William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas


[TOC] [part 11] [part 9] [Cutler's History]


The Kansas Herald was the first paper printed in Leavenworth or in the Territory. It was owned and published by William H. Adams. When, during the early part of September, 1854, he found himself ready to inaugurate the enterprise, not a single building could be obtained upon the present site of Leavenworth to accommodate him. The ground was thickly covered with timber and underbrush, and not a single structure appeared to give shelter to the Herald. The proprietor, however, who was about to erect a building on the Levee, just east of Delaware street, was not discouraged, but placing his "cases" in the shade of the "old elm tree," near the corner of Cherokee and the Levee, he commenced putting his "airy and commodious" office in order, and here the first number of the Kansas Herald was issued September 15, 1854. In form the paper was a six column folio, "$2 in advance." In it Lewis N. Rees advertised his dry goods and groceries, corner of Broadway and the Levee; William J. Osborn, Bird & Miller, C. C. Andrews, A. W. Hazeirigg, A. J. Whitney, C. W. Babcock, B. H. Twombly, C. McCrea, as lawyers; John Harvey Day, M. D., as a physician, and Samuel M. Lyon, as a house joiner and carpenter. Mr. Osborn had his office in the "editorial room" of the Herald, that was to be, and was interested in the paper, but was financially a cipher. The next number of the Herald was issued on the 22nd, from the new building which Mr. Adams had erected, the first in Leavenworth. Charles Leib, M. D., the first physician, had located for practice in "the big tent" north of the big elm tree. But although the Herald building proudly raised its roof as the pioneer structure of Leavenworth, its office even when fairly occupied was not a paradise of neatness and order, as will appear from the following, which was written a few weeks after the issuing of its first number, by a gentleman from Baton Rouge, La., who visited the establishment:

"A visit to the printing office afforded a rich treat. On entering the first room on the right hand, three law 'shingles' were on the door; on one side was a rich bed, French blankets, sheets, table cloths, shirts, cloaks and rugs, all together; on the wall hung hams, maps, venison and rich engravings, onions, portraits and boots; on the floor were a side of bacon carved to the bone, corn and potatoes, stationery and books; on a nice dressing case stood a wooden tray full of dough, while crockery occupied the professional desk. In a room to the left, the sanctum, the housewife, cook and editor lived in glorious unity, one person. He was seated on a stool, with paper before him on a piece of plank, writing a vigorous knockdown to an article in the Kickapoo Pioneer, a paper in a rival city. The cook-stove was at his left, and tin kettles all around; the corn cake was 'a-doing,' and instead of scratching his head for an idea, as editors often do, he turned the cake and went ahead."

About six weeks after the first publication of the Herald, Mr. Osborn retired from any connection with the paper, and Gen. Lucien J. Eastin, became editor and part proprietor with Mr. Adams. He afterward obtained entire control. The Herald was Pro-slavery to the core, and Gen. Eastin associated with himself, in 1855, a fiery young Virginian named H. Rives Pollard, who afterward figured as the historian of the "Southern Confederacy." Early in 1859, William H. Gill, military store-keeper at Fort Leavenworth, purchased an interest in the paper, and became its editor, a daily edition being established May 17, of that year. Ward Burlingame was also a writer on the paper. The political policy of the Herald was greatly modified under Mr. Gill's management, and it supported the nomination of Mr. Douglas vigorously. During the following year the paper fell into the hands of William P. Fain who had been United States Marshal at a former period. Its financial status had become much impaired by this time, and the Herald was not prosperous under its new management. In the fall of 1860, Messrs. R. C. Satterlee, B. R. Wilson (now of the Oskloosa Sickle), and C. W. Helm, assumed the management of the paper, Mr. Helm being the editor. June 13, of the next year, Mr. Satterlee was shot and killed by Col. Anthony. The paper lingered a few days longer and expired, the last number being dated June 27, 1861.

The Territorial Register was started in March, 1855, by Sevier & Delahay; the latter was afterward appointed United States District Judge by President Lincoln. Delahay was the editor, and the Register was strongly Free-state, but with conservative tendencies. On the night of December 22, 1855, it was destroyed b a quasi military organization - in fact, a mob - called the "Kickapoo Rangers." The material of the office was thrown into the Missouri River.

The Leavenworth Journal, a Pro-slavery paper, but rather conservative in its views, was started in the spring of 1856. Col. S. S. Goode was the editor and proprietor, and was succeeded by "Jack" Henderson. In the spring of 1858, Hutchison & Campbell leased the establishment of John A. Halderman, to whom it had descended in satisfaction of indebtedness incurred. They published a daily edition for nearly a year, with indifferent success, when the building in which it was published fell, "pleing" the type, and destroying most of the other materials. A few numbers were subsequently issued at the Times office, when the Journal finally suspended.

Gen. W. George McLane, and enthusiastic admirer of Marc Parrott, "the silver - tongued orator of Kansas," during the latter part of 1854, prepared an article for Gen. Eastin's Herald, eulogistic of Mr. Parrott and urging his selection as a delegate to Congress. The editor of the Herald refused to publish it, which so nettled Gen. McLane that he determined to have a paper of his own, and shortly after sent forth Young America.

On September 1, 1857, it was succeeded by the Daily Leger, the first daily published west of St. Louis. It suspended in July, 1859. Gen McLane died in Leadville, in 1880.

The Evening Register, a Republican daily, was started by Delahay & Dugger, in August, 1859. It was afterward issued by Dugger alone. Its existence was precarious, and after several temporary suspensions, it died in 1860.

Leavenworth Times. The Times of to-day is the result of the consolidation of three newspapers with the original journal, the first number of which was issued March 7, 1857, from the third story of a stone building on Delaware street. It was originally controlled by a joint stock company, and was edited by Robert Crozier, afterward Chief Justice of the State Supreme Court, and now Judge of the First District. After six months the establishment passed into the hands of Col. J. C. Vaughan and his son, Champion. The daily first made its appearance February 15, 1858. Subsequently, J. Kemp Bartlett became a partner with Col. Vaughan. Mr. Bartlett finally became sole proprietor, and conducted the paper three years. In October, 1863, Thomas Carney became the proprietor. In the meantime - January 28, 1861 - D. R. Anthony had established the Leavenworth Conservative, with D. W. Wilder as editor. Besides these gentlemen, Messrs. Matthew Weightman, George F. Prescott, George C. Hume and Henry Buckingham were interested in the paper. The material for the paper was bought by Mr. Anthony, wh, during the following autumn, entered the United States service, sold out his interest to Mr. Wilder, and became known henceforth as Col. Anthony. Previous to September, 1868, the Conservative, an uncompromising, radical sheet was managed by Wilder & Weightman, Insley (M. H.) & Wright (John W.) And Wilder & Wright. The Times, as staunch Free-state and Republican paper from its foundation, was absorbed by the Conservative during that month, the firm having become Wilder & Sleeper (H. S.) in August. The new paper took the name Times and Conservative, but soon dropped the latter appellation, its proprietors doubtless considering it a misnomer. The Evening Bulletin (Republican) had been established since September 18, 1862, but succumbed to the absorbing genius of the Times in November, 1871. Col. Anthony had purchased and published the Bulletin from September, 1864, until August 1865. As stated, six years later he obtained possession of it again, and consolidated it with the Times. The Leavenworth Commercial, a Democratic paper, was established October 3, 1866, and purchased by Col. Anthony, January 1, 1876. He ran it as an evening edition, for a few months, then merged it regularly with the Times.

The Times is a finely printed eight-column folio sheet, staunchly Republican in politics. It is a political power in the State, and yet is a newspaper in the true sense of the word. Its news, whether local, county, State of national, is always fresh, and presented in a pithy, readable shape; its advertising list is a conclusive proof of its financial prosperity. Attached to the newspaper is a large and well-managed job-office. For enterprise and solid financial basis, the Times has no superior in the State.

The Times building, a fine brick structure, 48 x 110 feet, three stories and basement, is one of the best equipped printing houses west of St. Louis. On the first floor is the counting room, private office and library of Col. Anthony, stock room and a nicely arranged reading room. On the second floor are the editorial and composing rooms. The building is two stories on Main street, three stories and a basement on the Levee. The basement proper is occupied as an engine room. On the next floor are the book and job office, printing presses, folding machine, etc., etc.

The Leavenworth Standard, daily and weekly, was established in January, 1870, at the city of Lawrence, by a stock company, of which Wilson Shannon was president. In 1873, the establishment passed into the hands of D. T. Mitchell. F. J. Skiff became proprietor in 1875, and Major E. G. Ross, editor. The next year Mr. Ross became sole proprietor, and in October, 1880, associated with himself has two sons - Arthur and Pitt. The Standard was then removed to Leavenworth, and in February a stock company was formed consisting of the following Board of Directors: T. A. Hurd, president; J. W. Crancer, treasurer; E. G. Ross, editor; J. F. Richards, B. C. Clark, S. F. Neely; R. A. Ketner, secretary and business manager. The Standard is an eight-column folio sheet, and an uncompromising Democratic journal. Its editor, Major E. G. Ross, is one of the veteran journalists of the West. He was born December 7, 1826, at Ashland, Ohio. As a bare-headed, bare-footed boy, he commenced to learn the printer's trade in Huron, Ohio. In 1856, Mr. Ross came to Topeka, and in connection with W. W. Ross published the Kansas Tribune for two years. In 1856, they established the State Record, which was sold in 1862, when E. G. Ross enlisted in the army. Being discharged in 1865, Major Ross was appointed United States Senator, and at the end of his term in 1871, started Ross' Paper, at Coffeyville. In 1873, he became editor of the Spirit of Kansas, and in 1875 of the Standard. The Standard is now edited by H. C. Burnett, Chas. Tillotson, manager. Major E. G. Ross is editing a paper in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

The Press, a daily evening Republican paper, was established April 2, 1877. H. B. Horn, editor; Fred. J. Wendell, business manager. In July, 1878, Mr. Wendell withdrew, and Mr. Horn became the proprietor. Charles H. Miller purchased the paper in October, 1878, but sold the same year to Jos. Clark and H. M. Aller. The latter became sole owner in the spring of 1882; Charles Tillitson business manager. The daily is 24 x 36 inches in size, the weekly 28 x 44. Politics, stalwart Republican.

The Kansas Freie Presse was established in 1868, by Major John Haeberlein, this journal being a continuation, virtually of the Leavenworth Zeitung and the Kansas Zeitung, the former being founded by Fritz Beaunhold, in 1858. The Presse was conducted by Major Haeberlein and his sons (Haeberlein Brothers) until 1881, when an association was formed. Chris. Schubert became, and is now, the business manager of the paper, and Lorenz Rohr, one of the ablest German journalists of the West, its editor. The Presse is recognized as one of the most influential and outspoken papers in the West, and stands in the front rank of the German newspapers of the country. The daily issue is a seven-column folio, and the weekly edition an eight-column. Connected with the paper is a complete German and English job office.

The Workingman's Friend. This is the largest Greenback-labor newspaper in Kansas, and was established by James W. Remington in 1877. It was endorsed, at the time, by an organization of workingmen, embracing some 500, in the city of Leavenworth. The paper has been enlarged until it is now one of the most successful weeklies in the State. During the time that the Workingman's Friend has been in existence it has absorbed six other weeklies, opponents of the cause which it champions, and is therefore a first-class advertising medium. Although Mr. Remington is yet a young man, only thirty-three years of age, he is an old citizen of Kansas, having first visited Leavenworth when there were but eight or ten upright houses on its site. This was in 1851.


State Penitentiary. - On a beautiful fifty-acre tract of land, about five miles south of the city, is the State penitentiary. It is upon a high and commanding site, impressing the visitor as he approaches it massive walls, as both an imposing and graceful structure. Entering the beautifully improved prison yard through a high doorway he enters the central building, which occupies a position between the cell houses, and contains offices, living rooms and dormitories. It is four stories high, 60 x 83 feet, and like the two cell houses adjoining it, is built of a very fine quality of sandstone. The cell houses are each 250 x 50 feet, containing each 344 cells, 7 x 4 x 7 feet. All other buildings are of brick.

The first work done in erecting the prison was in 1864, and consisting only of the foundation falls of the north wing. Work was again resumed permanently in the late fall of 1866 and continued until the present. At the close of the fiscal year building and furnishings will be all completed, at a cost of $568,635.81. All other expenditures, $1,276,696.53, making a total expenditure from its commencement to the close of this fiscal year (June 30, 1882), of $1,845,332.34. The prison was first occupied July 11, 1868. The prison yard, containing the shops and other buildings, contains ten acres, and is surrounded by a wall twenty feet high and seven and a half feet thick at base.

Prisoners have heretofore been employed upon the work of erecting prison buildings, putting in cells, etc. Their labor in this direction is at an end. But they are employed besides in the manufacture of farm and spring wagons and implements, in the making of buggies and carriages, men's boots, and women's shoes, in the manufacture of marble mantels and monuments, work required in the care and maintenance of the prison inmates, and (most important of all) in the mining of coal. The work of sinking the coal shaft commenced November 26, 1879, and the mineral was reached January 18, 1881. The total cost up to July 1, 1882, including the sinking of shaft and operating expenses was $43,671, and the value of the product $41,951. Up to June 30, 1882, there have been mined 584,304 bushels of coal. The State penitentiary is now self sustaining which is the first time that this statement could have been truthfully made in its history, and this state of affairs has been brought about by the very successful working of the coal mines under Major Hopkins' management. The cash earnings for the fiscal year, 1882, were $89,543.94; value of coal furnished State institutions at seven cents per bushel, $12,691.31; value of improvements, $18,467.25. Total, $120,702.50. The aggregate expenditures for all purposes were, $120,045.99, leaving a balance for 1882 of $656.51. The item given above - value of improvements, $18,467.25" - does not include any work done for the State, except on improvement and repairs, and therefore excludes from the sum total of receipts, the daily earnings of 100 men. The total number of persons who have been convicted and served sentences in the prison from January 1, 1867, to June 1, 1882, is 3,008. The number discharged, etc., during that period, 2,323, leaving in confinement June 1, 1882, 685. The total number of deaths in the prison from all causes during the period of fifteen and one-half years has been fifty-seven, or a little less than one and nine-tenths per cent. The system observed in the penitentiary requires that each prisoner must don the regulation striped clothing and then be shaved by the State barber. He then is instructed as to the rules and regulations of the place, and his cell is furnished with necessary articles of furniture, to which the prisoner may add others when he has earned the money by actual labor. Cleanliness is enforced, and there is no communication allowed between prisoners. The penitentiary has a fine library, and prisoners may purchase books which are approved by the authorities. Those capable of learning a trade are assisted in that direction. During the year the working hours average nine and a half daily, and during the six winter months from sunrise to sunset. For violations of the prison discipline prisoners are punished by deprivation of the privileges of the library, writing and receiving letters to and from friends, work on bread and water, close confinement in their cells on bread and water once a day, and in extreme cases only, the blind cell on bread and water is resorted to. The State penitentiary is under the immediate supervision of a warden, whose accounts are examined every month. Monthly settlements are made with the State. The three State prison directors (July, 1882), are: H. E. Richter, Council Grove, Morris County; W. W. Guthrie, Atchison; J. S. Waters, Oswego, Labette County. Major Henry Hopkins, one of the most skilled reformatory officers in the country, has been warden of the State penitentiary since 1870. A McGahey is chief clerk; Rev. A. B. Campbell, chaplain; W. B. Carpenter, physician. Since the institution of the State penitentiary the wardens and deputy wardens in office have been as follows: Wardens, Geo. H. Keller, March 12, 1867, to March, 1868; J. L. Philbrick, 1868-70; Henry Hopkins, 1870-1882. Deputy Wardens, Henry Hopkins, Mary 12, 1867, to March, 1870; Gideon Armstrong, 1870-71; John Johnson, 1871-73; C. J. Hanks, 1873-77; S. K. Cross, 1877-81; John Johnston, May, 1881-82.

The Kansas Orphan Asylum. - In the year 1866 the Protestant Orphan Asylum and Home for Friendless Children was organized as a private charitable institution for the city and county of Leavenworth. It was located on a beautiful plat of ground containing five acres, on South Broadway, a little over a mile from the heart of the city. The original cost of the land, including the buildings thereon, amounted to $4,000. This outlay, as well as its support since, has been met and fully provided for by contributions from the business men of the city, and the proceeds of charitable entertainments and donations given for its benefit by the citizens of Leavenworth. For one year, the asylum and only the right to receive and dispose of children under the law relating to apprentices; during this time many applications were received from parties desirous of taking children by adoption. To give the Trustees this power, further legislation was necessary. On February 2, 1867, in answer to an application, this privilege was granted. The frequent and pressing applications for the admission of children from different parts of the State (there being no other Protestant Institution of the kind in the State) impressed upon the Board of Trustees the necessity of extending their work and thereby further promoting the usefulness of the institution; with that end in view an application was made to the Legislature in 1871 for an appropriation for the purpose of erecting buildings adequate to the growing wants of the State. Upon this application $2,500 was received; not deeming this sum sufficient, it was prudently placed on interest until it could be increased to an amount adequate to carry out the desired purpose. The necessity of a new and larger building becoming imperative, the Board of Trustees were induced to again make application to the Legislature in 1874, and $7,000 was received from this application. This, with the $2,500 previously contributed by the State, was invested in a commodious and substantial building, with a present capacity of accommodating forty children.

In pursuance of the agreement under which the asylum accepted the grant of 1874, the name of the instution (sic) was changed to the Kansas Orphan Asylum, and the management bound themselves to receive children from all counties in the State upon the same terms as governed them as a local organization. Accordingly in January, 1877, an amendment to the constitution was adopted giving the Board of Trustees power to organize auxiliary societies throughout the State. Since that time some sixty societies have been formed throughout the State.

In 1879 the asylum received $5,000 from the State, which was also applied to the improvement of the building and grounds, making a total of about $16,000 which has been so expended. The property is located on Pennsylvania avenue, corner of Broadway, the land being donated by the citizens of Leavenworth. The building is a fine three-story brick edifice, with mansard roof and tower, and presents a substantial and imposing appearance. Until the winter of 1881 and '82 the running expenses of the asylum were cheerfully met by generous patrons of the institution. At that time, however, the Legislature passed a bill granting for that purpose $200 per month for two years. The asylum is now (July, 1882,) free of debt and sheltering thirty-eight orphans, half orphans, destitute and dependent children - an increase of ten over the previous year.

Say the Board of Trustees in their annual report for the year 1882: "At out last anniversary there were 28 children remaining in the asylum; 64 have been received, making a total of 92 cared for during the year, 48 boys and 44 girls; placed in homes, 20; by adoption, 8; agreement, 12; returned to friends, 31; died, 1; left without permission, 1; sent to Reform School, 1; remaining in the asylum, 38." It may be remarked here that the Board of Trustees and other officers of the asylum have never received compensation for their services. The institution is one for which the best people of Leavenworth have labored long and faithfully, and the encouraging result of their labors is now returning to them.

Present officers: Rev. J. B. NcCleery, president; Mrs. Thomas Carney, vice-president; John Wilson, treasurer; Mrs. Chas. Currier, recording secretary; Mrs. G. W. Neils, corresponding secretary. Mrs. J. Hodgkinson is the matron in charge.

The Orphans' Friend, a paper published in connection with the asylum, has entered its fourth volume, and is doing much to advance the good work. It already has a circulation of 3,000 copies.

Home for the Friendless. - This institution was organized in 1868. In 1870, a charter was secured, also an appropriation of $10,000 from the Legislature for a building, and $2,000 from the city of Leavenworth for a site. Later, after the care of children became a specialty, the citizens contributed the fends for the erection of the building known as the "Cottage," and have always given largely for the support of the work. The object of the institution is three-fold. First - To afford temporary shelter for sick and destitute women and children. Second - To aid women in securing situations where they can be self supporting and respectable members of society, and to place the children in Christian homes. Third - To bring to bear upon all inmates the best influences at command, that they may go forth better instructed and fortified for the work of life. While this is not regularly a home for the aged, quite a number of old ladies have been cared for with tender solicitude. In 1879 such success attended the labors of eh home management that a $6,000 appropriation was obtained from the Legislature and applied toward the erection of an additional building. Up to 1880 no money has been received from the State to support a constantly increasing family, which had numbered in the aggregate about 2,000 individuals. During the winter of 1880-81 an appropriation was obtained of $200 per month, to run two years and be applied to current expenses. As it at present stands, the building is a tastefully constructed edifice, standing upon nicely improved grounds on Marshall Street. It is of brick, stone trimmings, three stories, basement and tower, with a front of sixty-three feet. The cottage, noticed above, is used for the care of small children. Although but $16,000 has been expended on the building, it was at a time when labor and material were low, and $25,000 is nearer the value of the property to-day. The management of the home is in the hands and hearts of energetic, benevolent ladies, selected from all of the Protestant churches of the city, its officers fro 1882 being as follows: Mrs. C. H. Cushing, president; Mrs. E. Mayo and Mrs. C. B. Brace, vice-presidents; Mrs. J. L. Hunting, treasurer; Mrs. Rosa Atwood, recording secretary; Mrs. A. Lake, corresponding secretary; Miss Mary E. Dunkle, matron; Eliza K. Morgan, M. D., physician. At present (July, 1882) the inmates number about seventy. During the year 1881-82 there were received into the home 244 persons, of whom four were aged women. The figures speak for themselves. Like actions, of which they are indices, speak louder than mere words of praise. To aid in this charitable work the Home Record, a neat little four column folio sheet, was established in 1872. It has been conducted from the first by Mrs. C. H. Cushing, and to her energy and business tact is largely due the fact that the paper has already reached a circulation of 5,800 copies. The press has also been brought into play in another particular to carry on the good work. The "Kansas Home Cook Book" published by the Board of managers in 1874, has not only brought a handsome income to the institution, but has obtained a well deserved reputation for "truth and veracity" among the actual and the would-be housekeepers of the State.

[TOC] [part 11] [part 9] [Cutler's History]