartford Lodge No. 8, A. O. U. W.
ISAAC SARGENT, farmer, P. O. Hartford, born in Windsor County, Vt., January 18, 1822, where he resided until May, 1858, when he came to Kansas, locating on Eagle Creek in Hartford Township. He pre-empted a claim of 160 acres, which he improved and resided upon until the fall of 1857, when he sold it for $2,500. He then bought a farm of 140 acres, in Coffey County, on the Neosho River, about one-half mile from Hartford, for which he paid $1,500. He resided on this place until the fall of 1873, when he sold it for $5,500. The same year he bought thirty acres adjoining the town site of Hartford, upon which he has since resided. Has just built a fine brick residence upon this place. He pays little attention to farming now. Married Miss Rebecca Hunt, of Stockbridge, Vt., in 1839. She died in October, 1880. Married Miss Julia E. Perkins, of Eldorado, April 19, 1881, by which marriage he has one child - Pearl M. Is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Hartford. Has been a member of the School Board for many years.
GEORGE W. SUTTON, M. D., was born in Ohio County, Ind., August 5, 1842. Attended the public schools of Indiana, where he continued to reside until September, 1861, when he enlisted as a private in Company E, Fiftieth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, in which he served twenty-six months, participating in several battles and skirmishes. Was in the Fourteenth Corps, Army of the Tennessee. In the fall of 1863, he received authority to return to Indiana, and raise a company, which he did. Was commissioned Captain of the company, which was assigned to the One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Regiment, Indiana Volunteers, and designated Company I. Was stationed at different points on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, doing guard duty for some time. Was afterward stationed in Kentucky and Tennessee, until mustered out in the fall of 1864. He returned to Indiana, and began the study of medicine at Moore's Hill College, where he remained one year, then went to Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, from which he graduated in June, 1867. He then commenced the practice of medicine at Hart's Mills, Ind., where he resided about a year. In the fall of 1868, he came to Kansas, locating at Americus, Lyon County, where he remained in the practice of his profession about eighteen months. In the spring of 1871, he removed to Hartford, where he has since resided, and been engaged in active practice. He has build a fine residence and three business houses in Hartford. Was elected vice-president of the Hartford Bank in 1882.. Was a member of the State Legislature of 1880-81, and was re- elected in the fall of 1882 for the coming term. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of Hartford, and superintendent of the Sabbath school. Member of Hartford Lodge, No. 193, A., F. & A. M. Member of Hartford Lodge, No. 8, A. O. U. W. He married Miss Katie King, of Council Grove, April 7, 1870, by which marriage he has two children - Emma E. and Frederick R.
ISAAC A. TAYLOR, miller, was born in Carter County, Tenn., February 14, 1843. His early life was spent in his native State where he was educated in the public schools and at Boone's Creek Seminary. Being a Union man, he became early involved in the War of the Rebellion, and was engaged as a scout in Tennessee, in 1861. In August, 1862, he went to Illinois, and enlisted as a private, in Company H, One Hundred and Twenty-second Regular Illinois Infantry, which was assigned to the Sixteenth Corps, Army of the Tennessee. Participated in the battle of Parker's Cross Roads, where he was wounded by a shell, which disabled him from duty for a period of eight months, after which he returned to his company, and participated in all the engagements in which it took part, until June, 1864, when he was promoted to Second Lieutenant and transferred to Company I, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry Regiment. In November, 1864, he was promoted to First Lieutenant of the same company, and in March, 1865, was promoted to Captain of Company B, same regiment. He was detailed as Adjutant General on the staff of General Gillen, commanding an independent brigade of Tennessee troops called the Governor's Guard, doing duty in Eastern Tennessee. The brigade was afterwards transferred to the command of General Stoneman, and participated in the raid made by him in the rear of the armies of General Lee and General Johnson, in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, and in the pursuit of Jeff Davis, until his capture by Wilson's Cavalry. After the regiment was mustered out, Captain Taylor remained in service on the staff of the Commanding Officer of the District of Eastern Tennessee. He was mustered out, October 20, 1865, and received a commission as Second Lieutenant in the Fourth Regiment United States Cavalry of the Regular Army. He declined to accept this commission, and returned to Carter County and engaged in farming. Upon the day of his marriage, November 1, 1866, he was elected to the Tennessee Legislature, from Carter County, and in 1867, was again elected to the Legislature, from Carter and Johnson counties, for a term of two years. In 1869, he became connected with the office of the Assessor of United States Internal Revenue, First Tennessee District, in which he remained until May, 1871. In 1870, he was also Secretary and Treasurer of the East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railway Company. In June, 1871, he came to Kansas, locating at Hartford, where he established a flouring mill, which he has since operated. He has also been engaged in stock- feeding and dealing. In January, 1882, he was elected a director of the Hartford Bank. He has been a member of the Board of Commissioners of Lyon County five years, and Chairman of the Board, three years. He is a member of Emporia Commandery, No. 8, K. T., a member of Hartford Lodge No. 193, A., F. & A. M., a member of Hartford Lodge No. 8, A. O. U. W., and a member of Emporia Post No. 55, G. A. R. He married Miss Amanda J. Rogan, of Washington County, Tennessee, November 1, 1866, and they have had seven children, of whom five are now living.