KanColl: The Kansas Historical Quarterlies

Rebecca Visits Kansas and the Custers:
The Diary of Rebecca Richmond

by Minnie Dubbs Millbrook

Winter, 1976 (Vol. 42, No. 2), pages 366 to 402
Transcribed by Ron Griffin; HTML editing by Name withheld upon request;
digitized with permission of the Kansas State Historical Society.
NOTE: The numbers in brackets are links to footnotes for this text.


REBECCA RICHMOND'S diary, covering two visits to Kansas and Fort Leavenworth, was apparently borrowed by Elizabeth Bacon Custer when in the 1880's she wrote her book about life in Kansas -- Tenting on the Plains and Following the Guidon. The diary remains with the extensive "Elizabeth B. Custer Collection" that is presently deposited at Eastern Montana College in Billings, Mont., but is not included in the microfilm of that collection. The entries covering the first visit begin January 1, 1868, and end April 24, 1868; those bearing on the second visit begin with an entry on February 19, 1870, and end March 23, 1870.

      Rebecca Richmond (1840-1925) was Elizabeth Custer's favorite cousin and they visited and corresponded with each other throughout their long lives. Their mothers -- Loraine Page Richmond and Eleanor Page Bacon -- were sisters. The Page and Richmond families lived at Grand Rapids, Mich. Rebecca's father, William Richmond, was a well-to-do farmer, retired, and living at the National Hotel in Grand Rapids in 1868. Her sister, Mary, had married September 17, 1866, Charles F. Kendall of Kalamazoo who had been in business at Grand Rapids until the end of 1867 when he decided to move to Kansas. Rebecca also had a brother, Jonathan, who for a short time lived in Wamego, Kan., and later in Topeka.

      In 1868 Rebecca Richmond was 28 years old, well educated for a woman of her day, vivacious and attractive, though not a beauty like her cousin Libbie. She had visited Gen. George Armstrong Custer and his wife in January, 1865, when they were stationed at Winchester, Va., and apparently enjoyed the military milieu. She sang, played the piano and guitar.

      The diary was written in a school notebook about 63/4" X 8" with lined pages and a picture on the cover. The diary began in December, 1866, running for 11 days only to be discontinued and then taken up again on January 1, 1868. The 1866 entries relating to life in Grand Rapids are not given here. When Rebecca started to write again in 1868 she began with a long resume about the family which appears below though somewhat excerpted. The diary entries of 1870 were apparently torn from a book of the same size as the original notebook and remain with it as loose leaves. On the back of the notebook Libbie Custer wrote, "Rebecca's diary of Kansas Fort leavenworth. To be destroyed. EBC."

      The Richmond family did not settle in Kansas as it seemed they might in the spring of 1868. The Kendall's, however, remained in Topeka until Charles's death in 1895. They had one son, born in 1869, who seems to have died soon after birth. Rebecca, though traveling extensively, kept her residence in Grand Rapids throughout her long life. In her will she left a trust fund of $10,000, the income from which was for for the use of Elizabeth Custer during her lifetime.

     It is not possible to identify everybody that Rebecca met in Kansas and mentioned in her diary, though an attempt has been made to find information on many of them. Most generally the data on the army officers has been found in Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, v.1 (Washington 1903).

II. The Diary, January 1, 1868-April 24, 1868.

FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS, JANUARY 1, 1868. -- What a flood of memories the perusal of the first pages of this book has just let loose upon my heart. The changes wrought in one short twelve months are startling indeed. "Turn where so e'er I may by night or day, the things which I have seen I shall see no more." And yet the machinery of time has been worked, so quietly, so skillfully, that the threads were scarce aware of the fact that they were manipulated into the warp and woof of history until the balance sheet of the expired year revealed the fabric complete in its variety of pattern and coloring.

     The National Hotel, Grand Rapids, Mich. is no longer the abiding place of the Richmond family. After making a prospective tour through Kansas last fall, Charles and Mary returned to G. Rapids, settled up their business (disposing partnership with John Kendall), packed their furniture and household good for transportation and after ten days spent visiting friends in the city, bade adieu to old home scenes and faces and boarded the cars as emigrants.... Minnie Perkins accompanied them to Ann Arbor, and there they spent two days with Uncle Chas. Richmond's family, going thence to Kalamazoo to visit Charlie's mother and brother, before taking a final leave of Michigan. There I joined them on the day after Christmas, and we came together to this point [Fort Leavenworth, Kan.].

      Mother and father expected to leave the southeast corner, fourth story, No. 21 [National Hotel] just before or immediately after New Years, intending to go to Ann Arbor and thence east, and perhaps south, for the winter....

      WEDNESDAY, JANY 1, 1868. -- And now to return to the present. General Custer [1] and his wife, Anna Darrah, [2] Charles Kendall, Mary and I were stationed in the front parlor at one o'clock today to receive the callers and pass others along to the refreshment table in the back room. We were honored by about forty calls, and among them I can recall the following names:


Genl Smith

Col. Mcnutt

Capt. Huntington

"       Card

"      Stein

"        Barnitz

Major Bell

"       Easton

"      Weir

"        Yates

"         Parker

"      Gibbs

"      Sheridan

"        Robbins

"         Beebe

"      Davidson

"      Parsons

"        Butler

Lieut. Gibson

"      McKeever

"      Hancock

"        Hale

"        Brown

Dr.  Mills

Maj. Belger

"       "Salt" Smith

"        Custer

"     Brewer

Ad. Moylan

"       "Fresh" Smith

"        Howe

"     McGruder

Lieut. Jackson

Lieut. Reed

"        Leary

"     Lippincot

"        Johnson

"        Crawford

"        Cooke

Gen. Morgan

Chaplain Stone

Capt. Hamilton

"        Rogers

Judge Crozier

Col. Carpenter

Mr. Wilson

Mr. Caldwell [3]

      Messrs Weir, Bell, Hale, Jackson and Cooke spent the evening with us and we had some music. Major Bell [4] brought "Silence!" a very pretty serenade, and he with some of the other gentlemen sang it beautifully.

      THURSDAY, JAN'Y 2. -- A mild sunny day; furs and overcoats at a discount; -- doors and windows open. Took a delightful ride this morning with Gen'l Custer in his light buggy. We drove around the boundary of the government reservation attached to the fort, and took observation upon the latter from all points of view. The country is extremely picturesque and the roads are fine. We started a rabbit from its farm, on a hillside and several squirrels bounded away to the tree tops at our approach.

      Friday, JAN'Y 3. -- Armstrong and Libbie, Charles, Mary and I rode over to town this morning in the flanigan. A bright, beautiful day but a trifle cooler than yesterday. Charles found his horse, Jackson, at the depot, having just arrived from Kalamazoo; -- so rode him out to the Fort, and the vacant seats in the flanigan were occupied (by invitation) by Col. Weir and Lieut. Brown. [5] Sang as we rode, also ate an apple which was presented by an outrider, a cavalryman -- Bell. this evening just before retreat, Gen'l Custer was arrested by two officers from town on a charge of murder, preferred by one Lieut. Col. West. [8]

      Lieut. Jackson preceded the rest of the party on the return and was the first to relieve us of our sorrowful apprehensions concerning the probability of the general's being obliged to remain in durance vile all night. All returned in good spirits at about ten o'clock and Jackson, Cooke, Bell, Gen'l Smith and Weir helped us to pass the rest of the evening hilariously and musically. [9]

      SATURDAY, JANY 4. -- Still bright and mild. Libbie, Mary and I paid some visits this morning, accompanied by Armstrong. Called upon Mrs. McKeever, Mrs. Barnitz, and the Parsons.

      This afternoon at five o'clock we took dinner at the "Attache barracks" with the "Bedlam Mess, No. 1," consisting of Capt Weir, Yates, Major Bell and Lieut Jackson. Libbie, Armstrong, and Anna, Mary, Charles and I went, and Col. Carpenter and Lieut. Clark were also guests. [10] We were treated to a sumptuous repast, gotten up in fine style and served in good order. All together very handsomely entertained. At about seven o'clock the gentlemen, our hosts, accompanied us home and spent the remainder of the evening as our guests.

      SUNDAY, JANY 5. -- A change in the weather. The morning broke cloudy with high wind which increased in strength and frigidity until night shut out the scene. All attended morning service at the chapel which is a room about the size of our S. S. room at home, in a long, low stone building. The other rooms in the building are devoted to a day school and to the soldiers' reading room. The chapel is quite cozily fitted up. There was a poor apology for a choir. This morning accompanied by a miserably managed melodeon. Rev. Mr. Stone conducted the services. [11] None of us went out this evening but spent the evening in singing sacred music, assisted by Lieut Jackson and Col. Weir.

      On Sunday morning we breakfast at about 81/2 o'clock, an hour earlier than usual so as to enable the officers to be in punctual attendance upon the regular Sunday Inspection. The display was fine today, cavalry, artillery and infantry all out at once in the parade ground. Parsons, Huntingdon, Howe and Leary are the battery officers. The first bugle call for church sounded at half past ten and the second at eleven.

      MONDAY, JANY 6. -- Very cold. Armstrong and Libbie, Mary and Charles went to the city this morning to see and hear the Swiss bell ringers, the Alleghanians. Anna and I remained at home. Messrs. Cooke and Jackson, Johnson and Howe called.

      TUESDAY JANY 7. -- Cold and high wind. Called upon Mrs. Dr. Mills, Mrs. Dr. Brewer, and Mrs. Parker. Mrs. Dr. Mills was a Miss Halsey of Trumansburg, N.C. and therefore connected to uncle John Marsh's family. She has two daughters at Miss Porter's school at Farmington, Conn., and Mrs. Dr. Brewer is another daughter. Mrs. major Major Parker is a young Philadelphia lady, quite pleasing, and reminds me of Georgie Bull of Detroit. her husband is a fine guitarist.

      JANY 7. -- This morning we have had a jolly good time playing parlor games, and redeeming forfeits. The company consisted of Gen'l Custer, Col. Sheridan, [12] Col. Weir, Major Bell, Major Beebe, brother Charlie, Libbie, Mary and I. Anna was incapacitated through neuralgia.

     Anna and I dined with Gen'l Gibbs and family.

     WEDNESDAY JANY 8. -- Very cold but bright. The examination into the Custer and Cooke case commenced today at the Office of Justice Adams. [13] The defendants, accompanied by numerous friends, repaired to the city at half past eight this morning and did not return until seven this evening.

     SATURDAY, JANY 11. -- Brother Charles bought today a stock of goods in the city of Leavenworth which was brought here from Cincinnatti on commission and which was about to be re-shipped from lack of encouragement. When the proprietor accepted Charles offer of fifty cents on the dollar, Charles paid for the stock consisting of woolen goods, hosiery, handk'fs, gloves, collars, &c.

     SUNDAY, JANY 12. -- Very cold and cloudy. We all attended service at the chapel this morning. There being an ineffectual attempt to muster a choir. Mary and I after church offered our service for the evening to assist Miss Brewer and any others who might volunteer. with the sanction of the chaplain Rev. Mr. Stone, Miss Brewer appointed a meeting for rehearsal at 31/2 o'clock. At that time there assembled at the chapel, Mr. Stone, Gen'l Custer and Libbie, Miss Brewer, Col. weir, Col. Sheridan, Major Beebe, Mary and I and a member of the band to play the melodeon. We had a real nice rehearsal, using the "Church Choir" and preparing the whole musical service for the evening. but, when evening came and the rest of us reported for duty, behold Miss Brewer had taken her seat in the congregation, thus refusing her countenance and assistance. Under those embarrassing circumstances Gen'l Custer and Major Beebe decided that it was best to leave the chants unsung but leading off the psalm and hymn to the old familiar tunes of Silver Street and Christmas, the congregation joined with one heart and voice.
     After service Col. Weir, Capt. Hale, Major Beebe and Lieut. Jackson joined our family circle and enjoyed a good old fashioned sing for about an hour.

     MONDAY, JANY 13. -- Snow storm.

     TUESDAY, JANY 14. -- Bright and pleasant. The sleighs have been flying around right cheerily today. spent an hour and a half with Mary and Libbie in at the Gen'l Gibbs spreading bread and butter for the "hop." This evening the general and Libbie, Anna and Mr. Jackson, Major Bell and I attended said "hop," which was held in the Davidson house" [14] now vacant. A very nice party -- good music, handsome decorations, agreeable people, and refreshing refreshments consisting of bread and butter, cold turkey, chicken salad, coffee and lemonade. Met Mrs. Dr. Magruder, a particularly pleasing lady, who has just returned from a short visit at St. Louis. There were several young ladies from Leavenworth City, among them, Miss Hunt, Miss Delahey, Miss Young and the three daughters of Justice Adams. Became acquainted with an agreeable officer of the 10th cavalry, a Capt. S. R. Colladay, hailing from Philadelphia. [15] Charles returned so late from his business and was much fatigued that he and Mary declined attending.

     THURSDAY, JANY 16. -- Sleighing all gone. Still clear and cold. This morning Capt. Yates, Major Bell and Lieut. Jackson called to invite us to attend the theatre, but for various reasons a party could not be enlisted, therefore after responding to a false summons to officers' school, Messrs Jackson & Bell returned and spent the evening with us. The Major and I suffered much in a game of euchre with Gen'l Custer and Libbie, the score standing 6 to 1.

     FRIDAY, JANY 17. -- Mary and I went down town in a hack today and called at Charlie's place of business, N. -- Delaware Street. He occupies one half of Mr.________music store, and had one clerk named Burdick, formerly from Kalamazoo. He is having a lively trade, amounting to about one hundred dollars a day.

     There were four fresh arrivals at the Fort today, in the person of three young ladies and one gentleman, guests of General Easton. Miss Majors, of St. Louis, is a sister of Mrs. Easton; Miss Lee is her friend from Hannibal, Missouri and Miss Easton is a niece of the general. The young man is a Mr. Plant, affianced to the last mentioned lady.

     SUNDAY, JANY 18. -- Justice Adams today dismissed the charges preferred against Gen. Custer and Lieut. Cooke, and the result of the trial has been a thorough and complete vindication of their character as officers & gentleman. [16]

     JAN'Y 19 -- Mild and thawing but cloudy. Armstrong and Libbie, Charles, Mary and I rode to Leavenworth this morning and attended St. Paul's church. The pastor Rev. Mr. Egar, [17] preached at Grand Rapids once, after Dr. Cummings death when we were in search of a rector.
     A neat, tasty, gothic church, yet unfinished, fine organ, good singing (Misses Adams in the choir) and an earnest discourse.
     We today received a letter from father, written at Detroit and announcing the joyful fact that he and mother had at last started out from Grand Rapids. They are going to Ann Arbor for a day or two, thence to St. Catherines, where mother would stop, and thence to Aurora. After a short stay there, father expects to turn his steps Kansasward.
     This evening Charles and Mary, Col. Weir and I attended service at the chapel; and sitting in front of the melodeonist, we, with Mrs. Dr. Magruder did, in the absence of any choir, lead the singing of the psalm and hymn, the last being the evening hymn, tune "Old Hundred."
     Major Armes and Capt. Cushing [18] of Fort Riley called this evening. Cushing's brother distinguished himself in the naval service during the war.

     SATURDAY FEB. 22ND -- Retired at five this morning after having danced from 91/2 last night until 4 this A. M. Arose at nine as usual.

     SUNDAY FEBRUARY 23. -- Rain early this morning, the first I have seen in Kansas & cloudy sky all day and very high wind. Miss Baker and Lieut. Gibson ran in a few minutes during guard mounting. Armstrong and Libbie, Anna and I and Lieut. Jackson attended morning service at the chapel. Mr. Robt. Foster, a friend of Anna's from Fon du Lac, arrived at Leavenworth today and called in this afternoon. Capt. Yates and Dr. Renick [19] also called. The latter brought me a rosy apple. Sent a letter to Jonty [20] today and a paper to Charles. intended to go to evening service in the city, but the weather was too tempestuous to trust to the "flanigan." Messrs Moylan Bell and Robbins spent a part of the evening here. Had ever so much sport retiring Mr. Foster, who is to sleep on the sofa in the parlor. He is jolly enough.

     MONDAY FEB. 24 -- Bright and cool, very little wind. Wrote part of a letter to mother this forenoon, then took a long walk with Libbie in the Arsenal grounds, down by the river. It is so delightful a stroll that I do not wonder that it takes some people four hours to go there and back. Played ball with Mr. Foster and Col. Weir during evening parade. After supper made a party call at Dr. Mills with Dr. Renick. Lieut Cook arrived this evening from Ft. Harker. Major Beebe, Lieut. Jackson, Col. Forsyth, Lieut Hale, Capt. Yates and Lieut. Omstetter called. [21] Libbie and Mr. Foster, Dr. Renick and I wound up the evenings entertainment with several games of euchre in which we came out the best. Rec'd a Canada paper from mother.
     Unpleasant rumors on the street today regarding war. The President, the War Dept. and Congress are fighting a "triangular duel." Sec. Stanton refuses to be deposed, Pres. Johnson insists, and Congress threatens to impeach the latter. [22]

     TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 25 -- Cold and cloudy; snow this evening. We had such a nice game of ball on the front porch this morning after breakfast. The principal participants Mr. Moylan, Capt Weir, Mr. foster, major Bell and Miss Richmond.
     Mr. W. E. Webb [23] called upon us this forenoon, bringing an introductory letter from William I. Welles. he was once the business partner of the latter, and is now a member of the Legislature representing Hays City. He came specially to invite me and General Custer and family to join an excursion party which proposes to go up the U. P. R. R. next week to Hays City and there institute a grand buffalo hunt. Mr. Foster started east on the 7 p.m. train.
     Informal "hop" this evening at the "Davidson house." Attended with Major Bell and had a very good time. Last dancing of the season, I suppose.

     ASH WEDNESDAY FEB. 26 -- Cold and cloudy. Breakfasted at ten o'clock. Callers this morning, Capt. Yates, Lieuts. Law, Johnson [24] & Cooke, and Dr. Renick. Libbie sick with severe cold. House very quiet and solemn on account of Genl Gibbs illness. [25] He passed a wretched night, rushing down stairs in his delirium and trying to the utmost the strength and endurance of his attendants, Col. Parsons, Col. Weir and Gen'l Custer.
     Attended service at the chapel this evening. Wrote a long letter to Mary to send to Wamego by Lieut. Cook, who is going back to Harker tomorrow.
     My thoughts today have been much with St. Mark's Church [26] and the congregation.

     SUNDAY, MARCH 1, 1868. -- Mild and bright this morning, growing cold and windy and cloudy towards night. Libbie and I attended service at the chapel this morning. On our return, Tom Custer told us that he had seen my father and Judge Christiancy [27] at the Planter's Hotel. [28] This afternoon father rode out to the Fort, and we returned to the city with him this evening and attended church. Full choral service, even to the entering of the prayers. It does not please me; savors of ritualism, which does approach Romanistism.

     MONDAY, MARCH 2. -- Spent the morning in packing. This afternoon Libbie went with me to pay parting visits to Mrs. Magruder, Mrs. Parsons, Mrs. Brewer, Mrs. Gen. Easton, Mrs. Genl McKeever, Mrs. Major Parker; all very cordial, hospitable ladies. Father came in from town and dined with us and then called with Gen'l Custer upon Gen. Sheridan. [29] The parlor has been thronged with la militaire this evening mostly come to bid me good bye. Mr. Moylan, Col. Weir, Capt. Yates, Lieut. Gibson, Major Bell, Dr. Renick, Col. Forsyth, Gen. and Col. Sheridan, Lieut. Custer, Col. Parsons. And a deal of vocal music, often singing, "adieu, kind friend, friends, adieu." Dr. Renick and I exchanged apples to be eaten at one tomorrow. At ten o'clock Father and I repaired to the Planters Hotel escorted by Dr. Renick and Tom. Have had a pleasant evening which will long, long be remembered.

     TUESDAY MARCH 3. From Leavenworth to Wamego, Kansas. -- Arose at 51/2. Breakfast at 6, boarded cars at 7, "sick call," keep offer to write home. A few thoughts devoted to Dr. Renick, M. D. Am introduced to Mr. & Mrs. Martin, brother of Gen. and Harry. [30] Judge Christiancy, Mr. & Mrs. and father conversing triangularly. Gentleman in front just offered me St. Louis paper, followed by remarks concerning label on my bag. Friend of Mr. Crosby of Sheridan's staff.
     9 o'clock, "Guard mounting." Dear me! wouldn't I like to hear the band now discoursing music on the parade grounds! Anna curling her hair and Libbie just crawling out. An interminable plain on my left, a symmetrical mound on my right. Not a tree or shrub in sight.
     The "mess" consisting of Gen'l Custer, Libbie, Lieut. Tom, Co. Weir and Ad. Moylan chat at breakfast. Oh me! Wonder if they tost me a thought or a few remarks on the side. If I could only look in upon them one moment! I'd be willing to serve cake and give good generous slices too. A sandy haired cavalryman at the other end of the car. Wonder where he belongs & whither he is tending. Train hesitates at the historically noted city of Lawrence. Representatives of every class & various conditions standing on the platform. I bend my powers of observation and scrutinizing glances particularly upon a clean looking young man in a fresh, nobby, spring suit. O suz! I'd rather see a uniform, U.S. with a familiar[illegible] than all the fawn colored spring suits in Kansas. Wonder if Col. Weir don't miss his "right bower" just one little bit. Who passes the pickles to Tom in my absence? Has them all to himself now I suppose. Mr. Moylan, will you please toss me the salt? Busy sporting with Anna as usual. Wonder which poor famished guest the Gen'l is trying to "bluff" out of a breakfast this morning. I'd be willing to be said martyr, only to be remembered in that circle and join in the table talk. Methink I heard the august "judge" at the south end of the table ejaculate "Schucks" in a "loud and military tone of voice."
     10 O'CLOCK. Just availed myself of the kindly offer of a swiftly passing young man with an armful of books. Glancing over the Atlantic Monthly, was attracted by the superscription "Wonders of Modern Surgery." My eyes caught the sentence, "I know a young lady, an amiable girl, who had the misfortune to be born with so much too long a tongue that" -- Here the swiftly passing book-vender as swiftly returned & I was still in the dark as to the remedy for this prevailing deformity. Guess the Dr. must be at the house for the day.
     11 O'CL. "Stable call." Just halted at Topeka where the U.S. Marshal Whiting [31] and family alighted, and brother Chas. Kendall came on to the train. He has brought a stock of goods at this place and is about decided to locate here. Talked with us a few minutes; is coming to Wamego with excursion party tomorrow. Topeka is a right nice looking town from the R.R. Many steeples in sight and public buildings.
     12 O'CLOCK; at Cross Creek. Farmers busy burning stubble off old cornfields. Rail fences on fire. 121/2 St. Mary's Mission; -- Romish mission among the Pottowatomie. A village of white washed log houses, with Indians in all stages of civilization from the blanket wrapped savage, up to the beavered exquisite. The Col. to whom I was introduced yesterday at Col. Parsons, is looking for a nod or recognition. I dare not give it.
     Sharp one, Post time. Have just eaten my apple, Dr. The train was running too rapidly at this point to admit of writing. Said apple was one of two which Dr. Renick and I exchanged last evening. Saved the seed according to agreement. We have just arrived at Wamego, [32] where we were cordially welcomed by Jonathan and Mary, Mr. and Mrs. Sheldon. [33] Mary is pleasantly located in a larger room adjoining the parlor, and seems very domestic and quiet with sewing-machine, books and music, etc. Piano, guitar, bones and triangle are the available musical instruments, and they have all been used this evening by Mary, Jonty and I and Charlie Taft, a pleasant appearing young man hailing from Columbus, Ohio, who has been boarding here this winter and has been a member of the "Bazooks" a company of domestic minstrels. [34] The weather has been delightful today, bright and mild; a gentle breeze just relieves the atmosphere from being oppressive to a person exercising. Doors and windows open while we took a nap this afternoon.

     WEDNESDAY, MARCH 4 -- Bright. At eight oclock this morning the excursion train, bearing the Legislature and other distinguished individuals, arrived at this station and brother Charlie and Dr. Webb alighted to receive father, Mary, Jonty and me. Six cars filled with invited guests; Topeka brass band and a string band on board. [35] At Fort Riley we were joined by Major Armes, Chaplain Reynolds and daughter [36] and several other officers.

     THURSDAY, MARCH 5. -- A regular Kansas simoon blowing today, filling the air with clouds of dust. Mary and I left Ellsworth on the five o'clock train this morning, under charge of the gentlemanly conductor Mr. Brinkerhoff. [37] Experienced no incidents worthy of particular note. Blew in to breakfast at Salina, at eight o'clock; and blew in to dinner at Wamego at one. Glad enough to get to a place which we could call "home." Think we will not attempt another excursion this week, sure. As excursionists we are not sucessists. Arrived just in time to bid Charlie Taft good bye. He started for Coyote, [38] to join an engineering party going out on the plains.

     FRIDAY, MARCH 6. -- A hard rain today, accompanied this morning by some thunder and lightning -- the first rain Kansas has experienced since last August.
     The excursion train passed through here this morning at two o'clock, leaving father, [39] Jonty and Charlie and Mr. Curtiss, the representative of the Syracuse press. Charles and Mr. Curtiss remained until the noon train. Spent an hour before their departure in music.
     Judge Christiancy came in on the noon train from the west and remained over till the seven o'clock train this evening. Mr. Webb and Col. Hale dined here and went on to their respective homes at Hays and Junction City. Col. Lawrence of Topeka spent the evening with us in our parlor and we derived mutual entertainment from music, conversation and hickory nuts. Col. Lawrence is one of the early settlers of Kansas, having identified his interest with this part of the country since 1854. He has represented the State in Congress, in the Legislature, and in various civil offices. Is now engaged in railroading. Is a man under forty, very agreeable and intelligent. [40]

     SATURDAY, MARCH 7. -- Bright and mild; pretty high wind. Father, Jonty, Mary and I took a pleasant walk this afternoon down to and along the Kansas or Kaw river which flows about thirty rods from the house. Judge Christiancy passed East today.

     SUNDAY, MARCH 8. -- A beautiful specimen of a spring day. Mary and I read the morning service, and talked about St. Mark's and the Fort Leavenworth chapel. This afternoon father, Mary and I took a stroll -- visited a neighboring "coral" where a large number of horses, mules and cattle belonging to the R.R. Co. have been wintering.

     MONDAY, MARCH 9 -- Cooler than yesterday, with drizzling rain towards evening, which increased after dark, to a steady pour. A telegram came this afternoon from Mr. Noble, [41] Supt. of the Road, saying, "Sheldon & Richmond, Gen'l Sheridan & Staff dine with you today; up with the flag!" so the colors were flung to the breeze and we were all duly elated at the anticipation of greeting once more our military friends. The half past one train from Leavenworth brought Gen'l Phil Sheridan, Gen. McKeever, Col. "Sandy" Forsyth, and Col Crosby. [42] They all paid us a little visit in our parlor, and Col. Forsyth brought me a most welcome letter from Libbie. These officers are going to Fort Hays. At the same time that they started for the west, father boarded a train for Topeka.
     Music and euchre this evening. Mrs. Col. fisher [43] is very ill, and of her little family of six, all under ten years of age, two little girls, Sallie and Clara, or "Tad" are staying here and are to sleep with Mary and me tonight.

     TUESDAY, MARCH 10. -- Clear and cool, after the rain. Adviser from Michigan and Canada reports three feet of snow and mercury down below zero. Last week the average temperature in this latitude through Kansas was about 48. One day it was up to 63. One night at St. Cahterines it was 16 below zero. Wrote to Gen'l Custer. Mary, Jonty and I took a brisk walk this afternoon. Had a game of ball, and a nice ride after little "Jackson" yesterday. He and the buggy are being kept at a livery stable here. Called on Mr. Trout, tinner and hadware merchant, for whom Jonty has painted a sign -- the nicest one in town.

     WEDNESDAY, MARCH 11. -- Rain all day, therefore confined to the house and occupied by my writing, reading and sewing. Temperature 43o to 48o. Sunrise 6 hr. 19 m.

     THURSDAY, MARCH 12. -- Bright; spring zepher & blowing. This is Johnathan's 26th birthday. Says he felt age stealing o'er him. Walked into our room this morning arrayed in tall white hat, green goggles, and walking stick, and asked us why a dog's tail was like him. Ans. -- "Because it is infirm."
     Wrote a long letter to Mary Hodenpagh this forenoon. The train from the west brought Sheridan and staff, of whom Col. Forsyth made us a nice little call. Dr. Webb also paid us a brief visit. The one took messages for us to friends at Fort Leavenworth and the other to Wm. I. Welles at St. Louis.
     The eastern train brought Lt. Henry Jackson who is going on a surveying tour out among the Rocky Mountains. He brought us a note from Libbie and a package of oranges from the same. How refreshing these calls are!
     Jonty, Mary and I took a pleasant buggy ride over the prairie this afternoon. The roads are so smooth that we travel miles without computing the distance. Temperature 46o to 48o.

      FRIDAY, MARCH 13. -- Perfectly glorious day, bright and mild. Mary had a delightful voluminous letter from mother this noon, written at "Spring Bank," St. Catherines. She speaks encouragingly of her health, and delightfully of the recent visit of P.R.L. Pierce. He has left his wife at "Spring Bank" for medical treatment. I am so glad for mother's sake that she now has an old acquaintance near. They will enjoy talking about mutual friends.
     Wrote a long letter to Hertell this forenoon. Fires on the prairie today in sight of the house. The fire runs with wonderful rapidity outstripping the fleetest horse, and the noise of the conflagration is like the sound of a vast waterfall. Jonty, Mary and I rode out this afternoon.

     SATURDAY, MARCH 14. -- Beautiful! Wrote to Libbie this morning. Father & Charles came from Topeka on the noon train. A letter from Uncle Fred says that they are having terrible weather at Grand Rapids -- heavy snow, wind and rain with danger of freshets. Poor little Mrs. Fisher lies very low. Her mother and brother-in-law from Columbus, Ohio, and her brother, Mr. Rob't Page from Manhattan arrived this week. The children all lodged here last night and are to remain until there is some change.

     SUNDAY, MARCH 15. -- "Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright, The bridal of the earth and sky."
     Mrs. Fisher was thought to be dying this morning, and the children were aroused from their sleep at an early hour and taken to her bed side; but she rallied again, and at noon was much easier. Master Dudley Tyng Fisher, aged 8 years, is sitting beside me, making sketches of locomotives, and instructing me in the mechanics thereof. He is bright and intelligent. Says he is going to be a great engine and ship builder, and his name will probably be in the papers twenty years since. When he gets to be a man (he says) he will send me flowers in summer and papers in the winter. When I suggest that he will have forgotten me long before that, he says, "Oh, no, I will always keep my eye out for your."
     At about five o'clock Mary, Charles and I took a drive, riding on the old "Overland Route." Just before entering the town we forded Rock Creek, a clear stream whose bed at this point is of solid rock, as smooth as a floor. A belt of timber a few rods wide lined the stream on both sides. Through this we drove for some distance, then forded the creek again where we had to ride in the bed of the river, going down stream for several rods, then rode rapidly home over the beautiful prairies.

     MONDAY, MARCH 16. -- High wind and clouds threatening rain. Charles started for Topeka this morning, driving Jackson before his light buggy. Left at about 7 o'clock and expected to get through 20 miles, by twelve or one o'clock.
     Mary and I commenced dressmaking today -- spring clothes -- also reading one of Miss Louisa Muhlbach's celebrated historical novels, "Marie Antionette and her Son." [44] Ex-governor Walsh of Kansas [45] came here on Friday and remained until this noon. His wife was sister to John Bukman of G. Rapids, and Mrs. DePuy and Miss Birch are his cousins. He now resides at Lawrence. Was in that city when it was sacked and burned by guerrillas in 1863. Mrs. Fisher is better today. Hopes are entertained for her recovery.

     TUESDAY, MARCH 17. -- Pleasant. Father went to Topeka by the noon train. The grass begins to look green on the prairies.

     THURSDAY, MARCH 19. -- Col. George A. Forsyth dined here today, being on his way from Leavenworth, Denver, Ft Wallace, and thereabouts. Expects to be absent about two weeks. He says that miss Darrah started for Michigan on Tuesday evening.

     FRIDAY, MARCH 20. -- A beautiful day, pretty warm. Mary and I went to walk, with Jonty just before tea, wearing no outside garment but a light sacque. A cricket club organized on the street this afternoon. Temperature 58o.

     SATURDAY, MARCH 21. -- Very warm. Sister Mary left Wamego on the noon train for Topeka, which is to be her future home. Charles has purchased a stock of goods, and bought the unexpired lease of the store, so that he can go right on with trade without waiting for the completion of the building which father is to put up for him. That will however, be ready for occupancy by the 1st of July. He has secured a good boarding place for them for the present, in a private family.
     Finished "Marie Antoinette" today, and I like it, oh, so much. Theses novels of Miss Mulbach's are quite in the style of the "Waverly" novels -- historical facts woven into a beautiful romance. This one portrays in glowing colors all the horrors of the French Revolution and the sufferings and martyrdom of the royal family, Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette the queen, Maria Theresa, her daughters, and the Princess Elizabeth, Louis' sister. A brief review of the surviving dauphin, Louis Charles, through his long life -- he was 71 years of age, dying in 1856 -- closes the volume.
     The Rev. Mr. Lee of Manhattan, [48] with his sister, Miss Emma, arrived this evening intending to hold service here tomorrow. Mr. Lee holds a professorship in the Agricultural College at Manhattan; and his brother, Episcopal clergyman at Topeka is president of the Female Seminary at the latter place.

     SUNDAY, MARCH 22. -- Kansas has become too hot and dry for comfort, especially to a person in winter garb. The children appeared today in white waists and summer sacques, and fans were vigorously used in church. At nine o'clock I accompanied Mr. and Miss Lee to the Fisher's S.S. [47] held in the small school house just across the street. About 30 scholars present. Was immediately mustered into the service as teacher, and given a class of seven boys, the largest in school from 12 to 15 years old. Seemed quite like home. At half past ten morning service was held in the same place, Mr. Lee gathering an attentive, interested little congregation of about forty persons. [48] He and his sister left for home soon after dinner, in order to conduct evening service there.

     MONDAY, MARCH 23. -- Mercury 94 in the shade. It has been too warm to accomplish much today -- about such temperature as June and July bring at home. Wrote to Mary immediately after breakfast enclosing a letter for her and one for father received on Saturday. Then sewed and practiced until noon. On the train from the west come Lieut. Robbins of the 7th Cavalry. He made me a nice little call and informed me that the regiment is to move from Ft. Leavenworth for the plains on the 10th proximal. Col. Forsyth is now busy selecting camps. They will march through Louisville, and if they camp there, I shall probably see some of my Cavalry friends. Judge Crozier and Mr. Scott came from the East, but I did not see them for any conversation.
     This evening after tea Jonty and I took a promenade and then accompanied by Mr. Trout we went to a spelling match which convened in the little school house opposite. The room was illuminated by two tallow dips, one stuck by its own grease to the top of the blackboard and the other held aloft by the school-maam who presided over "Webster's Speller and Definer."

     TUESDAY, MARCH 24. -- Very warm still. Mercury at 90.

     WEDNESDAY, MARCH 25. -- A cool change took place last night and today we are suddenly down among the fifties, with fires again.

     THURSDAY, MARCH 26. -- Great snow storm at Hays City and vicinity which impeded the train so that it did not pass here until nine o'clock this evening. Very cold here with some sleet.

     SATURDAY, MARCH 28. -- Father came on the noon train from Topeka today. Reports Mary and Charles well and pleasantly located. Weather temperate again.

     SUNDAY, MARCH 29. -- Mild and sunny. Attended Sunday School this morning with father. Had seven boys in my class, viz: John Shatz, Frank Pittinger, Willie King, Benedict and Lockridge Clary, Frank Challis and Omenzo Dodge -- an attractive, intelligent class. After school, Father and I took a big walk on the prairie. This afternoon Dudley Fisher brought me a bunch of prairie flowers, the first I have ever seen.

     TUESDAY, MARCH 31. -- Pleasant. Wrote to friends at Lake View this morning. Just before father and I, accompanied by the royal "Badger" made the circuit of "Richmond's, Brown's, Trout's and Chandler's forty acre field which is just being plowed and enclosed. Gathered a handfull of delicate prairie flowers.

     WEDNESDAY, APRIL 1. -- Sky occasionally clouded -- high winds from the north.

     THURSDAY, APRIL 2. -- Bright and cool, with slight breeze. Jonty and I took a ramble at ten o'clock, after which I sewed until train time, one o'clock. No acquaintances on board today. Letters from father and cousin Libbie Custer. The latter says that she and the General are to spend the summer at Fort Leavenworth [49] instead of going East. Gen'l Gibbs family are also to remain, Major Parker's company of the 3rd infantry and Gen'l Phil Sheridan and staff. Anna Darrah was escorted home by Lieut. Leary. Libbie desires Mary and me to come to the Fort for a visit before the 7th Cavalry leaves for the plains, which will be the 10th. Mr. Brown, lawyer, accompanied me on my afternoon stroll. [50] Enjoyed his companionship -- he is intelligent and cultivated and evidently strong. Oh! I do delight in discovering indications of manly strength. It is such a comfortable thing to be able to look up to a man! Indeed those whom we women cannot honor as superiors, are not worthy the name -- "man."
     In my reading in "Joseph the Second and his Court" [51] today, I encountered the following passage. In particular connection with remarks upon the court of France during the early reign of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, it says -- "The game of blindman's buff was frequently played in the courtly circles, and not only in aristocratic houses but in all social gatherings. It became the fashion. Madame de Genlis, [52] who was fond of scourging the follies of her day, made this fashion the subject of one of her dramas."

     FRIDAY, APRIL 3. -- Cold north breeze.

     SATURDAY, APRIL 4. -- Bright with high wind. At the breakfast table Jonty helped himself to "trimmings" for his coffee before passing them to me, thereby obtaining all the creme de la creme of the milk pitcher. I called upon Mr. Brown, lawyer, to redress my grievances, stating the amt. of damages which I wished to recover as follows: Cream ungallantly seized, 05; Damages to coffee, 15; Consequent excitement of temper, $2.40; Embarrassment at the commission of such an impolite act by one's own kith & kin, $5.20; The act viewed as a dangerous precedent, $7.30; Chagrin at being obliged to resort to litigation, .02, -- amounting in all to $15.12.
     My Attorney and Counselor at Law informed me that he should demand security for costs, whereupon Dr. Munford [53] -- whose acquaintance I made last evening -- gallantly offered to shoulder said security. This afternoon the case was reviewed by all parties concerned in the office, and my lawyer informed me that he could recover for me just 20 cents, the am't of the first two items. Then he presented his bill for advice and services, amounting to $30. Oh, such a funny time as we had arguing the case. Dr. M. spent the eve with us in the parlor. An agreeable, intelligent gentleman, editor of a paper in Covington, Tenn., and a four years' Confed. soldier.

     SUNDAY APR. 5. -- Bright and cool still. Attended the Sunday school at nine o'clock. Quite a pleasant session. Made some farewell remarks to my class and bid them adieu. Called upon Lawyer Brown to take my place as a substitute, but he does not seem inclined.

     Monday April 6. -- Cloudy, calm and milder than yesterday. Occupied the forenoon in packing, preparatory to starting for Topeka tomorrow. Letters rec'd from father, Charles and Mary, this noon say that I must take the trip tomorrow without fail. Mrs. Sheldon, Mr. Brown, Dr. Munford, Christy and I had planned an expedition in search of moss for hanging baskets, for this afternoon at four o'clock, but just at that hour a simoon came sweeping over from Louisville, filling the air with dust and making walking quite an impossibility. So, after tea, the wind having lulled somewhat, the Doctor and I sallied forth alone. It was too late to visit Munford's Knob, so we directed our steps for the farewell walk, to the "wirepuller's 40." My companion challenged me to a race, diagonally across the ploughed ground, but I respectfully declined. We sauntered slowly hoe in the moonlight, across prairies, through jungles, over unsafe bridges which my escort gallantly (?) requested me to test, pleading that if I went through, he would heroically rush to the rescue, but if he should be precipitated, I could neither assist him nor find my way home without an escort. Satisfactory and conclusive reasoning -- to himself.
     Mrs. S., the Dr., Jonty and I spent the evening in the parlor musically.

     TUESDAY, -- Yesterday was election day for town officers. [55] Wamego "Browne" Republican ticket was as follows: J. Richmond, Geo. Trout, Badger, Little Mac, Bunny Seymour. At Topeka, 45 votes were cast by ladies, a hack driven by a woman running all day to carry voters to and from polls. The inhabitants of one boarding house had to live at a hotel, the landlady of their establishment being occupied in electioneering.

     TUESDAY, APRIL 7. -- Bright, pleasant day with rather cool breeze. At half past one o'clock I bade good by to the little hamlet of Wamego, where I had passed many happy hours. Jonty being busy, my "legal adviser" and my "security" escorted me to the cars, both striving as they said to quell the irrepressible conflict going on between their emotions and their wills; and they succeeded well in preventing any exhibition of their grief. Bade them a fond adieu, Mr. Browne consenting to allow me to remain indebted to him "for professional services," thirty dollars worth as an insurance of mutual remembrance. Dr. Munford and I exchanged mineral specimens with the same design. Train ran a little ways and switched back to take a car, stopping for a few minutes opposite the "wire pullers 40". Dropped a few tears over the dry and barren appearance of the soil. My next neighbor observing my lachrymose state handed me an illustrated paper with a view to consolation. The very first piece which caught my eye was entitled "The Chemistry of a Tear." Of course it was perused with alacrity, and had the effect of restoring me to a matter of fact, philosophical basis. The next article which arrested my attention contained the following lines which caused a relapse into dreamy, romantic retrospection after one good healthy smile at the coincidence.

A lady with a weary face,
Sat at a turret window high
And watched the sky.

A knight went riding far below,
Looked up and waved a sad farewell
Careless of what befell.

Busy in reviewing the past five weeks, the two hours slipped unheeded, and Topeka was announced very unexpectedly. Brother Charlie was on hand with Jack and the buggy and in about fifteen minutes I was exchanging greeting with father and Mary at the boarding house of the latter -- Mrs. Broadwell's. [56] Mary and Charles are very pleasantly located in a front parlor and adjacent bed room. Agreeable family, consisting of Mr. and Mrs. Broadwell -- late of Springfield, Ill.; -- two adult sons, Lon and Will, two lads, Charlie and Bertie, and the baby Etta. Eldest daughter, Mrs. Trumbull, in Washington.
     Accompanied Mary to evening service, where we were joined by father and Charles. neat little mission church with furnace and stained glass windows. Pastor, Rev. Mr. Lee, whose brother is at Manhattan. [57]

     WEDNESDAY, APRIL 8. -- Attended morning service with Mary. Bright but cool wind. Rode this afternoon with father over his farm of 160 acres, south east of the city, across the Waukarusa Creek. [58] This is a beautiful piece of ground embracing upland, prairie and bottom. There is a fine living stream running through it, and a good stone quarry which is now being worked. The view of the city and surrounding country is bewitching -- the very prettiest landscape that I have ever seen. One of Fremont's peaks stands out in bold relief against the pasture horizon.

     THURS. APRIL 8 -- Attended church this evening. Heard the first church bell that I have heard since entering Kansas.

     FRIDAY, APRIL 10 -- Still bright and cool. This is Good Friday, but it has been to me a day of excitement and rejoicing. Mary and I attended service at half past ten this morning. While we were seated at dinner, father marched in with Uncle Charlie Richmond, who had come on the eleven o'clock train. He was accompanied from Leavenworth by the 3rd U.S. Infantry -- that is Lt. Hale's company. The troops have started for the plains, the 7th Cav. being now on the march. Dr. Webb, Major Arms, and Maj. Elliot [59] were also on board. On the four o'clock train this afternoon Jonty arrived. Dr. Munford came down with him and went on to Kansas City, en route for Seneca, on the northern road where he expects to be for a week or ten days. Col. "Sandy" Forsyth passed down yesterday. Mrs Sheldeon went up to Junction City the day after I left Wamego to spend a week. Mrs. Fisher was not well as she had been for a few days past.
     Had a family gathering at the store this evening. Letter from Aunt Harriett and Dickie. M. and I wrote to mother yesterday.

     SATURDAY, APRIL 11 -- A hurricane -- our house and eyes filled with dust. Astonishing even to the oldest inhabitants. Of Course Uncle Charles is here to witness it! Nice letter from mother. She has been very ill, but is now convalescent.

     SUNDAY, APRIL 12, Easter DAY. -- Cold and cloudy -- rain this afternoon and evening. Jonathan and I attended the "children's church" at half past nine. The Sunday school and choir led by Mr. Lee, conducted the morning service up to the litany. When the congregation assembled at eleven o'clock the service was continued from that point. Fine Easter sermon -- good music by the choir, the soprano of which is Miss Minnie Beals. [60] The large bouquet upon the altar was the principal reminder of the day and the season. Uncle Charles, father and Johnathan came home with us to dinner and spent the afternoon and uncle stayed to tea and during the evening.

     MONDAY, APRIL 13 -- Cold rain. Johnathan returned to Wamego on the morning train.

     TUESDAY, APRIL 14 -- Rain this morning. Mrs. Broadwell has two additions to her family today. Mr. Burleigh, lawyer of Leavenworth, and Mr. Soule, Mayor of Hays City, both come to attend the court which is now in session. [61] Mr. Burleigh is a member of the choir in Mr. Egar's church, and law partner of Mr. Hoyt, who is a brother of Clare Hoyt, our Hartford music teacher. She is now Mrs. Preston, and organist in Mr. Egar's church. Mary and I walked up to the store this afternoon and brought the three gentlemen home with us to tea. They spent the evening here. Mr. Burleigh joined us, and we had some music.

     WEDNESDAY, APRIL 15 -- Quite a cool gale blowing, but the sky brighter than for several days. Uncle Charles left on the morning train for Wamego, in company with a Mr. Giddings of Kalamazoo. Had a real cozy social chat with Mr. Burleigh in the sitting room after tea, while he smoked a cigar an hour and a half long. We canvassed pretty thoroughly the national affairs and then reviewed the incidents of the last campaign of the war, in the Shenandoah Valley. Mr. B. was there attached to the cavalry, acting as______and associated with Sheridan, Custer, Merritt, Torbert &c. He still possesses a momento of Jubal Early's last fight. [62]

     THURSDAY, APRIL 16. -- Pretty high wind with occasional threatening clouds. Court adjourned this morning until Monday and Mr. Burleigh returned to Leavenworth on the three o'clock train. Father took the same train, en route for Michigan. Intends to go direct to G. Rapids, attend to some business next week and then go to St. Catherines to see mother. Mary and I sent her a package containing a breakfast shawl, neck handkerchief and brooch.
     When Charlie returned from the depot he brought with him, much to our surprise and joy, Lieut. Tom Custer. With five men he left the command yesterday morning and returned in pursuit of several deserters. At the depot here he met Mr. Burleigh who informed him of our whereabouts and soon after father and Charles drove up and confirmed the report. He had supposed us to be yet at Wamego, and if he had not been ordered off on the present duty he had arranged to ride over to call upon us, then yesterday morning in company with some of the other officers, the regiment being in camp about five miles from others on Vermilion Creek. On Monday they encamped at Indianola, seven miles from here, and he and Dr. Renick rode over to this depot and took a game of billards. Had they known we were in Topeka they could have spent two or three hours with us as well as not. Tom visited with us about an hour, joining in a hearty sing, including, "Adieu, kind friends, adieu," "Rolling Home," "Annie of the Vale," "The last Cigar," "Lady Deane," etc. [63] and then had to remount and march.

     FRIDAY, APRIL 17. -- Bright and pleasant. Rec'd paper, "Pottawatomie Gazette," from Lewis Browne, announcing his defeat as candidate for clerk on the Louisville Town Ticket. [64] Mary made a round of calls this afternoon.

     SATURDAY, APRIL 18. -- Cold and cloudy. Wind pretty high. Mrs. Sheldon called to see us this morning, just before taking the train for Wamego. She came down yesterday to do some shopping for Mrs. Fisher. I am reading "Beyond the Mississippi, Life and Adventure of the Prairies, Mountains and Pacific Coast." It is by Albert I. Richardson and embraces the ten years from 1857 to 1867. [65] I find the early history of Kansas, as related here, exceedingly interesting. The contest between the Free Soilers and Pro-Slavery men is well described and many stirring incidents related.
     Mr. and Mrs. Ed. Kellums called this evening. [66]

     SUNDAY, APRIL 29. -- Mild. Light breeze and floating clouds. Mary, Charlie and I attended church this morning. I rode over to father's farm with Charles this afternoon. This evening the majority of Grace Church congregation was furnished from the Broadwell house. Mrs. Broadwell and Mr. Sole, Will and a friend, Lon and I think they all went as spies upon us, as they came in by couples after we were seated.

     MONDAY, APRIL 20. -- Warm and bright. Wrote to Libbie this morning, stating the possibility of my returning to Ft. L. the last of this week. Mary and I took quite a long walk this afternoon, calling at the store for Charles and returning with him to tea. Mr. Burleigh returned today from Leavenworth. he spent the evening in our parlor, joining with us in music and euchre. he sings a fine bass, is very fond of music and is acquainted with very many of our songs. We did have such a jolly time at euchre! Mr. B. and I coming out victorious.

     TUESDAY, APRIL 21. -- Cooler than yesterday; some wind. Had considerable sharp shooting at the breakfast table concerning the game of euchre of last night. Mr. Harris, builder from Springfield, Ill., arrived today. Chas., Mary and I learning his plans for dwelling and store. Called this afternoon, Mrs. Judge Spencer and Miss Delahay, Miss Beals, Mrs. Gov. Crawford, Mrs. Clarkson and Rev. Mr. Lee. [67] Started for Peak Family concert, but frightened by the crowd and the prospect of standing through the entertainment, we returned home and the euchre quartette spent the time till half past eleven most easily and jollily. Like Mr. B. very much; a person of cultivation and refinement, very entertaining in conversation -- in short, the most perfect gentleman in every sense of the word that I have met for many a day.

     WEDNESDAY, APRIL 22. -- Cloudy, cold and windy. Mrs. Sheldon called this morning, she and her husband having come from Wamego yesterday to attend the concert. [68] Mary and Charles attended the concert this evening and Mr. Burleigh made it pleasant for me at home. On their return we sang an hour or so.

     THURSDAY, APRIL 24. -- Weather same as yesterday. Mary and I called at Mrs. Judge Spencer's this morning. Saw Miss Delahay. Attended church this evening.

     FRIDAY, APRIL 24. -- Rained last night. Misty today. Court has adjourned over to Monday so Mr. Burleigh is a man of elegant leisure. Accompanied M. and me at eleven o'clock to Mrs. Ed. Kellums to have a sing. had a right good time. Fine piano, agreeable host and hostess who sing respectively alto and tenor and fine spirits. Mr. B. sang several songs -- "The Laziest Man in Town," etc., finely, playing his own accompaniment. He plays his guitar a little too, in fact, is quite a musical genius besides his other accomplishments. He took his satchel after singing with us, "Adieu, kind friends, adieu," at about half past two and started for Leavenworth but the omnibus being too far I advance for him to overtake without strenuous effort he returned and spent the rest of the afternoon with Mary and me and our guest, Miss Delahay. Uncle Charles arrived from Wamego on the afternoon train, took tea here and spent the evening. it commencing to rain Miss D. was obliged to go home with her father immediately after tea. Uncle Charles and Mary, Mr. Burleigh and I played euchre this evening until I became "non compos mentis." Charles returning from the store opportunely took my place and revived our failing fortunes. I took the guitar and led them in singing about a dozen lively lays. We have indeed had a musical day which will be very pleasant to remember as my last in Topeka -- for uncle has given me marching orders for tomorrow.

III. The Diary, FEBRUARY 19, 1870-MARCH 24, 1870.

     [When this latter part of the diary opens Rebecca is back in Topeka visiting her sister. Invited again to Fort Leavenworth by her cousin she describes the very active social life at the post. At Fort Leavenworth at this time were five companies of the Seventh U.S. cavalry -- C, F, I, G, and M with one company, F, of the Fifth U.S. infantry. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis [69] was commander of the post as well as commanding officer of the Seventh cavalry.]

     SATURDAY, FEB. 19, 1870 -- The past week has been spent in making preparations, personal and general, for an embarkation for the East. I had intended to start today, but Mary being considerably indisposed concluded to delay until Monday. Very cold with high winds.

     SUNDAY, FEB. 20. -- Charles and I attended church this morning. Rev. Mr. Griffiths [70] preached. Mr. Stewart introduced a prayer from the longer litany, asking to be delivered from all the evils which the craft and subtlety of the devil or man are working against him. He had evidently given himself high rank among the noble army of martyrs. [71] Mr. and Mrs. Welles called this evening.

     MONDAY, FEB. 21. -- Cold, but bright. Delivered the key of the house to Mrs. Work, our next door neighbor, [72] at eleven o'clock this morning and embarked on the eastern bound train. Agnes Leslie and her brother [73] bidding us the last adieu. Frank Earle [74] met us at the Lawrence depot, and saw me safely aboard the Leavenworth train after I had parted with Charles and Mary. Arrived at Ilworth at 4 P.M., was met by Libbie, and quickly transported to the Fort, where at the Custer quarters I was warmly welcomed by Maggie Custer, Miss Julia Thurber [75] and Adjutant Moylan, and by Armstrong [who] came in from his labor at the arsenal, decorating the hall for the dance tomorrow night. The "mess" consists only of Armstrong and Libbie and their three guests; residence, first house west of the headquarter house and the croquet ground. This evening Capt. Yates, Lieut. Gibson and Major Bell called.

     THURSDAY FEB. 22. -- Anniversary of Washington's birthday; in honor of which, grand ball at one of the arsenal buildings, given by the commissioned officers at Fort Leavenworth. Attended with Gen'l and Mrs. Custer, Maggie being escorted by Mr. Nichols, and Julia by Mr. Moylan. Dancing commenced at nine o'clock and ended at six on Wednesday morning. Of former acquaintance, met Doctors Magruder and Lippincott, Captain Yates, Nolan [76] and Moylan, Major Bell and Lieut. Gibson; and gentlemen from the city, Judge Crozier, Mr. Hoffman, and Col. Rodney Smith. Was introduced to a Mr. Pinckney of the city, [77] and by him to a pleasant young man from New York, "Bacon" by name. Forthwith tried to trace relationship through Libbie Bacon Custer. The music was very fine, floor splendid, attendance not large enough to overcrowd the hall, which was 140 feet long by 25 wide. Ceiling gracefully festooned over its whole surface with the American colors in bunting, walls tapestried with a background of red army blankets against which were ranged on light racks, first a row of muskets, above that a row of crossed sabres, and still above a row of cutlasses, all burnished to the last degree of brightness, and reflecting the taper lights from ten thousand angles. The band platform was surmounted by a canopy, and enclosed by a lattice work of sabres, built up from a solid foundation of cannon balls. In each corner of the room stood a mounted howitzer with its accompaniment of ammunition. On the side opposite the bandstand were three slightly elevated flirtation-nooks, ornamented with guidons. The central one bore the portrait of Gen. Sheridan, hanging opposite to that of the "Father of the Country." Three immense chandeliers were formed of a light framework of three tiers, from one to the other of which reached highly polished cutlasses alternating with wax tapers. Something like this. [Small pen and ink sketch of chandelier.] Nice supper at about 21/4. Gen'l Custer, chief of committee on decorations, and indeed general arrangements, gained much credit to himself for the fine taste artistically, and good judgment practically.

     FRIDAY, FEB. 25. -- Our family dined at Col. Buel's -- ordnance officer, succeeding Col. McNutt -- at four o'clock. Met Mrs. Major Elderkin. Col. Buel was a member of Gen Custer's class at West Point, has been recently stationed at Augusta, Maine; reminds me of C. P. Boswell. Mrs. Buel, the daughter of Doctor McDougal, now surgeon at the post at Indianapolis. Mrs. Elderkin is the daughter of the Rev. Dr. Gurney of Washington. [78]

     This evening we in common with many other officers and ladies of the garrison, attended a ball given by the non-commissioned officers of the post, at the same hall used on Tuesday last; the decorating being still intact. My escort was Lieut. Mathey, Frenchman. [79] Danced till three o'clock in the morning (having room for two sets at one end of the hall, appropriated for the special use of our company), and had a right good time.

     WEDNESDAY, MARCH 9. -- Grand masquerade at Gen'l Custer's. All up bright and early this morning and busy from 9 A.M. till 4 P.M., the Gen'l superintending the enclosing of front and back piazzas and the covering of carpets with canvas; and we four girls below stairs making salad, preparing sandwiches, cutting cake, making kisses, setting the table, and doing all the little necessary things incident to refreshments for sixty guests. We enjoyed it, singing as we worked. Prepared the chambers for dressing rooms for ladies and gentlemen and at seven o'clock took our costumes to a little store room in the rear of the house, which served nicely for a green room pro tem. There I assisted in attiring "Gretchen" (Julia Thurber), "The Owl (Maggie Custer), "Mrs. Partington" (Mrs. Custer), and "Ike Partington" Mr. Nichols). Then got excused from the festivities myself. About fifty people present and a great variety of costumes. Among the characters were "Mrs. Grundy" her name placarded on her back; Col. Buel as "Miss Ophelia," Mrs. Elderkin as "Night," and Col Yates as Yankee school boy; Capt. Nolan as a monk; Miss Crouch as Tambourine girl; Mr. Moylan as Romeo; Major Bell as Turk; Gen. Custer as an English huntsman, Gen Sturgis as an old vegetable huckster.
     Danced till five o'clock in the morning.

     SATURDAY, MARCH 12. -- Very cold. Maggie and Julia went to town this morning to spend a couple of days with Miss Tessie Young. Major Bell and Lieut. Umbstatter of the 3rd infantry, dined with us. The Lieut. has just returned from a visit to his home in Pittsburgh, and is on his way to join his command at Fort Larned, where are also Major and Mrs. Parker. There called this evening Capt. Keogh, Capt. Yates, Capt. Plummer, Lieut Mathey, Capt. Nowlan. [80]

     SUNDAY, MARCH 13 -- Still cold; strong wind from the north. Libbie and I attended the Presbyterian place of worship this morning in a public hall. Very interesting young clergyman, Mr.______ late from Missouri. Dr. Magruder and Mr. Moylan dined with us. This evening there called Gen. Sturgis and Capt. McKibben, Lieut Braden, Gen Sidell. [81]

     MONDAY, MARCH 14 -- Intensely cold, windows frosted last night, also slight flurry of snow. I accompanied the Gen. and Libbie to dinner at Gen. Sturgis' at 61/2 o'clock. Present, Col. and Mrs. Buel, Gen. and Mrs. Custer, Gen. Sidell and Capt McKibben, Miss Armstrong and Capt. Yates, Miss Richmond and Capt. Keogh. Soup, fish, turkey, veal, birds, escalloped oysters, boiled ham, salad, Charlotte Russe, blanc Mange, ice cream, cake of various kinds, nuts, oranges and coffee, with various accompaniments in the way of dressing, jellies, vegetables, relishes, etc, constituted the comfortable repast with two kinds of wine to make it jolly. [82] We sat at the table full two hours. At about half past nine the most of us adjourned to the adjoining Custer quarters where the weekly "hop" was going on, having been transferred thither pro tem from the Arsenal Hall. Not many out this evening, on account of the weather. Had a very pleasant time, however, and the dancing continued till two o'clock.

     WEDNESDAY, MARCH 16. -- This evening the following persons happened in: Col. and Mrs. Buel, Capt and Mrs. McIntosh and her sister Kattie Garrett; [83] Major Bell, Lieut. Moylan, Lieut Braden and Col. Keogh. Amused ourselves with parlor games, and Kaufman and his violin helped us to dance for about an hour.

     THURSDAY, MARCH 17 -- Bright and mild once more. The cold snap just passed has been accompanied at the East and as far west as Chicago by a very heavy fall of snow, blockading railways and doing other damage. The roof of both new wings to the courthouse, Chicago, fell on account of the great weight of snow. Mr. Bacon called this morning, with Lieut Quimby of the 5th infantry. [84] The former asked permission to join the garrison party intending to masquerade at the Purim Ball in town tonight and invited Miss Maggie to accompany him.

     I attended church this evening with Mrs. Col. Moore, at the chapel. Rev. Kendrick from the church in town officiating. [85] Julia spent the morning at Gen. Sturgis'. Besides Armstrong, Libbie and Maggie going, from here to the Ball, there were Col. and Mr. Buel, Capt. Keogh, Capt. Plummer, Capt. MacDougal (Mrs. Buel's brother) and his friend, Lieut. Calhoun of Madison, Wis. [86]

     FRIDAY, MARCH 18. -- The masqueraders returned at five this morning. [87] we breakfasted at eleven, then Mrs. Capt Snyder and Mrs. Capt. Porter called. [88] Mr. Bacon rode out this afternoon to the 'dress parade" and remained to dinner. He received while here an "official doc." signed "Purim" and dated from "Sleepy Hollow on the Rhine,") concerning a package of candies and mottoes sent from the ball by Maggie. Had a good deal of sport.

     Major Bell and Capt. Nowlan called this evening, also Lieut. Braden, to bid us farewell as he starts tomorrow for Fort Lyon. Mr. Braden is from Saginaw, Mich.

     SUNDAY, MARCH 20. -- Maggie and I went down to church by ourselves this morning; and this evening attended the soldiers' service at the chapel. A great number of camp meeting hymns sung, accompanied by melodeon, first and second fiddle and bass viol. Upon our return we continued the singing in our room, when we were invited down, and all -- Armstrong and Libbie, Maggie, Julia and I gathered about the fire place and poured forth our souls in harmony for the space of one hour, closing up with "Brattle Street" and "Old Hundred," in honorable memory of 'the old folks at home' and days of auld lang syne. Enjoyed it most heartily.

     MONDAY, MARCH 21. -- Mild and bright. Mr. Bacon came in from town this afternoon,expecting to join a riding party for "Sheridan's Drive" but the column failing to move croquet was substituted. Bacon and Maggie, Col. Carpenter and Libbie, Capt. Plummer and I made up the game. Mr. Bacon and Miss Young were here to dinner, the latter having come in to attend the "hop" this evening. When Mr. B. left for the "hop" -- which I did not attend -- he left in my charge a document addressed to "Herr Purim," dated from "Dingy Dell, on 3 mile Creek," and signed, "H. B. Bacon." It amounted to a double extract of Websters Unabridged, entertaining and instructive. Maggie and I had a good time over it after her return from the party.
     "Une lasse de she, si'l vous plait!!!" Mal de tete!! Helas! pour nos chateaux in espagne!!! [89]

     TUESDAY, MARCH 31. -- Bright and beautiful. Miss Couch passed the night here, and she aroused us so early this morning that we all had a walk over to the Arsenal before breakfast. Had such a nice visit on the piazza both before and after repast with Mr. Bacon and various officers. The first stayed with Capt. Yates over night and returned to town at about eleven this morning. This evening we three girls accompanied by Ad. Moylan and Capt. Plummer, called at Mrs. Gen. Smith's of the Arsenal, to see her and a friend from Council Bluffs. Then called at Col. Buel's; and Maggie and I also called at Capt. Livers [90] where his grand daughter, Miss Lewishan treated us to some fine vocal music. Upon our return Messrs Nolan and Bell came in and sat awhile.

     WEDNESDAY, MARCH 23 -- Mild and pleasant. Army -- lunch at Mrs. Major Elderkin's in the city today. Armstrong and Libbie, Col. Cooke and Maggie, Tom Custer and I went down about two o'clock. Gas light was substituted for sunlight, the band from the Fort was in attendance, carpets on two rooms were covered with canvas, and the "light fantastic" was tripped gaily until six o'clock, during which time the lunch-room was open. An apartment in a vacant house adjoining was converted into a smoking room, where the gentlemen did greatly congregate. Only a half dozen citizens were present, among whom were a Mr. Burnham, his bride and his two sisters (Mrs. Harris and Miss Burnham) from Cleveland and Mr. Bacon.

     This evening we all but Libbie went to Mrs. Capt. McIntosh where we met the Buel family, Miss Armstrong, Miss McClenihan & Mr. Nowlan. Had quite a musical entertainment, Mrs. McIntosh playing the guitar and piano finely and the two Misses' above mentioned discoursing vocal music.


Mrs. Minnie Dubbs Millbrook, native of Ransom, is the author of a county history, Ness -- Western County, Kansas (Detroit, 1955). Now residing in Topeka she continues researching and publishing on Gen. and Mrs. George A. Custer. Her work has brought her nationwide recognition as a reliable authority on the Custers.

1. Graduating from West Point in 1861, George Armstrong Custer went directly into the Civil War, emerging with a brilliant record as a cavalry officer and with a major general's brevet. his duty in the West thereafter was not so successful. After six months in Texas and a year in Kansas he had been court-martialed and put on suspension for a year as of November 19, 1867. he remained at Fort Leavenworth by courtesy of Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, who invited Custer to occupy his quarters while Sheridan was on leave from September 13, 1867, to March 21, 1868. Though a major general by brevet, Custer's army rank was lieutenant colonel in the Seventh U.S. Cavalry.

2. Anna Darrah was a former schoolmate of Elizabeth Custer, a daughter of Lewis Darrah of Monroe, Mich. She had first come to Kansas with the Custers in 1866 and Mrs. Custer wrote of her in her book, Tenting on the Plains, calling her Diana. General Custer liked people around him and form the beginning of his service in the West had urged his wife to have always a pretty young lady visitor in the house. Such a guest was a great attraction and the bachelor officers flocked around.

3. Most of these callers were officers of the military units stationed at Fort companies of the Seventh U.S. cavalry, A, D, E, F, G, and K, Company E of the Third infantry, and Battery B of the fourth artillery. Gen. George A. Custer being in suspension, Gen. Alfred M. Gibbs was the commanding officer of the Seventh cavalry. Other officers of that regiment were: Col. Thomas B. Weir, Maj. James M. Bell, Cpt. Albert Barnitz, Cpt. Lewis M. Hamilton, Cpt. George W. Yates, Cpt. Algernon E. "Fresh" Smith, Cpt. Henry W. "Salt" Smith, Cpt. Samuel Robbins, Lt. Henry Jackson, Lt. John M. Johnson, Adj. Myles Moylan, Lt. Francis Gibson, Lt. Thomas W. Custer, Lt. James Leary, Lt. William W. Cooke. Officers of the Third infantry were: Maj. Dangerfield Parker, Col. Andrew Sheridan, Cpt. Joseph hale, Lt. Earl M. Rogers, Lt. Stanley A. Brown. Officers of the Fourth artillery were: Col. C. C. Parsons, Cpt Henry A Huntington, Lt. Peter Leary, and Lt. Walter Howe. Ltc. John McNutt and Cpt. John G. Butler were in the Ordnance department.

     Among the generals calling was Andrew J. Smith, colonel of the Seventh cavalry but at that time commanding the Department of the Missouri while Sheridan was on leave. Gens. Langdon C. Easton and Benjamin C. Card were of the quartermaster corps and attached to the Department of the Missouri as was Gen. Michael R. Morgan of the commissary corps, Gen. Chauncy McKeever asst. adjutant, and Dr. Madison Mills, chief surgeon. Gen. John W. Davidson had organized the Seventh cavalry in 1868 and since had been acting inspector general. Dr. David Magruder was in charge of the hospital at the fort and Drs. Henry Lippincott and John W. Brewer were assistants there. The Rev. Hiram Stone had been the chaplain at Fort Leavenworth since 1859.

     A number of other officers were at the post, called either as judges or witnesses in connection with a series of court-martials that were being held. Among these were Maj. William Beebe and Lt. William I. Reed, Fifth infantry; and Col. Enoch Steen and Col. David P. Hancock, Second infantry. As for the civilians, Robert Crozier was a prominent attorney in Leavenworth City. Mr. Wilson and Mr. Caldwell are unidentifiable.

     It should be noted that Miss Richmond lists all the officers in their brevet rank rather than in their regular army rank in which they are carried on the post and regimental returns. Brevets were usually a notch or two above the regular army rank and were bestowed for special meritorious service. The officer wore the insignia of his brevet rank but was paid and performed his duty ordinarily in his army rank. -- "Post Returns"; "Regimental Returns";Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, v. 1, (Washington, 1903)

     4. 1Lt. James M. Bell, major by brevet, was a Pennsylvanian with service in the Civil War. He was one of the original second lieutenants appointed to the Seventh cavalry in 1866. He was regimental quartermaster at this time.

     5. Cpt. Thomas D. Weir, Lieutenant colonel by brevet, was a graduate of the University of Michigan and an officer in the Third Michigan cavalry during the Civil War. In Texas in 1865-1866 he had been inspector on Custer's staff. Stanley A. Brown was second lieutenant in the Third infantry.

     6. The military service of Cpt. Robert M. West, Co. K, Seventh began before the Civil War when he was a private in the mounted rifles. At the end of the Civil War he was colonel of the Fifth Pennsylvania cavalry and was a lieutenant colonel by brevet afterwards. In January, 1868, he was being tried by court-martial for drunkenness on duty, the charges preferred by General Custer. In the summer of 1867 when Custer's troopers were on scout between the Smoky Hill and Platte rivers, some men were seen one day to be leaving the command and Custer ordered the officers to bring them back, dead or alive. Two were shot and the one fatally wounded was Pvt. Charles Johnson of Co. K, West's company. One of the charges against Custer in his court-martial was this "shooting of soldiers without trial." In reviewing Custer's conviction on this charge, the judge advocate general of the army suggested that the sentence in this case might be inadequate and might be taken "before a Court of competent jurisdiction." Perhaps when West brought his charges before the court in Leavenworth, he thought he was doing that very thing. -- See Lawrence Frost, The Court-Martial of General George Armstrong Custer (Norman 1968); Minnie Dubbs Millbrook, "The west Breaks in General Custer," Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 36 (Summer, 1970), p. 146.

     7. although the court-martial charges against General Custer had been brought by Gen. Andrew Smith, there seems to have been little animus between them. Smith and Dr. Madison Mills put up the bail, $1000, for Custer.

     8. First Lieutenant Cooke was the officer who who actually shot Private Johnson. William Winer Cooke was a Canadian who enlisted in a New York regiment in 1864 and served through the rest of the Civil War. He was the youngest officer in the Seventh cavalry, probably not more than 22 years at this time. When Custer was in command, he was usually adjutant of the regiment. At this time he was posted at Fort Harker and only in Leavenworth temporarily.

     9. This hilarity and high spirits was but a continuation of the Custers' innocent treatment of the court-martial. Elizabeth had written Rebecca in September, 1867, of the court-martial charges. "It sounds quite solemn to unaccustomed ears, but officers look on it as an ordinary occurence...." Then on November 20: "... the sentence is unjust as possible.... Suspension from rank and command; forfeiture of pay proper for a year, ... Pay proper is $95 a month, but a soldier's emoluments amount to more than his pay, so that we have enough to live on.... Autie and I are the wonder of the garrison, we are in such spirits." -- Marguerite Merington, ed., The Custer Story (New York, 1950), pp. 212, 214.

     1Lt. Henry Jackson, major by brevet, was English born and enlisted as a private in the 14th Illinois cavalry in the Civil War. he became an officer and in July, 1866, was appointed a second lieutenant in the Seventh cavalry. As he was with Custer in the summer of 1867 he was a witness at his court-martial. Early in 1868 Jackson was detached from the Seventh cavalry for an assignment with the signal corps and did not rejoin the regiment until after the Battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876.

     10. Cpt. George W. Yates was a boyhood friend of General Custer. he enlisted in the Fourth Michigan infantry at the beginning of the Civil War and became a first lieutenant and regimental adjutant on September 26, 1862. After the war he was in the Second cavalry, transferring to the Seventh in November, 1867. Wm. S. Clark was second lieutenant in Co. I, Seventh cavalry. Louis Henry Carpenter was in the 10th cavalry. The "Bedlam Mess, No. 1," was apparently one of several established by a group of bachelor officers.

     11. The Rev. Hiram Stone (1824-1911) arrived in Kansas in 1856 to become rector of St. Paul's church in Leavenworth. He accepted the chaplaincy at the fort in 1859 and remained there eight and one-half years, resigning June 3, 1868. While at the fort "he preached regularly every Sunday morning, taught the Session School during the week [three hours in the afternoon] and discharged such other duties as were required of a chaplain. he administered the Holy Communion regularly on the first Sunday of the month, and held services Wednesday and Friday evenings during Lent. Because of the very nature of army life, with its constant moving of troops, attendance varied from twenty-five to one hundred...." Also as long as there was no pastor in Leavenworth the held a service ther every Sunday. -- Blanche M. Taylor, Plenteous Harvest (Topeka, 1973), p. 59.

     12. Col. Andrew Sheridan of the Third infantry had been commander at Fort Dodge through 1866, but had gone on leave and remained AWOL for several months. he was at Fort Leavenworth under arrest awaiting court-martial.

     13. Justic Adams was surely Moses S. Adams, who was a member of the firm of Adams, Crozier & Ludlum, and also at this time the recorder or police judge of Leavenworth City. He had come to Leavenworth in 1857 and was later elected a member of the state legislature and became speaker of the hours. In both positions he displayed "rare legal knowledge and in the later, statesmanship and ability of a high order." -- H. Miles Moore, Earuly History of Leavenworth (Leavenworth, 1906), p. 298.

     14. Gen. John W. Davidson had been stationed at Fort Leavenworth throughout 1867 and only moved his family away after new Year's 1868. For further information on this officer, who organized the Seventh cavalry, see Homer K. Davidson, Black Jack Davidson (Glendale, 1974).

     15. Julia Delahay, 17, was the daughter of Mark W. Delahay, a prominent attorney of Leavenworth. She married in 1870, Thomas A. Osborn, who in 1872 abd 1874 was elected governor of Kansas. Miss Hunt was perhaps Ellen Hunt, a daughter of Col. F. E. Hunt, U.S. army paymaster, who lived in Leavenworth. Miss Tessie Young cannot be identified nor can the Adams daughters. Justice Adams at this time had but one son, six years old. Samuel Rakestraw Colladay was an officer in the 10th cavalry.

     16. The Leavenworth Daily Conservative, January 19, 1868, which reported the trial at some length, gave the verdict thus: "Gen. Geo. A. Custer was yesterday discharged from arrest upon the charge of murder, uponwhich he has been for several days undergoing examination. The charge the judge finds, was not sustained by evidence."

     17. When Jong Hodson Egar (1832-1924) came to St. Paul's from Illinois in 1863, the church had had no pastor since Hiram Stone had left it to go to Fort Leavenworth in 1859. Although Stone came to hold a service every Sunday, "the congregation dwindled; the Sunday School was disbanded; even the little church building had passed out of the hands of the Episcopalians." but Egar proved to be diligent and by 1868 had gathered his parish together and had erected a stone church. -- Blanche M. Taylor, Plenteous Harvest (Topeka, 1974), p.59.

     18. Maj. George armes, captain in the 10th cavalry, was one of the most controversial officers in the army. he was at this time in Leavenworth for his court-martial. -- See Col. George A. Armes, Ups and Downs of an Army Officer (Washington, 1900). Howard B. cushing of the Third U.S. cavalry was the brother of William B. Cushing, a famous naval officer of te Cival War.

     19. Dr. William H. Renick, acting asst. surgeon, rejoined the post January 11 from a leave of absence. he was a citizen physician or contract surgeon and not a commissioned army officer.

     20. Jonty, Jonathan Richmaon, was Rebecca's brother, two years younger than she, according to the 1850 census.

     21. Col. George A. "Sandy" Forsyth was an aide on the staff of Gen. Philip h. Sheridan. Charles L. Umbstatter, secone lieutenant in the Third infantry had earleir been on leave.

     22. This refers to the attempt of Pres. Andrew Johnson to relieve Sec. E. M. Stanton as head of the War Department and appoint General Grant in his place.

     23. William E. Webb, born in New York about 1839, came to Kansas late in 1866 with a group of men from St. Louis, wh purchased land in the vicinity where Fort Hays was to be located. He came back to Kansas in 1867 when the railroad had reached Hays and surveyed and platted the town naming it Hays City. He seems tohave been backed by the railroad and his town triumphed over Rome, a rival started by "Buffalo Bill" Cody. Webb wrote Buffalo Land (Cincinnati, 1872)a fictitious tale of buffalo hunting near Hays, as well as several articles for the Kansas Magazine -- Kansas Historical Collections, v. 10, p. 279.

     24. Edward Law was appointed second lieutenant in the Seventh cavalry August 15, 1867, apparently from civil life and without previous military service. He resigned in 1870. John M. Johnson was agraduate of West Point in June, 1867, and with Edward S. Gadfrey became the first of the military academy graduates to come directly into the Seventh cavalry. Strangely enough, Godfrey though at Fort Leavenworth in early 1868, never called on the Custers.

     25. Gen. Alfred Gibbs, graduate of West Point in 1846, was said to have suffered from an old lance wound and was seldom on field duty. He was however an excellent administrator and commanded at several posts. He made a fine record in both the Mexican and Civil Wars ending in 1865 as a brigadier general in Sheridan's cavalry and received the brevet of major general. He came from a prominent New York family. His brother was the chemist Oliver Woolcott Gibbs, his father the minerologist George Gibbs, and his grandfather Oliver Woolcott, secretary of the treasury in the administration of George Washington and John Adams. For all his charm, wit and ability, he, like so many of the army officers of that time, drank too much. This habit seems to have been of long standing. -- See Diary of a Union Lady, 1861-1865, ed., Harold Earl Hammon (N.Y., 1962), pp. 221-222 "February 22, 1863 -- Colonel (Alfred) Gibbs, Mrs. Woolcott Gibbs son, was dead drunk, and Corcoran was obliged to put him under arrest. . . ." Gibbs died suddenly of "congestion of the brain," December 26, 1868.

     26. St. Mark's Episcopal church was Rebecca's church in Grand Rapids. She had taught a class of boys in the Sunday school and participated in all the activities of the church.

     27. Judge James P. Christiancy, of the Michigan supreme court, lived in Monroe Mich., and had been a close friend of Daniel Bacon, Elizabeth Custer's father. Christiancy had been a political adviser to Custer until that young officer seemed to have aligned himself in the summer of 1866 with Pres. Andrew Johnson then in opposition to the Republican party in control of the U.S. congress. Christiancy was a Republican.

     28. The Planters Hotel of Leavenworth was built in 1856 by Missourians to be "forever controlled by Southern men for Southern gentlemen." However, as the political tides turned, it was bought by others who operated it for anyone who paid his bills and acted like a gentleman. It was an imposing four-story brick building on the bluffs above the river with steps leading down to the dock below. It was the finest hotel west of St. Louis and was the social center of notheast Kansas. The dining room was 106 feet long and would accommodate 200 diners; the bar room supported two bar tenders. Horace Greeley called it a "wonder of elegance and comfort."

     29. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan arrived in leavenworth February 28, 1868. He commanded the Department of the Missouri and all the Kansas forts were under his jurisdiction.

     30. At this time the only Kansan by this name with the rank of general was John Alexander Martin of Atchison. He was a Pennsylvanian before coming to Kansas. -- Kansas Historical Collections, v. 10, p. 241.

     31. Charles C. Whiting was U.S. marshal at Topeka form 1867 to 1869. -- Ibid., v. 8, p.542.

     32. A Traveler in July, 1867, reported "The next town at which we stopped was Wamego, a pleasant little town three miles south of Louisville [county seat and home of the Pottawatomie Gazette,which is a thriving place. it was laid out last October, since which time the Wamego Hotel Company have erected a hotel which cost between eleven and twelve thousand dollars, and at which passengers on the regular traisn stop for meals." -- Pottawatomie Gazette, Louisville, July 17, 1867. Louisville, an old town on the Ft. Leavenworth-Ft. Riley trail had been bypassed by the railroad.

     33. On July24, 1867, according to the Wamego items in the Pottawatomie Gazette, "The Railroad Hotel, at Wamego, has changed hands. Hereafter it will be under the management of Mr. Sheldon, lately the popular proprietor of the Capitol House, Topeka." And on November 6, 1867, from the same source came another item on the hotel: "Capt John Richmond, late Clerk of the U.S. Court in Arizona, has purchased the interest of R. M. Stebbins, in the Wamego House. Messrs. sheldon and Richmond are making some important improvements in the house, and are bound to sustain the reputation the establishment has already acquired under Mr. Sheldon."

     34. Charlie Taft's occupation in Wamego does not appear but "The Bazooks -- or, as some authorities hath it, the 'Biziouques' -- have been rehearsing for some time 'A Grand Parlor Entertainment' to be given in honor of the General Superintendent and other Officials [of the railroad], but no time has been determined upon." -- Pottawatomie Gazette, Februaty 26, 1868.

     35. "Colonel T. J. Anderson the Topeka ticket agent . . . got the train started at six forty-five A.M. March 4th. About two hundred persons left here many of them ladies, and others joined the train along the line so that the company numbered over three hundred, when they reached Coyote. . . . The Ellsworth people provided dinner for the whole company and it was one which would have done credit to any city, anywhere. The Hays City folks provided supper, two halls for dancing, rooms for the ladies, and breakfast. The excursionists all speak in the highest terms of Ellsworth and Hays City the Road and its officers. . . . It was the intention to have stayed one night at Junction City, but the train did not reach there until ten o'clock P.M. and owing to some unexplained circumstances, the citizens . . . had not provided for the entertainment of the excursionists." -- Topeka State Record, March 11, 1868.

     Apparently Rebecca and her sister went only to Ellsworth and returned next day on the regular train to Wamego.

     36. Charles Reynolds (1817 - 1885) was at this time chaplain at Fort Riley. He had come to Kansas in 1858 and organized Trinity Episcopal church at Lawrence. At the outbreak of the Civil War he had resigned his rectorship at Lawrence to go with the Second Kansas cavalry to Fort Scott. While acting as chaplain at the post he also organized St. Andrew's in the town and began building a church. He was transferred to Fort Riley in 1864. Probably the daughter with him here was Elizabeth.

     37. Probably J. Brinkerhoff, first a conductor and later superintendent of the Kansas division of the Union Pacific Railroad. -- KHC, v. 9, p. 353; v. 11, p. 548.

     38. Coyote, end of the railroad line at that time, was said to be in Trego county, second station west of Ellis. Collyer presently occupies about the same site. Construction was still proceeding and in the spring of 1868 on May 8 and 26 there were Indian attacks in the vicinity. -- Mrs. Frank C. Montgomery, "Fort Wallace and Its Relation to the Frontier." -- KHC, v. 17, p. 225.

     39. Pottawatomie Gazette, March 11, 1868: "Hon. Wm. A. Richmond and family of Grand Rapids, Mich., are now sojourning at the Wamego House. Mr. Richmond is a gentleman of ample means who has already made large investments in Kansas and whose desire is to invest still further."

     40. Evidently Warren H. H. Lawrence, who came to Kansas in 1857, settleing in Franklin county. He was elected to the first state legislature in 1861 and elected secretary of state in 1862. He was a member of the townsite company of Wichita and one of the promoters of the Denver & Fort Worth railroad. -- KHC, v. 10, p. 250.

     41. George Noble was division superintendent on the railroad at this time. Several railroad officials were in the party, among them R. H. Shoemaker and Judge Deveaux of the land department. They were to go to the end of the line at Coyote. -- KHC, v. 11, p. 548; Pottawatomie Gazette, March 18, 1868.

     42. Col. Schuyler Crosby was a member of Sheridan's staff.

     43. Col. Philip D. Fisher seems to have been director and stockholder in the Wamego Town Site Company. He was apparently employed by the railroad in the land department to attract settlers and was often away from home. He was a civil engineer.

     44. Louisa Muhlbach, pseudonym of Clara (Miller) Mundt (1814-1877), was a German-born writer of popular romances, stories of every-day life and historical novels. Her books were translated into several languages. Excerpts of Josephine and her Son wre reproduced in Masterpieces of World literature, ed. Harry Thurston (Albany, N. Y.,1899), pp. 8336-8362.

     45. Hugh Sleight Walsh (1810-1877) came to Kansas in 1857 and became private secretary for Acting Governors Stanton and Denver. In 1858 he was appointed secretary of the territory and on the resignation of Governor Denver in October 1858, he became acting governor and served until December 17, 1858, when Governor Medary assumed the duties of the office -- KHC, v.5,p. 161.

     46. James Hervey Lee (1830-1917) was persuaded by his brother, John Newton Lee, rector of Grace church, Topeka and principal of the Female Seminary there, to resign his parish in Indiana and come to Manhattan, Kan., where he would have the honor not only to become the rector of St. Paul's but also "to represent our church in the State school" and "where his duties would be light and the salary of $1,000 per annum would relieve the Bishop of the burden of a rector's stipend." He came in 1866 and later his father, mother, sisters, and brothers also came to live in Manhattan. The sister Emma, who came with him to Wamego, may have been either Carolina E. or Mary E. Lee. Lee spent his long life in Manhattan "teaching classics and languages in the College, discharging his duties as superintendent of schools of Riley county, and on weekends without remuneration, doing missionary work at Russell, Hays, Ellis, Ellsworth, Salina, Wamego, and Junction City." -- Taylor, Plenteous harvest, pp. 161-162; Portrait and Biographical Album, Washington, Clay and Riley Counties, Kansas (Chapman Bros., Chicago, 1890), p. 519.

     47. The Sunday school had been organized by Col. Philip D. Fisher in November, 1867. -- Pottawatomie Gazette, November 27, 1867.

     48. "The Episcopalians have a parochial organization here, known as St. Luke's Church; they hope to be able, during the coming summer, to erect a building in which to worship." -- Pottawatomie Gazette, march 25, 1868.

     49. The Custers did not leave Fort Leavenworth until August 12, 1868. -- "Post Returns."

     50. J. Lewis Browne, lawyer, was a graduate of Kenyon College and the University of Michigan Law School. he was the attorney and a member fo the Wamego Town Site Company. He had an office next to the hotel and was the agent of the Merchant's Union Express. he also seems to have been associated with Jonathan Richmond, George Trout, and B. F. Chandler in the forming of what was called the "wirepuller's" 40-acre tract near the town of Wamego. He was a member of the school board and a vestryman of St. Luke's church. In July, 1868, he left Wamego to become the editor of an Alabama publication. Sometime later he returned to make his home at Lawrence -- Pottawatomie Gazette, September 18, November 20, 1867; April 1, July 24, 1868.

     51. Joseph II and His Court was another of Louisa Muhlbach's historical novels, published in 1858.

     52. Madame De Genlis (1746-1830) was an educator and a writer. She entered the Palais Royal as lady-in-waiting to the duchess of Chartres and became governess not only to her daughters but also to her sons. After the revolution she went to Germany and supported herself with her pen, writing voluminously -- dramas, novels, philosophy, and history.

     53. "Dr. Munford, a young gentleman from St. Louis, who owns a large amount of real estate in this County, is now sojourning with us. He expresses himself very much pleased with the country, will remain here, sell off several thousand acres of his lands, and . . .improve the remainder. Dr. Munford is a young gentleman of education, and . . . improve the remainder. Dr. Munford is a young gentleman of education, and will be a valuable acquistion to our society." -- Pottawatomie Gazette, April 8, 1868.

     54. Regular afternoon services were held in the school house by Mr. Banfield, a missionary of the Congregational church. -- Pottawatomie Gazette, January, 1 1868.

     55. Wamego had been incorporated in March, 1868.

     56. The 1868-1869 Topeka directory lists the D.P. Broadwell boarding house as on the north side of Sixth avenue between Van Buren and Harrison streets. Broadwell was a cattle buyer.

     57. The directory lists Grace church on the southwest corner of Seventh and Jackson. The Rev. James Newton lee of Cambridge, Ind., came June 1, 1865, to be rector at Grace church and principal of the Female Academy in Topeka. In 1867 the church had 30 families, 58 communicants, and 77 students in its Sunday School. -- Ven William Henry Haupt, "History of the American Church," KHC, v. 16, p. 396.

     58. This farm was purchased by William Richmond on October 11, 1867, when he first visited Topeka. it was described as the NE1/4, Sec. 8, Twp. 12, Range 16. Section 8 was bounded by what is now 21st and 29th streets and Adams and California. Evidently Rebeca did not cross the Wakarusa, just the Shunganunga. When William Richmond died August 3, 1870, his will left this farm to his son, Jonathan if at the end of six years Jonathan was "proved to have totally abstained from all intoxicating drinks during said six years."

     59. Maj. Joel Elliot of the Seventh cavalry had been a captain in the Seventh Indiana cavalry in the Civil War. he was wounded at the battle of Brice's Cross Roads where Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis was in command. He and his regiment were with Custer in Texas. his score on the examination preliminary to reentering the army was so high that he was made a major though younger than some of his captains.

     60. Minnie Beals, music teacher, was highly regarded as a musician in Topeka. On a cold winter day when she and Mr. Cook, a violinist, gave a concert, a big crowd turned out in spite of the weather. "Miss Beals' guitar playing was excellent, and drew forth rounds of applause. . . . Persons of undoubted good taste, say that Miss Beals is really an excellent singer and player." -- Topeka State Record, December 4, 1867.

     61. Henry M. Burleigh and Col. George H. Hoyt are both mentioned by H. Miles Moore in his History of Leavenworth, as members of the bar in that city though there but a short time. On january 30, 1868, the Topeka Leader announced: "Col. George Hoyt and H. M. Burleigh, Esq. have opened an office in the building opposite the new court house and Col. Hoyt has a sufficient reputation for the firm, being the present Attorney General of the State of Kansas." In the 1879 Leavenworth directory, H. M. Burleigh is noted as being a resident of Iola.

     Since Hays City was not incorporated at this time, it had no mayor. Mil[ton] W. Soule was at that time chariman of the town trustees and a justice of the peace at Hays. -- Father Blaine Burkey, Ellis County Historical Society.

     The U. S. district court convened in Topeka on the second Monday of April, with Hon. Mark W Delahay, the presiding judge.

     62. H. M. Burleigh went into the Civil War in may, 1861, as a captain of the First New York infantry, but from June, 1862, served as an adjutant in a regiment or brigade not specified. Jubal Early's last fight was on March 2, 1865, at Waynesboro where General Cuser won the battle but did not capture Early.

     63. It has been possible to identify only a few of the popular songs sung by the young people of that day. "Annie of the Vale" was written by George P. morris and J. R. Thomas in 1861. "My Last Cigar" was written by James M. Hubbard of New Haven, Conn., in 1848. Its tune is known today as the alma mater anthem of the Univeristy of Pennsylvania. -- Sigmund Spaeth, A History of Popular Music in America (N.Y., 1948), pp. 123, 147.

     64. At the election, Browne was beaten by James Richey by one vote for the position of clerk of Louisville township. -- Pottawatomie Gazette, April 15, 1868.

     65. This monumental work by a well-known newspaperman, Albert D. Richardson, was published in 1867. it contained 571 pages of text and more than 200 illustrations from photographs and original sketches. The book was for sale only by subscription and could not be bought in book stores. "Residents of any state in the Union desiring a copy should address the publishers, and an agent will call upon them."

     66. The Ed Kellams lived on Jackson between Fifth and Sixth. He kept a livery stable according to the 1868-1869 directory.

     67. The Gov. and Mrs. Samuel J. Crawford boarded at the southwest corner of Fifth and Van Buren. Mrs. Clarkson's husband, Charles, was a clerk in the secretary of state's office and they lived on the south side of Sixth between Van Buren and Harrison. Mrs. Judge Spencer wife of attorney James W. Spencer, lived at the southwest corner of Monroe and Sixth. Miss Delahay was Julia, in town with her father.

     68. The Sheltons remained at Wamego operating the "best kept house west of Leavenworth," for two and a half years, before Mr. Shelton disposed of his hotel interest on account of poor helath. "Mr. Shelton by his urbanity and unwearied efforts to please the thousands who have sat at his tables,has acquired for his house a National reputation. His estimable lady by her brilliant musical and conversational powers has contributed no small share to the popularity they have gained." Mr. Shelton went from Wamego to St. Louis. -- The Kansas Valley, Wamego, December 9, 1869. It is not known when Jonathan Richmond left Wamego. He was not listed in the 1870 census and in 1886 in certain land deeds conveying real estate owned by his father, he is noted as living in Topeka.

     69. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis graduated from West Point in 1846 and became a lieutenant in the Second dragoons. Stationed in the West, he served in several states, particularly in garrison and frontier duty in Kansas. in the Civil War he took part in many important battles in both the Eastern and Western armies -- Wilson's Creek Second Battle of Bull Run, Antietam and Fredericksburg. Transferred then tothe West he was chief of cavalry in Kentucky and later in Tennesse he suffered his most disastrous defeat at Brice's Cross Roads against Nathan Bedford Forrest. At the end of the war he was brevetted major general and assigned to the Sixth U. S.cavalry on duty in Texas. On May 6, 1869, he was promoted to colonel of the Seventh cavalry.

     70. Probably the Rev. Charles E. D. Griffiths, Episcopal missionary, who organized several churches in Kansas in this period. -- KHC, v. 16, p. 400.

     71. Charles Stewart came to Grace church in Topeka in November, 1869, form Missouri. He perhaps needed a special prayer for in March, 1871, "for acts unbecoming and inconsistent with his clerical and Christian character," he was suspended from his clerical office. -- Bishop Vail's"Journal," Diocesan archives.

     72. According to the Topeka directory for 1870-1871 G. C. Work, farmer, resided on the east side of Kansas avenue between Ninth and Tenth. The Kendall store -- dry goods, rugs, and furniture -- was at 157 Kansas, on the west side between Seventh and Eighth. These lots had been purchased in 1868 by William Richmond when he was in Kansas.

     73. W. F. Leslie lived at 227 Jackson St.

     74. Perhaps Frank Earle was a member of the Earle family of Grand Rapids. James Earle had been Custer's commissary officer at the end of the Civil War and in Texas.

     75. Margaret Custer, 18 years old, was General Custer's sister and lived with her parents in Monroe, Mich. Julia Thurber was also from Monroe, a girlhood friend of Mrs. Custer.

     76. 1Lt. Henry J. Nowlan, Seventh cavalry, was acting commissary officer at the post. He was an Irishman who came to America during the Civil War and had some experience in the New York cavalry. He was one of the original second lieutenants appointed to the Seventh cavalry and was usually on commissary or quartermaster duty.

     77. Mr. Hoffman was perhaps S. E. Hoffman, attorney. Col. Rodney Smith was a U. S. army paymaster who resided in Leavenworth. F. S. Pinckney was a U. S. assessor who lived in Leavenworth. -- Leavenworth City Directory1870-71, pp. 74, 110, 125.

     78. Ltc. David Hillhouse Buel, in Custer's class at West Point, graduated 10th in his class while Custer was last or 34th. Due to his higher standing he was able to choose artillery for his service, considered more desirable than cavalry or infantry. Now in 1870, Buel was a captain with a brevet of lieutenant colonel while Custer was a lieutenant colonel with a brevet of major general. Buel was assassinated July 22, 1870.

     79. Edward Gustave Mathey was born in France but had come to America and during the Civil War joined an Indiana regiment and became a major. He was appointed second lieutenant in the Seventh cavalry on September 24, 1867.

     80. Myles Walter Keogh was born in Ireland and served for a time in the Papal army. Coming to the United States in 1862 he was appointed captain in the army and was an aide to several cavalry commanders. After the war he was first commissioned second lieutenant in the Fourth cavalry but transferred as of July 28, 1866, to the Seventh cavalry as captain of Co. I. He was lieutenant colonel by brevet. Cpt. Satterlee C. Plummer was a West Point graduate of 1865 and assigned to the Seventh cavalry August 9, 1869. He was discharged from the army December 15, 1870, at his own request.

     81. Cpt. David Bell McKibben had been major of the 10th infantry but at this ti,e was unassigned and a guest of General Sturgis. Later he was appointed to the 10th cavalry. Gen. William Henry Sidell was on recruitment service. He was retired in December, 1870. Lt. Charles Braden was assigned after graduation from the military academy to a lieutenancy in the Seventh cavalry on June 15, 1869. He was about to go to Fort Lyon where he would lay out a road to Fort Union.

     82. This enormous dinner is described more at length by Rebecca in a letter to her mother, March 18 1870 as follows: "In the morning Libbie sent to the city to invite Major and Mrs. Elderkin to come to dinner. . . . While the messenger was gone, an invitation came from Mrs. Gen'l Sturgis for Libbie and Armstrong, dinner at six. Here was evidently a clashing, but like all emergencies, Libbie thought she could get along with it. Fortunately the Elderkins sent regrets.

     "We had just dismissed Libbie to dress for the Sturgis dinner, when Gen'l Sturgis himself came over to ask me if I would be so kind as to waive ceremony and accompany my cousins; that their dining room would only accommodate a certain number or I would have been included at first; that now a lady, Mrs. McKibben, a guest at their house, would be unable to make her appearance, and it would give himself and Mrs. Sturgis much pleasure if I would consent to occupy the vacant chair. It seemed like crowding things considerably. . . . At first I felt decidedly revolutionary but a second and better thought decided me to be amiable and submissive to the powers that be; so I hurried around till my old bones fairly rattled and each grey hair stood rampant. Strange to relate, I was ready before Libbie, and we found ourselves in good season at the party.

Mrs. Sturgis Gen. Sidell Capt. Keogh Mrs. Buel R. L. B. Gen.. Custer Capt. Yates Cpt. McK. Miss Armstrong Mrs. Custer Col. Buel Gen. Sturgis

     "The first course consisted of soup, and the second of fish; the third of turkey and oysters with a great variety of vegetables, the fourth of birds and veal, with jellies and pickles; the fifth of ham and salad; the sixth of Charlotte Russe, Ice cream, Blanc-mange, and cake; concluding with nuts, oranges and coffee. We sat at the table over two hours, from a little after seven to half past nine. Profiting by my experience at Col. Forsyth's dinner two years since, I ate very sparingly of each course, and the repast was conducted so deliberately and so well spaced with lively conversation, that no one seemed to feel uncomfortable." -- "Elizabeth B. Custer Collection," microfilm roll No. 1, p. 1382.

     83. It seems strange that this couple had not been introduced before as the Custers were so fond of music and Mollie McIntosh was a fine natural musician. Lt. Donald McIntosh of Indian and Scotch ancestry was chief clerk for Ceo. Daniel Bucker (later father-in-law of General Sheridan) and served with him during the Civil War. McIntosh joined the Seventh cavalry as second lieutenant an August 17, 1867, and was advanced to first lieutenant In 1870. The Macintoshes had been with the Custers at Fort Hays in the summers of 1889 and 1870. Katie Garrett had visited them there in 1870 and gone hunting with the Custers. In 1874 Katie Garrett would marry Lt. Francis Gibson of the Seventh cavalry apparently meeting him at Fort Abraham Lincoln for the first time -- Katherine Gibson Fougera, With Custer's Cavalry (Caldwell, Ida., 1942). While Gibson was not stationed at Fort Leavenworth in early 1870 he is mentioned by Rebecca Richmond as calling on the Custers on February 21, 1870.

     84. Lt. DeHart Goldsborough Quimby was stationed at Fort Leavenworth with his company, F, of the Fifth infantry. He had been a cadet in the naval academy for two years but entered the Fifth infantry as a second lieutenant November 1, 1866.

     85. The Rev. Joseph Miles Kendrick. who had been at St. Andrews in Fort Scott, accepted the post at St. Paul's in Leavenworth in 1869. -- KHC, v. 16, p. 400.

     86. Thomas Mower McDougall was the son of Brev. Brig. Gao. Charles McDougall of the medical corps. Born in 1845 he was nevertheless in the Civil War and came out as a captain. First appointed lieutenant in the 14th U. S. infantry he was transferred to the 82d infantry. During the reorganization of the army he was transferred to the 21st infantry and then was unassigned on October 21. 1869. He was assigned to the Seventh cavalry December 31, 1870. While the Lieutenant Calhoun with him cannot be definitely identified he was perhaps James Calhoun. who had likewise been in the 32d and 21st infantry regiments but was unassigned at the time. He, too, became in January, 1871. an officer in the Seventh cavalry and In 1872 married Margaret Custer.

     87. Again we have a letter written by Rebecca to her "Dear Parents" on March 21. 1870, giving a more detailed account of the masquerade party in Leavenworth:

      "I have another party to chronicle; did you ever hear the like? On Thursday evening last, the Gen. and Libbie, and Maggie, Col. and Mrs. Buel and half a dozen other officers attended a large masquerade party given by the Jews of Leavenworth. The occasion was the festival of Purim, spoken of in the 9th chapter of Esther, The gentlemen all went in domino, but the ladies only in evening dress. Libbie wore a black silk, square neck with puffs of illusion, a wide scarlet sash, her black lace shawl gracefully adjusted upon her head and fastened at her throat, She looked really quite regal. Armstrong wore the handsome English hunting suit (scarlet coat, etc.) that he wore at our masquerade, and they were as handsome a couple as one often sees. They enjoyed the entertainment very much. confining their dancing (with the exception of two or three officers who found some pretty Jewesses) to their own party. Returned at five o'clock in the morning," -- "Elizabeth B. Custer Collection." microfilm roll No. 1. p. 1389.

     88. James Ezekiel Porter was a graduate of West Point in 1869 and had joined the Seventh cavalry along with classmates Charles Braden and William Craycroft. Simon Snyder was captain of Co. F. Fifth infantry.

     89. Was Rebecca Richmond subject to headaches? This phrase translates: "A cup of tea if you please!!! Oh my head!! Alas for our castles in Spain!!!"

     90. Cpt. John Livers was the military storekeeper.

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