THE search for gold in America is as old as the coming of the white man to the New World. Ever since the days of the Spanish conquistadors, men have dreamed of finding new El Dorados. Throughout the development of the United States, the main current of history has at times been interrupted and diverted by glittering reports of rich gold discoveries that have borne men into diverse eddies and backwaters of the historical current. From the red hills of the Georgia piedmont to the white crests of California's high Sierras, men, aroused by the cry of "gold," have yielded to hysteria, abandoned all reason and perspective and performed miracles of herculean effort in a mad scramble to obtain the precious yellow metal.
The gold rush pattern was familiar: the first, faint rumblings and rumors of a gold strike; an alert interest, tempered at the start with some slight skepticism; but the flicker of doubt soon overcome by "convincing evidence" and "first-hand reports" coming back from the diggings. Then followed a wave of hysterical enthusiasm soon rising to a fever pitch of excitement as men frantically prepared to fly from their established homes in pursuit of that "pot of gold" that surely awaited them at the end of the trail. The hardships, harassments, and headaches of traversing new and difficult country with none of the old conveniences and comforts of home often broke strong men, turning them homeward disillusioned and dejected. The more hardy or the more determined or the more foolish ones struggled on to the gold region -- a few to be rewarded richly, but most, discouraged by weeks of futile search, to shift to other pursuits or to return home empty-handed.
That there was gold in the Rocky Mountain region had long been suspected. A Cherokee Indian party returning from California in 1850 had found "color" on Ralston's creek, a tributary of the South Platte river, and a military expedition in 1857 had picked up some "float gold" along Cherry creek, another tributary.  William Green
Russell of Georgia and a party of Cherokee Indians had worked some fairly rewarding gold diggings along the South Platte near the mouth of Cherry creek for a week or ten days at the end of July, 1858. During this time they were visited briefly by several mountain traders.  So in August, 1858, when old mountain trader John Cantrell, who had visited Green Russell's diggings, reached Kansas City bearing reports of gold on the upper reaches of the South Platte and carrying actual samples to prove his story, he merely confirmed what some men like Cherokee John Beck had been saying since 1850 and what other men had suspected for years. 
The newspapers of the Missouri valley towns, picking up the story at first warily and then with full enthusiasm, flashed the magic word "gold" eastward.  Headlines and reports like "Gold Within Our Reach," "Hundreds Flocking to the Mines," and "One company left here for the gold region yesterday" poured oil on the fires of interest.  Already the nation's eyes were focused on the new Kansas territory where fighting and violence high lighted the struggle of Free-State and Slave-State men for political control. Reporters for Eastern newspapers, like Albert D. Richardson for the Boston Daily Journal and Henry Villard for the Cincinnati (Ohio) a Commercial, now seized the opportunity to send back enticing stories of the new gold find.  To a people already weary with frustrations engendered by the panic of 1857, Horace Greeley's assurance in October "that there is much gold this side of the Rocky mountains" lent encouragement and fanned public excitement. 
There could be little doubt now in the public mind of the "fabulous" wealth to be had for the digging in the gold region of the Rockies, particularly since newspaper stories continued to describe miners returning with thousands of dollars in gold after a few weeks' work.  From Topeka, Kansas City, Leavenworth, and
Omaha, east to Chicago, New York, and Boston, and to practically every community in between the Missouri valley and Massachusetts bay the news spread like a prairie fire and excitement flared in the fall and winter of 1858-1859. For the time being men forgot their concern over whether "Honest Abe" or the "Little Giant" would be Illinois' next senator, over popular sovereignty and the fight in congress for the English compromise bill on Kansas and over the scarcity of jobs in Eastern cities. Thousands from the farther East swarmed into the Missouri valley towns, and enough hardy souls crossed the Plains in the fall of 1858 to give the newly-founded towns of Auraria and Denver at the mouth of Cherry creek on the South Platte about 125 cabins, huts, and tents by Christmas, with innumerable gold-hunting camps springing up in the surrounding country. 
The actual gold situation was quite different from the picture given in the newspaper accounts. While some small quantities of "float gold" had been panned along the South Platte and its tributaries, no large amounts of any consequence had been found in 1858. Most of the thousands who would go to the mountains were doomed to failure, frustration, and futility. It was not until May 6, 1859, that John H. Gregory, formerly of Georgia, found gold in paying quantities along a branch of the north fork of Clear creek at an elevation of about 8,000 feet some 40 miles west of Denver.
Meanwhile back East, the young men, jobless in the wake of 1857's panic, dreamed glittering visions of golden wealth in the Rockies, as they scanned the optimistic newspaper reports. In Cleveland, Ohio, 20-year-old William W. Salisbury also read the papers and dreamed. Born in Warrensville, Ohio, just east of Cleveland, Salisbury had for a time attended the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (now Hiram College), Hiram, Ohio, where James A. Garfield was serving as president.  Forced by lack of funds to leave college, Salisbury was now casting about for something to do and hoping that that something would bring rich rewards. For him, reports of gold in the Pike's Peak area were made to order.
The first public notice of the new gold discovery reached Clevelanders on September 3, 1858, when the Cleveland Leader quoted a report in the Kansas City (Mo.) Journal of Commerce that "the Pike's Peak gold mines have been fully opened." Later it reported "fabulous" and "fascinating" accounts and again that "the gold excitement prevails and that parties are leaving [Leavenworth] for
Pike's Peak nearly every day."  Words of caution, throwing "cold water on the yellow fever which is carrying off so many of the Western people," were added early in October.  But by the end of October, William B. Parsons of Lawrence, who "has returned from the gold mines on the South Platte," declared "gold found uniformly" and by Christmas "private letters from the miners . . . who went to Pike's Peak . . . corroborate the reports of the first discoveries" of "fine drift gold."  If these reports did not exactly reflect the facts of the situation, how was a young man of 20 over a thousand miles from the scene to know the difference? Besides, guidebooks offering advice on how to reach the mines and how to prepare for the journey were now appearing. At least two were issued before the end of 1858.  Whether Salisbury saw these is not known, but he must have seen the advice the press was giving as to the best routes to Pike's Peak mines. 
The "yellow fever" in Cleveland continued to mount in the early months of 1859. In January it was "Gold! Gold! Our Kansas and Missouri exchanges glitter with this bewitching word, and heads of thousands are now being turned from every day pursuits to dreams of yellow dust."  In February "A Clevelander at Pike's Peak" reported "the prospects good. . . . Our average is from eight to fifteen dollars a day."  In March groups of Clevelanders and others in northeastern Ohio were organizing companies to set out for the gold region.  It was during this excitement that young William Salisbury made his decision to try his luck at chasing the golden rainbow.
On April 4, 1859, he left Cleveland headed for the mines. On that same day he began recording his daily experiences in a small, black, leather-bound journal that he carried with him constantly. From April 4 to September 11, 1859, faithfully he set down each day the story of his journey, his observations and his reactions to what he saw. This journal, somewhat frayed and weather-beaten, with a few pages torn away from the binding, is now in the possession of William Salisbury's great-grandson, David Louis of Cleveland, by whose kind permission the text of the journal is presented below.
1859 APRIL 4TH Started from Cleveland 30 mo past 11 A. M. arrived in Toledo at 8 ock  had a pleasant journey.
Started from Toledo 10 mo past 9 arrived in Springfield Ill at 4 ock [APRIL 5] remained there till 3 then started for St. Louis which we maid by 2 ock [April 6]  in the morning
remained there till 9 ock in the morning when we started for Jefferson which we reached about 3 ock P M  Procured a ticket for California [Mo.] which we reached by 5 ock remained there over night. got up in the morning and started for Uncle Atwell  Got there at 8 ock [APRIL 7]
APRIL 21ST 1859 Having got all things ready we  commenced our journey for all the badness of the weather which was stormy enough it rained and snowed all day. We traveled over some beautiful country mostly prairie intermittent with timber. Brooks frequently crossing our path. We camped on the banks of the Moreau having traveled only 11 miles
FRIDAY 22ND I arose this morning feeling refreshed from a good sleep It is cloudy and broken this morning. Last night was my first experience in camping out. And a right jolly good time we had of it. We rolled off early this morning and camped at 4 ock in the evening having traveled only 15 miles. We passed through Versail[l]es about noon.
SATURDAY 23RD It is a cold chil[l]y day and a strong North Wester is a blowing but however we are on our road all in good spirits. We frequently pass through skirts of timber on the little cricks. We pitched our tent tonight one mile West of Colecamp a smart little town having traveled 16 miles The weather is awfully windy
SUNDAY 24TH Today is a day for rest, but it is not so with us. We cannot get feed for our teams, neather corn nor hay ther[e] being no grass, therfore we think it advisable to push on regardless of the day untill we can obtain feed. We have [t]raveled 10 miles and have found some old hay and pasture which we are glad to git It is on the open prairie no timber in sight
MONDAY APRIL 25TH We pulled up stakes about 7 ock this morning having traveled most of the day on the prairie crossed some beautiful streams scirted with timber Crossed one good sised river with rocky shores mostly limestone. Came through one beautiful little town by the name of Lesville We have maid 18 m[iles] got fair camping grounds.
TUESDAY 26TH We pulled up stakes about half past 7 this morning found pretty rough roads and therefore have come very slow Had to stop at Clinton and git our [wagon] tree set Saw a great many going to Pike's Peak 
We camped on the banks of the Grand river having traveled only 11 miles Plenty of Turkey Woolves and som[e] Deer around this visinity
WEDNESDAY 27TH, 1859 We started from our camping ground about half past 7 this morning found bad roads [illegible word] and Rod broke down and hindered us some time It is a beautiful country in this visinity, a rich loamy soil interspersed with thick groves of timber and cristal Brooks unimproved lands $5 per acre improved from 10 to 15 Have traveled 13 miles
THURSDAY 28TH 1859 Started from our camping ground about 5 ock this morning traveled on steadily all day. mostly on Prairie rol[l]ing interspersed with timber and well wattered This is in Henry county no Government land in this visinity. Camped on Elk crick catched some fish Went up to an old farmers on the hill he[a]rd his son play on the violin Went up in the morning and traided for it.
FRIDAY 29TH 1859 It rained mostly all night had a good nights rest the tent kept us drigh. had some difficulty in finding our cattle in the morning. did not git started till 9 in the morning traveled about 14 miles it was hard traveling, we got within 8 miles of the State line and camped on the open Prairie
SATURDAY 30TH We started rather late this morning and passed through Tuckerville about 9 in the morning could see 8 miles  to Westport arrived at Westport  about 1 P M The people stop[p]ed Robert there as a runaway  We camped 5 miles in Kansas Ter[r]itory on the open Prairie
SUNDAY MAY 1ST The weather is cloudy and warm and it rained some Changed my close and then went Hunting saw nothing to shoot. but one of our company killed a deer. It is rather roaling Prairie with skirts of timber We left gards out Saturday and Sunday nights It was dark some of the gards got lost
MONDAY MAY 2ND Pulled up stakes about sunrise and traveled till noon stop[p]ed and fed our cattle and took dinner Pushed on and made 15 miles Camped on large Prairie where there was good feed in the edge of the timber Herded our cattle and stood guard for the first time had no trouble
TUESDAY 3RD 1859 We loaded up our camping utensils and rolled on about 7 this morning found some bad roads stop[p]ed at Paola and got one tree set Paola is a fine growing town came on and camped about 4 miles from town on the open Prairie was joined by several Waggons It rained hard jest after we camped
WEDNESDAY 4TH 1859 We endevored to start early this morning But we were disappointed we were in with a company of Kentuckyan[s] and just as we were agoing to start one of their company a young man about 21 was shot dead. he had his gun in his wagon with the musle foremost and was in the
act of pulling it out towards him when it went off and shot him through the head and also graised another mans arm this sad occurrence [caused] a general confusion and delay however they desided to move on and burrey the young man in the next town. We parted company with the Kentuckyans about noon and was joined we traveled about 18 miles and camped on the banks of a crick.
THURSDAY 5TH Started in good season this morning the roads were bad but we maid about 15 miles Reached the old Santifee road at Brooklin had a hard days travel and camped on the open Prairie Wood was scarce Paid 40 cents for a little to git sup[p]er.
FRIDAY 6TH Started at 6 this morning have had good roads all day It is excellent travel but timber is scarce Have traveled 22 miles it rained all night camped a mile West of Prairie City
SATURDAY 7TH Have not traveled any today we have been looking [for] Cattle all day. 13 of our cattle wandered off last night in the storm and we have searched diligently for them but have not been able to find them part of our company have gon[e]. The waggons are passing continuously It is warm and pleasant
SUNDAY 8TH We have not done anything to amount to anything today Heerd of our cattle about noon hired a man to go back after them paid him $11 found them and got them about 4 ock P M Pulled up staikes and crossed the river and camped It has been a pleasant day The waggons are so thick, It looks like a village
MONDAY 9TH We started about 6 ock this morning we are 110 miles from Independence  found good roads west a great many Government waggons Passed through Burlingame  and Willmington are flourishing little towns have come 22 miles. It is mostly Prairie well watered with brooks and springs Timber is scarce
TUESDAY 10TH We got under way about 6 ock this morning found good roads and excelent land well watered but timber is scarce Wone of our company broke the king bolt to his waggon and delayed us some time. We have traveled 21 miles found good camping grounds on the banks of river  but few settlers some Indians
WEDNESDAY 11TH 1859 We came on rather earley this morning over excelent roads mostly Prairie. While our cattle were halting at noon some Indians came to us wanted whisky and tobacco  Passed through Counsel Grove  about 1 ock P M. traveled on and camped on the Prairie have maid 20 miles.
THURSDAY 12TH We were on our road at 6 ock this morning traveled on
over mostly a level road with very little wood and watter We passed through Diamond Springs about 2 ock today they are the most beautifull springs I ever saw  there is now wood scarcely there and but three houses and a grocery  have maid 20 miles.
FRIDAY 13TH We camped last night at the Salt Springs on the open Prairie The springs have stop[p]ed their flow for some reason or other and there is now nothing but a pud[d]le of rily water. There is 6 of our cattle sick which was caused by drinking this water, which is tinctured with Alkali  It is a rainy day and chil[l]y Have come 18 mi
SATURDAY 14TH Here we are camped on Cotton wood crick It has rained hard and steadily all day our cattle all look poorly the sick ones are better We shall stay here today and tomorrow it being 40 miles to wood and 18 miles to water There is 6 or 700 camped on this crick there is Buffalow and Deer and Elk and Antilope here. there has been several killed.
SUNDAY 15TH It still continues to rain and is disagre[e]able enough. The day is mosly occupied in cucking washing hunting and fishing. there is but 2 log huts here one a dwelling the other a grocery. They ar[e] occupied by an agent who stops here through emigration, then move[s] back to Council Grove
MONDAY 16TH We started rather late this morning and have found bad traveling it being mud[d]y and soft but have come 19 miles and camped on the little Turkey There is but 1 house here built of turf and covered with tent cloth it is a kind of traiding post, but poore water here no timber plenty Buffalow
TUESDAY 17TH Have traveled 21 miles today and are somewhat fatigued we are camped on the Running Turkey There is no timber here and poore water There is wone house here maid of small logs and turf and a grocery in a waggon [illegible word] The nearest timber is within 8 miles
WEDNESDAY 18TH Started about 6 ock this morning found slipery roads this morning it having rained last night Arrived at little Arcasas at 11 ock the toll bridge here  25 cts. toll. but little timber. Poore water saw a man that had been shot acidentely in the hip. Came on and passed another company who were camped one man having shot himself acidentely in the arm will have to be amputated There is no end to Buffalow have come 22 m
THURSDAY 19TH We rose this morning and started by sunrise there being no feed here and our cattle being hitched to our waggons all night have come on 6 miles where there is good feed and camped This is Beach Valley are now wayting for Rob and Butler they went out yesterday morning after Buffalow have just come into timber and water here Was an Indian acidentely shot before we came here
FRIDAY 20TH 1859 Waked up this morning about 3 ock it was raining a
perfect herricane and the watter was running into our ten and our bed clothes were all wet Came about 17 miles camped on the Great bend of the Arcansas it is a very rapid flowing stream but very riley now. very little timber here poore water
SATURDAY 21ST Started about 6 this morning Came to Ash crick  about noon it is a small traiding post one house plenty timber and water The Cioway  Indians are here there a[re] great many at our camp at noon got them to shoot at a mark Tenneys etc would hit this eve[r]y time they were pe[a]cable and friendly were traiding caracters have come 20 mile
SUNDAY 22ND We camped last night on the open Prairie near the arcansas the we passed Pawney rock  about 8 ock came on and camped on Ash crick have come 10 miles went up to the Arcansas 3 miles and went in swimming
MONDAY 23RD Loaded our things and started about 6 ock came on and found good roads. We met hundreds of waggons going back reached Pawney Fork about noon met another train going back. our Captain with 2 waggons have gone back Butler and George were obliged to go  but there are 8 waggons of us yet determined to go on have come on and camped on the banks of the Arcansas traveled 18 miles
TUESDAY 24TH Rose early as usual this morning. felt revived from a good night's rest Had good watter. made a fier of Buffalow chips wone more waggon has gone back from our train wone man met his brother on his way back from the Peak with discouraging news Have been joined by another small company camped on the banks of the Arcansas. poore watter no wood have come 20 miles
WEDNESDAY 25TH Started early as usual this morning. The wind blows cold and chil[l]y with a little rain have found good roads all day no timber on this side of the Arcansas and no good watter traveled at a brisk rate all day have made 25 miles camped on the flats of the Arcansas.
THURSDAY 26TH There is a cold wind and rain this morning but we have managed to git us some breakfast. Have found good raods all day traveled
mostly all day on the banks of the river. no timber but good watter We camped at night near old Fort Atkinson  Distance Traveled 22 miles
FRIDAY 27TH Started on our journey early this morning. It is clear and pleasant but a chilly air. no timber in sight poore watter Rod and I went a hunting Antilope saw wone did not git a shot. killed a woolf though camped upon the bluffs and drove our cattle down to the river one of our oxen got in and came near drownding  Traveled 20 miles
SATURDAY 28TH We were on our road at the usual time this morning. nothing occurred of any account. it is clear and pleasant. found road very good except some sandy hills. Came to Pawney fort  about 3 ock P M Saw up under the shelving rocks where an Indian had been buried and had been dug up by the Woolves. some of his bones mocasins blanket bow and arrows were in sight. camped on the flats 20 miles
SUNDAY 29TH We have not traveled any today. are giving our cattle rest and recruiting them up a little one of our men being very sick also we thought best to rest there is no timber here poore watter It has been a long and lonesome day Saw some Pellicans in the river they were beautiful like the Swan
MONDAY 30TH We were on our journey earley this morning have found excelent roads all day. nothing has occurred of not[e] Camped near some movers with their families on their way to California with a drove of cattle no timber poore watter have made 22 miles
TUESDAY 31ST Were on our way at the usual time this morning It is clear and warm, and a beautiful time to travel. Have traveled on the flats beneath the bluffs all day. Saw a grave on the top of the bluff went up to it. It was the grave of a child only two weeks old. It read on the stone L W Ramsey Dies May 21 1859 Aged 2 weeks It was a meloncolly sight there it lay hundred[s] of miles from any other human being a lonely grave of an infant 20
WEDNESDAY JUNE 1ST It is a verry windy day today. and it was thought best to remain here till the wind subsided therefore we have remained here all day Nothing occurred of any account. we got timber here for cucking purposes no very large timber here mostly brush etc The Captains horse arrived and the other two waggons
THURSDAY 2ND We were on our way early this morning found excellent roads all day there is more or less timber now on our road but it is very scarce have made a good days travel at least 23 miles. Have had some Antilope meat for supper Rod and Therron have been out Rod killed one camped on the banks of the Arcansas
FRIDAY 3RD Nothing of importance has occurred today have traveled over a sandy road all day on the flats close to the river There is some timber along
here and it is growing plentier  We camp tonight on the banks of the river where the noise of the wattters would lull us to sleep have traveled 22 miles.
SATURDAY 4TH 1859 Started at our usual time found excellent roads all day. No water except River water which is riley. It has been a very warm day. Timber is getting more plenty every day. we camped at night near Bents fort.  went up in the evening to see the structure. It rained some after we camped. sines of beaver here. Traveled 22 miles.
SUNDAY 5TH It was decided last night to remain here today I have been working and mending. been down to the River to swim have been reading some It has been a beautiful day
MONDAY 6TH Started a little earlier than usual this morning Passed the fort early There is several trains with us this morning good road Camped as usual near the river Have been a little lame all day Stuck a stick in my heel and am more tired than usual have traveled 30 miles
TUESDAY 7TH This is a beautiful day our camping ground was excelent last night. We arrived at the ruins of Bents old fort  a little after noon It was pleasantly situated Would that I could hear those old walls speak and tell some of the events that has happened therein Came in sight about 4 ock of some of the peaks of the Rocky mountains Spanish peak[s],  Pikes etc poore feed for our cattle here have traveled 25
WEDNESDAY 8TH It has been a warm sultry forenoon. but in the afternoon towards night there was a gale sprung up and it blew hard and rained some the roads along here are rather sandy and ruff and hilly. no feed here for our cattle Have traveled 25 miles
THURSDAY 9TH Started rather early this morning a good many gulches abound here. came on and camped in good feed on the banks of the river. the watter is rather cold. river rising. Went hunting after ducks in the afternoon Distance 22
FRIDAY 10TH Were on our way early this morning went hunting Shot at a Woolf killed a raven arrived at Founta[i]n city  at noon Left the Arcansas here camped on fountain crick.  Traveled 25
SATURDAY 11TH This is the first day traveled on this road It is somewhat roaling poore land but little timber. plenty Turkey and deer here. good cold water from the mountains Traveled 20
SUNDAY 12TH Concluded to lay over today and rest. It is a beautiful day. the mountains loom up in full view most over our head Some of the boys have gone up to them to prospect
MONDAY 13TH Hitched up at our usual time found good roads came about 4 ock to the forks of the road. one for the mountains the other directely for cherry crick we took the wone for cherry crick the Captain and 3 other waggons the other Traveled 24 miles camped in the border of the pine woods 
TUESDAY 14TH This is a beautiful morning. the snow on the mountains is glistening in the sun. and the green pine forest that surrounds us makes a beautiful contrast There is natural meadows of grass beautiful forests of pine and cristal springs of water along our travel today Camped on the head waters of Cherry crick excellent camp ground Traveled 23 miles
WEDNESDAY 15TH Left our camping ground early this morning Came by several houses and a man mining he said he maid 2 or 4$ per day Passed a saw mill Lumber was worth $80 per thousand at the mill  Camped on cherry crick traveled 18 miles
THURSDAY 16TH We were delayed this morning on account of oxen two of them got lame but we got another yoke of one of our company and pushed on Passed through Denver city  and crossed the Platt and camped Traveled 23m
FRIDAY 17TH Were up and of[f] by times this morning. reached the mountains about 10 ock  camped on the hill remained there till 4 ock then drove 2 miles South on good feed and water between two mountains traveled 10 miles
SATURDAY 18TH Went prospecting this forenoon could find nothing Started for the mines in the mountains in the P. M. crossed Clear crick ascended the first mountains camped on them 3 miles from the valley 10 miles
SUNDAY 19TH This is a beautifull day a gentle breeze is blowing from the West off from the Snow crested mountains in the distance. We are traveling moderately and viewing the works of nature which are beautifull along here
This is the first Sabath in the mountains with me and but little does it seem like such to me Have traveled 10 miles
MONDAY 20TH 1859 We were on our way as soon as we could see this morning reached the mines at noon the miners were all buisy at work  they seamed to be doing well Rod and Hendricks got lost from us camped about 2 ock in Russells vally Traveled 16
TUESDAY 21ST Went prospecting today my corse layed West went over several miles on the middle branch of clear crick followed it down to the Vascos fork found the collar [i. e. color] saw trout in the crick and also a big brown bear and a deer returned to camp at dark.
WEDNESDAY 22ND It was necessary that some of us should return after provision McGregor and I were chosen arrived at little prairie at noon traveled hard all day got within 4 miles of the valley by dark and camped
THURSDAY 23RD We were on our way by light this morning Slept cold and our cattle were troublesome reached our camp in the valley about 9 in the morning we were glad to git back so as to get some milk and chicken fixens Soon all hands went about fixin for an early start in the morning
FRIDAY 24 1859 Feel refreshed this morning after a good nights rest. had a jolly time last night dancing and playing on the violin.  Started back for the mountains about 10 ock camped at the same place we did Sunday noon last
SATURDAY 25TH Jordan is a hard road to travel. such at least we find it traveling in these mountains have had no bad luck reached little prairie at noon. reached Russels vally about 7 ock and camped feel tired I am glad the days travel is done
SUNDAY 26TH Rube and I went ahead this morning to find the boys, the carts following Had no difficulty in finding them. all went back to pack in the loads 2 1/2 miles being the nearest they could come with carts have just finished packing it in this is the hardest Sunday's work ever done
MONDAY 27TH I am taking my Sunday this forenoon have been washing and mending fetched down the remaining load from our carts have been at work this afternoon dig[g]ing our troths for a Sluce 
TUESDAY 28TH 1859 Have been up about 3/4th of a mile to our other claims to work this forenoon Came down at noon. remaind here in the afternoon to help make a sluce and tom.
WEDNESDAY 29TH Finished our sluce box and tom and got it set and at work about 9 this A M have been running it all day.
THURSDAY 30TH Have been up at our other claim at work prospects favorable bought a saw. began a cabin this afternoon
FRIDAY JULY 1ST 1859 Have been at work on our cabin all day all done but the ruf we quit this claim today it will not pay 
SATURDAY 2ND Finished our cabin this forenoon. moved into it this afternoon
SUNDAY 3RD We rest today for the first time in several weeks Have been washing and mending. Have been more homesick today than any other day since I left Home.
MONDAY 4TH, 1859 This is the 4th of July have been at work on our race all day. little does it seem like the 4th.
TUESDAY 5TH Finished our race and have got one sluce to work feel rather discouraged
WEDNESDAY 6TH Have got two sluces to work this day Have done very well
THURSDAY 7TH All that has been done today is hard work. am somewhat tired
FRIDAY 8TH Have been at work this day as usual. we are in poor spirits think we are not making much
SATURDAY 9TH Worked this forenoon Concluded not to work this afternoon Have been to a law suit and up to the Spanish diggings 
SUNDAY 10TH Have not been at work this day been mending some. slept some Have thought of home and of those at home today all the time it has been a long and lonesome day.
MONDAY 11TH It was thought best that some of us should return to the vally to dispose of some of our things and to fetch up some in the mountains to buy them. We started at 8 ock this morning have just arrived here in the vally. am tired enough
TUESDAY 12TH Had a good nap this morning, feel as good as ever. Have been down to Golden city  to see what we could do towards selling or buying
WEDNESDAY 13TH Have not been very buisy today been hunting our cattle this afternoon, and have been down to the ranch We have had a rarity in the shape of a Jonny-cake for breakfast and sup[p]er
THURSDAY 14 Rose early this morning in order to start for the mountains We were on our way at 6 this morning. passed over the worst road before noon it began raining then and continued the remainder of the day reached camp about 3 1/2 ock
FRIDAY 15TH Have been mining some today 3 of us. have maid only $1.00 each. the other boys have just arrived from the vally.
SATURDAY 16TH Have been at work this day. we work with poor incouragement it does not pay we are making but little
SUNDAY 17TH We have been doing nothing today Theron and Rube have been over to Gregories today.  It has been a lonesome day.
MONDAY 18TH Several of our boys started for the vally this morning but five of us remain have been at work all day. the water is so high that it came in faster than we could bail it out
TUESDAY 19TH have just returned from Spanish mines. Saw Buckskin Joe the mountaineer he had just returned from an exploration trip to the snowy range he was quite talkative
WEDNESDAY 20TH Smith Rube and McShaw have gone prospecting and I am here alone. I have been reading and meditating I love to be left alone sometimes to commune with silent nature, which is beautifull here. tall and rocky mountains surround our camp on every side and a rapid river comes rushing down over the rocks in a few steps of our door I frequently se[e] dear and sheep pass along the side of the mountain
THURSDAY 21ST White and miself started early this morning for russels diggings have also been to the Missouri diggings  Have just returned. felt much fatigued It raines here every day now.
FRIDAY 22ND It has rained all day as usual. the boys returned from the vally this evening had some difficulty in giting sup[p]er on account of the rain
SATURDAY 23RD Have been buisy today moving. We have begun packing our things back up the gulch It has rained all the afternoon we camped between Russels and Gregories
SUNDAY 24TH We were off early this morning stop[p]ed at Gregories some time Camped within 11 miles of the vally It raines continually here and is unhealthy enough It does not seem like Sunday
MONDAY 25TH We were off before 6 this morning Have had very good luck. tip[p]ed over but once reached Golden Gate before noon and Golden city half past 12 the last part of our journey seems long reached camp 3 ock
TUESDAY 26TH Rube rrived last night also we have been down at Golden city today to git a job did not make a raise times are dull money scarce
WEDNESDAY 27TH I have remained in our camp all day today It is warm and sultry have been washing and mending
THURSDAY 28TH Smith Rube and I have been down at Golden city today but little going on there but gambling traided my revolver for a rifel did not secure a job.
FRIDAY 29TH Have been hunting our cattle today. found them before noon
SATURDAY 30TH Have been mend[ing] our cloth[e]s today It is warm and sultry here at noon and cool night and morning.
SUNDAY 31ST Have been hunting for our cattle. been south four miles for them. got my pail half full of burries Rod and I went at noon over to clear crick 6 miles from camp to trie and float some logs down the river. got back a little after dark
MONDAY AUGUST 1ST We started about 8 ock this morning for denver. We left 3 of our boys behind Old Bob, White and Mansfield. We parted with them reluctantly. Tears started from their eyes when we took our leave It was warm in the forenoon. it rained in the afternoon Camped on Cher[r]y crick
TUESDAY 2ND We wer[e] on our way early this morning Started on afoot for Denver stop[p]ed there some time It has grown wonderfully since I came here we pushed on and camped 15 miles down the Platt[e] The objects on
the mountains are becoming indestinct to view. all that is to be seen is their outlines and white crested peaks covered with snow
WEDNESDAY 3RD We were on our way as soon as light this morning Stop[p]ed as soon as we came to good feed and took breakfast. pushed on and reached Fort Lupton  at noon. The fort has been deserted for several years there is a famile living in it at the present time passed Bents traiding post and Fort Vasquez  in the afternoon. It rained and hailed in the afternoon came 30 miles
THURSDAY 4TH There is a heavy fogg this morning and it is very chilly and cold. Took in the lug[g]age of two young men to carry it to Leavenworth. about 5 miles from where we camped we found the hail several inches thick. camped at night on the Platt[e]. went in swimming found an Injin canoo on an Island in the river it was maid out of a log and was so water soaked we could not launch it.
FRIDAY 5TH AUGUST We were on our way early this morning. traveled all the forenoon on a sandy desert without wood or water. Reached Fremont orchard about 6 ock this evening It is a beautiful grove of willow and popular [sic] camped one mile and a half below on good feed and timber. the mountains are but juts to be seen in the distance Pikes and Longs two peaks are to be seen.
SATURDAY 6TH This forenoon our road has been very sandy. reached [word garbled, probably Bijou] crick at noon good grass and water. reached an Indian village of several thousand inhabitance [sic] and wandered through the village  camped 3 miles below on the river
SUNDAY 7TH Today is Sund[a]y but it does not seam as such to me. we are resting this forenoon. have been down to traid with the Indians have been traveling this afternoon have went 12 miles. no wood here of any consequence crossed Be[a]ver crick 
MONDAY 8TH We camped near the third station  last night were on our way early this morning. the mountains are lost to view here. the road is frequently very sandy. no wood scarcely here, but willow. Went over to an island in the river after flood wood and willow. discovered the remains of a de[a]d Ingen under a lone Cottonwood he had been hung in the tree after de[a]th with his robes and clothing all on he had decayed and fell to the ground there is two good springs of water here. it rained hard here last night we passed some Indians on their way home from battle Traveled 25 miles
TUESDAY 9TH Was up as soon as day this morning have been hunting saw nothing but some Ducks killed some there is plenty Antelope here but they are wild Traveled till 6 ock. stop[p]ed and rested our cattle then hitched up and drove till 10 ock then camped after having come 30 miles. we reached the 4th station at sun down. no wood along here no watter but river watter
WEDNESDAY 10TH We were up by day break this morning. It is beautiful to see the sunrise here where it is as level as the sea as far as the eye can reach. Nothing has occurred of importance the road is very sandy along here no wood Traveled in the afternoon til 5. then camped. pushed on at 7 and camped at 10 traveled 28 miles
THURSDAY 11TH Nothing has occured of importance have been hunting. passed the up[p]er crossing  about 8 this morning reached the lower crossing  half past 10 camped there for the night.
FRIDAY 12TH Have been trying to traid with the Indians here at the station. could not traid much. pinched 1 pair mocasin they are of the Shian [Cheyenne] nation. the river is full of islands along here. they are covered with brush and grapevine which are full of fruit and nearly ripe. traveled 25 m
SATURDAY 13 We were on our way early this morning it has been pleasant all day. there was no wood where we camped last night but [a]long in the afternoon we could see timber in the distance which we soone reached there is one of Russels stations and a traiding post here. soone after leaving this station we came in sight of the North Platt[e]. There is more or less timber in sight. we meet a grate [many] waggons for Larramie and Utah  passed the junction  in the evening. traveled 25 miles
SUNDAY 14TH It was thought best to drive today til we reached wood and watter. we traveled until noon reached wood. The boys have gone ahunting Rod killed a black tailed deer. traveled 15 miles
MONDAY 15TH We were on our way early this morning. it is cloudy and cool there is a number of ranches and traiding posts along here plenty of wood Caeder, Cotton wood and willow passed cottonwood springs  in the forenoon passed Fremont springs last Sund[a]y night There is a long i[s]land in the river that extends along here a grate manny miles camped at 10 ock 25 m
TUESDAY 16TH We started at 6 ock this morning and drove till 12 camped for noon the river is skirted with timber. we are in the buffalow range here but we have seen none we camped about 10 at night near plumb crick  have come 26 [miles]
WEDNESDAY 17TH Hitched up and drove a little the other side of plumb crick and remained there till noon and went hunting killed nothing there was a buffalow killed near us last night saw a number in the afternoon but could not git a shot campe[d] about 6 ock our train split here McCoys and McDonalds waggons went on ours remained and Clarks and Rubes 10 [miles]
THURSDAY 18TH It being a rainy day we could not hunt buffalow so we concluded to travel We pushed on and camped a few miles below Kearney  distance we have come is 27 miles
FRIDAY 19TH We were on our way as usual this morning. Reached the junction where the Leavenworth road strikes the river  there is a number of cabbins along here. We got some cucumbers they had corn and mellons berry and sqwashes camped on the bluff out of sight of the river
SATURDAY 20TH It is very windy this morning and cold. there was an antilope came tilting by our camp this morning I cracked a clap at him but my gun did not go. Saw before noon a buffalow and several antelope passed muddy crick and camped on little blue  at noon remained here all afternoon hunted Rube killed an otter Traveled 12 miles
SUNDAY 21ST We were off by times went [word obscured by ink spot] killed a duck found ripe plums and grapes here traveled till 12 o'clock at night have come 25 this is very good land
MONDAY 22ND  Didn't start as early as common this morning met a large train off for the Peak camped on the little Blue at the point where we leave it Distance 18 miles
TUESDAY 23RD 1859 Was off in season this morning. Left the Blue and struck of[f] over the divide towards the big Sandy  it is very good land along here There is ranches frequently along here met a load of melons going to Kearney. arrived at the big Sandy about 4 came on and camped on little Sandy.  Have traveled 23 [miles]
WEDNESDAY 24 We were on our way early this morning. It is a rol[l]ing country along here There is timber along the cricks and some on the upland.
We reached stoney crick  15 miles distance by noon. came on and camped in the prairie traveled 28 [miles]
THURSDAY 25TH it is cloudy this morning it is rol[l]ing country along here came by a station reached Cottonwood crick at noon camped at Marysville  at night it is a small town there's 50 or 60 houses the little Blue  runs through the town 24 [miles]
FRIDAY 26TH We were on our way as usual this morning. left Clark and Vanbruet here Van being sick camped on Vermillion crick  at noon got plenty green corn here. Passed a small crick in the afternoon there was a sett[l]er here. he had a nice farm large fealds of corn a beautiful garden good buildings. it looked like sivilization. camped on suckertash crick 18 [miles]
SATURDA[Y] 27TH 1859 We remained here till noon. then picked up and drove till night camped at Ash point 12 [miles]
SUNDAY 28TH It is a foggy morning However we concluded to drive. The roads are mud[d]y It is fine rol[l]ing country but little timber arrived at Senecy  by noon the county seat of Nemaha County it is a fine town beautifully situated on corn crick and [illegible, probably Nemaha] Vally 17 [miles]
MONDAY 29TH AUGUST It is a beautiful morning. we were off in good season. Our lame ox is considerably troublesome passed over a beatiful country camped on muddy creek we git plenty potatoes, corn and melons here. We passed through Grenada  it is a fine little town in the afternoon camped on Walnut crick for the night this is on the Indian reserve  it is beautiful land 24 [miles]
TUESDAY 30TH We were off by times this morning sold one cow this afternoon passed through Kennekuk  camped one miles this side at noon got plenty melons and corn and potatoes here came through Huron  in the afternoon camped on the Maine at night 20 [miles]
WEDNESDAY 31ST It is a beautifull morning We reached Lancaster  about 9 ock this morning. it is beautifully situated on the prairie came on got on the rong road came on 5 or 6 miles before we found it out we could see
Atchison struck off across the prairie reached Le[a]venworth road by night 10 [miles
THURSDAY SEPTEMBER 1ST 1859 Passed over some beautifull country this day camped at night in salt crick valley
FRIDAY 2ND Did not start very early this morning it is a beautiful valley wood is scarce here when we reached the top of the hill we could see the fort and the city of Le[a]venworth  it is a large [word obscured by ink blot] town could also see the broad Missouri remained in town till noon. then drove and camped a little way out of town drove about 9 miles and camped for the night the cattle is dying around here with a fever amazingly 14 [miles]
SATURDAY 3RD Passed over a beautiful country this morning Reached the Delaware reserve before noon arrived at the Kansas river toward night cross[ed] at the Deleware ferry  camped on the bank of the river 18 [miles]
SUNDAY 4TH We reached Shawnee town  about 8 this morning it is quite a town missed our road here turned back and struck the right road leading to Westport passed through there before sunset camped on the other side 20 [miles]
MONDAY 5TH It is a han[d]som[e] country along her[e] we passed through Independence before noon it is a large and beautiful place came on and camped near Blue springs land is worth from 25 to 30 [dollars] per acre it is thickly settled here 15 [miles]
TUESDAY 6TH It is cold and chilly this morning came through a beautifull country it [is] well timbered and wattered Traided our wagon and wone yoke of cattle for a horse came through lone Jack  toward night camped a little this side 14 [miles]
WEDNESDAY 7TH We are off by good season this morning Traided horses this morning came through Warrensburg this morning got some how come you so [illegible word]  it began to operate by the time we reached Knobnoster camped this side there is some fruit 20 [miles]
THURSDAY 8TH Reached G[e]orgetown by noon  it is a nice town there is coal beds along here John Smith and I bought us a hat here it rained last night 25 [miles]
FRIDAY 9TH We were off by times this morning We are endevoring to reach Uncles by Sunday night. Nothing has occured of importence today Passed through no town it is beautifull country along here 21 [miles]
SATURDAY 10TH This is a beautiful morning. the woods are full of grapevine and they are ladened with fruit and there is plenty of [word illegible]
and [word obscured by ink blot]. reached round hill toward night it is 3 miles from Tipton camped 1 mile east 20 [miles] had a little spree tonight
SUNDAY 11TH We were early this morning Reached California by noon pushed on and reached Atwells by dark
The entry for September 11 is the last regular daily record. The first two pages of the journal, torn loose from the binding, gave a summary of distances traveled each day. There are a few notes on the last two pages of the journal. They are badly blurred and faded. Those that can be deciphered seem to refer to financial transactions, such as purchases of goods and payments for work that Salisbury did after his return from the mines, although there are no dates recorded in conjunction with these entries.
Salisbury later returned to Ohio and served in the Union army during the Civil War. After the war he settled down in Berea, Ohio, some 15 miles southwest of Cleveland. Here he turned to the less spectacular pursuits of teaching school and farming.  Before his death in 1920, Salisbury likely recalled many times the irony of the Pike's Peakers' song:
DR. DAVID LINDSEY is assistant professor of history at Los Angeles State College, Los Angeles, Cal.
1. LeRoy R. Hafen, ed., Pike's Peak Gold Rush Guidebooks, by Luke Tierney, et al, v. 9 of Southwest Historical Series (Glendale, 1941), pp. 35-37, 44-45; Albert N. Williams, Rocky Mountain Country (New York, 1950), pp. 114, 115.
2. Hafen, Guidebooks, pp. 59, 70, 71.
3. Kansas City (Mo.) Journal of Commerce, August 28, 27, 28, 1858, cited in Hafen, Guidebooks, pp. 71, 72. Also cited in Ralph P. Bieber, "Diary of a Journey to the Pike's Peak Gold Mines in 1859," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and Lincoln, Neb., v. 14 (December, 1927), p. 361. Also cited in LeRoy R. Hafen, ed., Colorado Gold Rush: Contemporary Letters and Reports, 1858-1859, v. 10 of Southwest Historical Series (Glendale, 1941), pp. 30-37.
4. Kansas City (Mo.) Journal of Commerce, August 31, 1858; Lawrence Republican, September 2, 1858; Council Bluffs (Iowa) Bugle, September 8, 1858; Leavenworth Times, September 11, 1858; Omaha (Neb.) Times, September 16, 1858; Kansas Tribune, Topeka, September 23, 1858. -- Cited in Hafen, Colorado Gold Rush, pp. 39-68.
5. Quoted in ibid., pp. 39-42; James F. Willard, "Spreading the News of the Early Discoveries of Gold in Colorado," The Colorado Magazine, Denver, v. 6, pp. 98-104.
6. Boston (Mass.) Daily Journal, September 14, 20, 21, 1858, cited in Hafen, Colorado Gold Rush, pp. 41, 42, 49, 50, 52; Henry Villard, The Past and Present of the Pike's Peak Gold Regions (ed. by LeRoy R. Hafen, Princeton, 1932), pp. 10-16.
7. Hafen, Colorado Gold Rush, pp. 73, 74.
8. Lawrence Herald of Freedom, November 13, 1858; Kansas City (Mo.) Journal of Commerce, October 19, 1858; Lawrence Republican, November 4, 1858. -- Cited in Hafen, Colorado Gold Rush, pp. 91-98, 105-111.
9. Villard, op. cit., pp. 18-34.
10. Berea (Ohio) Enterprise, December 23, 1920; Cleveland (Ohio) Plain Dealer, December 23, 1920.
11. Cleveland (Ohio) Leader, September 20, 23, 1858.
12. Ibid., October 8, 1858.
13. Ibid., October 20, December 25, 1858.
14. Hafen, Guidebooks, pp. 84, 85, 147, 151, notes a guidebook written by William Hartley and T. C. Dickson offered for sale by Chicago and St. Louis book sellers at $1 a copy and another written by William B. Parsons published at Lawrence and priced at 25¢.
15. Cleveland (Ohio) Leader, September 13, 1858.
16. Ibid., January 6, 1859.
17. Ibid., February 26, 1859.
18. Ibid., March 3, 15-18, 22, 1859.
19. "Ock" is used for "o'clock" throughout the journal. Apparently Salisbury traveled from Cleveland to Toledo on the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railroad.
20. He must have traveled from Toledo to Springfield by the Wabash railroad and from Springfield to St. Louis by the St. Louis, Alton and Chicago railroad, as did Charles C. Post whose diary appears in LeRoy R. Hafen, ed., Overland Routes to the Gold Fields, 1859, From Contemporary Diaries, v. 11, Southwest Historical Series (Glendale, Cal., 1942), pp. 22-55.
21. He likely traveled over the Missouri Pacific railroad from St. Louis to Jefferson City.
22. Salisbury stayed at his Uncle Atwell's near California, Mo., for about two weeks after which he joined a party heading for the gold region.
23. Just who the other members of his party were Salisbury does not specify, although he refers to several other members from time to time in the entries that follow.
24. It is of course impossible to determine exactly how many argonauts set out for Pike's Peak. Returning Santa Fe traders reaching Kansas City on May 25, about four weeks after Salisbury started from Missouri and therefore having probably passed him on the trail, reported that between Arkansas crossing and Council Grove 5,214 men, 220 women, 1,351 wagons, 7,375 oxen, 632 horses and 381 mules were heading for the gold region. They added that the Pike's Peakers east of Council Grove "exceeded those beyond." -- Kansas City Journal of Commerce, quoted in Bieber, loc. cit., p. 365, and in Hafen, Colorado Gold Rush, p. 316.
25. This was no doubt present-day Lees Summit, although in 1859 there was no town at this point.
26. Westport, along with Independence and earlier Franklin, had long been a principal outfitting center for the Santa Fe traders, and it is here where Salisbury and his party picked up the Santa Fe trail. A few miles to the north bustling Kansas City, only recently incorporated, was rapidly forging into the lead as an outfitting center. -- See Stanley Vestal, The Old Santa Fe Trail (Boston, 1939), pp. 31-33; also Federal Writers' Project, Missouri (American Guide Series, New York, 1941), pp. 244-247.
27. Salisbury makes no further identification of "Robert" who presumably was a Negro and therefore in the inflamed atmosphere of that time along the Missouri-Kansas border was suspected as a fugitive.
28. The party crossed 110-mile creek mentioned prominently in the William B. Parsons guidebook and others as a landmark along the trail. -- Hafen, Guidebooks, p. 172.
29. A later traveler on this same route pronounced Burlingame "the next best town on the road from Westport, being second to Olathe," quoted in Hafen, Overland Routes, p. 32.
30. This was probably Bluff creek some 21 miles west of Dragoon creek where Salisbury and party had camped the night before.
31. These Indians were likely Osages, Kaws or other "friendly" Indians who frequently begged along the trail east of Council Grove. -- Vestal, op. cit., p. 40.
32. Here was a half-mile-wide strip of hardwood timber, the last point on the outbound trail where spare axletrees, oxbows and wagon tongues could be had. The place name was derived from a council held here by the Osage Indians in 1825 with a government road-surveying party. -- Ibid., p. 55. It was at this point where, the guidebooks advised, companies should be formed for mutual protection, if this had not already been done. Usually, the company elected three officers, wagon master, assistant wagon master, and captain of the guard, whose word would be law in the crossing of the Plains. -- Hafen, Guidebooks, p. 173. The Salisbury party apparently had organized before reaching Council Grove, although the diarist gives no details of the organization.
33. Other travelers agreed with Salisbury on the beauty of the springs. -- See ibid., p. 174, and Hafen, Overland Routes, p. 83.
34. Lack of wood was compensated for by the abundance of buffalo chips which made a serviceable fuel. -- Hafen, Guidebooks, p. 174. From Diamond Springs to the big bend of the Arkansas, the distance was a little more than 100 miles. The trail crossed a series of small creeks whose steep banks made crossing difficult at best but the rains that came during the days the Salisbury party was crossing the stretch of terrain simply compounded the difficulties,
35. More superstitious members of the company may have blamed this on the unlucky day. It was on this same day that another gold seeker farther east on the trail recorded overtaking "a curiosity in the shape of a wind wagon . . . a four wheeled vehicle, about nine feet across schooner rigged a very large sail." -- Hafen, Overland Routes, p. 29.
36. This bridge had been built in 1858 "by Gains & Wheeler, the owners of it and the ranch." There was also a ferry at this point. -- Ibid., pp. 37, 38.
37. Salisbury must have made an error here. Certainly he meant Walnut creek where Bill Allison, "a one-armed plainsman," maintained a trading post.
38. This word's letters are obscure and garbled in the long-hand diary, but it probably means Kiowa.
39. Pawnee Rock, otherwise known as Painted Rock, was the best-known landmark on the Santa Fe trail. The soft sandstone face jutted sharply upwards to a height of 40 feet visible for some ten miles. Many travelers carved on its face not only initials and names but brief verses and messages for later travelers. -- Vestal, op. cit., p. 114.
40. Many of those who had started out for the gold regions with high hopes and with signs on their wagons reading "Pike's Peak or Bust," finding little or no gold in the mountains or finding the rigors of the Plains too much for them were now heading back East. Reaching the Missouri valley towns, they pronounced the Pike's Peak gold excitement a "hoax" and "the most stupendous humbug ever perpetrated upon the American people." -- Clyde B. Davis, The Arkansas (The Rivers of America Series, New York, 1940), p. 33. Men who had set out joyfully singing
were now returning homeward to burn in effigy editors who had spread the gold reports and particularly those like D. C. Oakes who had prepared guidebooks for gold seekers. Disappointed argonauts chanted vengefully:
-- Ibid., p. 34. See, also, Hafen, Colorado Gold Rush, p. 305, and Hafen, Guidebooks, p. 80.
41. This fort had been established in 1850 near present Dodge City and abandoned in 1854. In 1858, wrote one observer, "nothing of it remains except a bridge with four sides showing the outline of the walls which were of sod." -- Hafen, Overland Routes, p. 42; also Hafen, Guidebooks, p. 177.
42. This was a dreary and dangerous part of the trail. Hostile Comanches and Kiowas roamed over this area. The monotony of the Plains and "this interminable, abominable river" were oppressive. -- Bieber, op. cit., p. 363; Vestal, loc. cit., p. 132.
43. Here earlier in the century, a war party of Pawnees had felled trees in a grove of cottonwoods, thrown up a crude fort and fought off another Indian war party. -- Vestal, op. cit., p. 204.
44. The Salisbury party here entered the Big Timber just beyond the mouth of Sand creek, which he must have passed but does not mention. Another gold seeker who traversed this stretch just nine days later wrote that the Big Timber "consists of about two or three hundred cottonwood trees, very large but low and scrubby. We were very much refreshed in their shade, it being quite a luxury, not having enjoyed shade for one hundred and seventy-five miles." -- Diary of Charles C. Post, quoted in Hafen, Overland Routes, pp. 44, 45.
45. Bent's New Fort, built in the early 1850's, was located on the north bank of the Arkansas, opposite the present town of Powers, Colo. Brothers William and Charles Bent, builders of the fort, had just shortly before sold it to the government, which after converting it to a military post renamed it first Fort Wise and later Fort Lyon. -- Vestal, op. cit., pp. 163, 254; Hafen, Overland Routes, p. 46. Another traveler, Dr. George M. Willing, reaching here four days before Salisbury, sighed with relief that "Bent's Fort is a reality, then, and not a myth, as I had supposed." -- Bieber, loc. cit., p. 367.
46. This fort, built by the Bent brothers about 1828, served as a trading post and landmark on the Santa Fe trail for about a quarter of a century until it was destroyed by William Bent himself. -- Vestal, op. cit., pp. 163, 254, 285.
47. These were landmarks for travelers on the old Santa Fe trail which turned south and west across the Arkansas river about six miles west of Bent's Old Fort. The route to the gold region continued along the Arkansas another 50 miles. -- Ibid., pp. 254, 255; Hafen, Guidebooks, p. 178.
48. This settlement was established by the gold seekers of the previous fall on the east side of Fountain creek. It was the forerunner of present Pueblo, Colo. -- Hafen, Overland Routes, p. 49.
49. The original name was Fountaine qui bouille, meaning Boiling Spring creek, but converted by the gold seekers to Fountain creek.
50. This must have been near "Brush Corral" built by an army party a year earlier. To reach this point Salisbury must have passed Jim's camp, named for an old mountain trader. -- Hafen, Guidebooks, p. 179.
51. Dr. George Willing passed this same saw mill on June 10 and noted men washing gold here. -- Bieber, loc. cit., p. 373. The new town of Russellville, named for Green Russell of the original 1858 prospecting party, was located at this point.
52. Denver City had been organized in November, 1858, on the east bank of Cherry creek where it flowed into the South Platte, under the direction of William Larimer as successor to the paper town of St. Charles. -- Williams, op. cit., p. 124; Hafen, Guidebooks, pp. 77, 78.
53. Salisbury and party were headed for the Clear creek region about 40 miles west of Denver. This region had just received a stirring jolt of publicity. Actually, John Gregory in May had found a rich deposit on the north fork of Clear creek. Horace Greeley who had arrived in Denver on June 6, visited the Clear creek area a few days later and together with A. D. Richardson and Henry Villard issued a joint statement declaring "We have this day personally visited nearly all the mines or claims already opened in this valley. . . have seen the gold plainly visible in the riffles of nearly every sluice, and in nearly every pan. . . ." Regardless of the accuracy of the Greeley report, it was widely reprinted after its first appearance in the Rocky Mountain News at Denver on June 11, 1859. Since this was just five days before Salisbury reached Denver, he could not have missed hearing the reports whether he saw the newspaper or not. -- Bieber, loc. cit., p. 376; Williams, op. cit., pp. 126, 127. The Greeley report is reprinted in full in Hafen, Colorado Gold Rush, pp. 376-381; Cleveland Leader, June 21, 25, 1859.
54. Clear creek and its tributaries were lined with miners. One estimate puts the number on Clear creek's north fork at the end of June at 10,000 persons. -- Williams, op. cit., p. 126. Henry Villard reported on June 10 that "Both banks of Clear creek . . . we found lined with hundreds of wagons and tents, and thousands of grazing animals. . . . Since my first visit at least fifteen more sluices have been completed, and twenty more paying leads struck, along which hundreds of claims have been taken. . . . I estimate the quantity of gold turned out to be at least $3,500 per day." -- Leavenworth Times, June 20, 1859, quoted in Hafen, Colorado Gold Rush, pp. 373, 374.
55. This sense of relief and refreshment was shared by others who had been to the mountain mines for a time and then returned to the settlements just east of the mountains. Dr. George Willing wrote on June 21, 1859: "Have been to the mountains, and have got back, which is quite a miracle, when difficulties, dangers, privations and hardships are considered. The roughest country the Almighty's sun ever shown upon. . . . With all these discouragements staring me in the face, I will return to the mountains as soon as I have laid in a sufficient stock of provisions." -- Bieber, loc. cit., p. 377.
56. Gold here was sometimes found in decomposing quartz which could be shoveled in the form of gravel into the "long tom" or sluice with a riffle box attached to catch the gold. -- Williams, op. cit., p. 126; Everett Dick, Vanguards of the Frontier (New York, 1941), ch. 11.
57. Another prospector recorded the general discouragement: "Hundreds are quitting the mines every day, wearied out and utterly disgusted, while other hundreds were daily arriving, to be disappointed in turn." -- Bieber, loc. cit., p. 377.
58. This was on the main stem of Clear creek, otherwise known as Jackson diggings.
59. This town had just recently been founded. Named for a prospector, Thomas L. Golden, it replaced Arapahoe Bar, farther east on Clear creek, and in the 1860's served as capital of Colorado territory for several years. -- Federal Writers' Project, Colorado (American Guide Series, New York, 1941), p. 284.
60. Gregory's Gulch off the north fork of Clear creek where John H. Gregory had made a rich find in May, 1859, and where, it was estimated, some 10,000 men were digging for gold by the end of June in a four-square-mile stretch. Ibid., pp. 264-267; Williams, op. cit., pp. 126, 127.
61. Also located on the north fork of Clear creek.
62. This fur trading post, built in 1836, was named for its founder Lancaster P. Lupton, and was operated in conjunction with the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. It had been abandoned in 1844. -- Colorado, p. 367.
63. "Bents traiding post" was Fort St. Vrain, built in 1838 by William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain on the South Platte near the mouth of St. Vrain's creek and operated in the interest of the American Fur Company. It, too, had been abandoned in 1844. Fort Vasquez, about five miles downstream from Fort Lupton, had been established by Rocky Mountain Fur Company agents Louis Vasquez and Andrew Sublette in 1836. Destroyed in an Indian attack of 1842, it was partially rebuilt and later in the 1860's used as an army base in the Indian wars. -- Ibid., pp. 265, 266.
64. This was probably an encampment of Pawnees, settled down for the summer months.
65. Beaver creek enters the South Platte just north of present Brush, Colo.
66. This is the third station eastbound from Denver maintained by the Leavenworth and Pike's Peak Express line of stage coaches. This line, established by William H. Russell, had been running passengers from the Missouri river to Denver on regular schedules since April, 1859. -- St. Louis (Mo.) Missouri Republican, March 28, April 19, 1859, cited in Hafen, Colorado Gold Rush, pp. 288, 289, 299.
67. The Upper California crossing was the point at which one route of the Oregon trail crossed the South Platte. By the late 1850's and early 1880's this crossing had become more popular than the Lower crossing because of Indian hostilities farther north as well as the greater physical difficulty of negotiating the Lower crossing. The Upper crossing was situated near present Julesburg, Colo., and near where Lodgepole creek enters the South Platte from the west. -- Irene D. Paden, The Wake of the Prairie Schooner (New York, 1948), pp. 100, 138-140.
68. At the Lower California crossing, about 20 miles downstream from the Upper crossing, travelers on the Oregon trail forded the South Platte. This was one of the most difficult fords along the whole of the Oregon trail. It was located at a point on the river four miles upstream from present Brule, Neb. -- Ibid., pp. 106-109; Federal Writers' Project, Nebraska (American Guide Series, New York, 1939), p. 344.
69. These were of course wagon trains bound for the farther west over the Oregon trail one route of which merged at this point with the South Platte road from the mining region near Denver.
70. Here, near present O'Fallons, Neb., sandstone bluffs draw close to the river, and here, too, Oregon trail trains often crossed the South Platte and moved over to the south bank of the North Platte. -- Federal Writers' Project, The Oregon Trail (American Guide Series, New York, 1939), p. 76. This is the "junction" Salisbury refers to in the diary text.
71. A favorite camping place along the Oregon trail, located some 14 miles east of the present town of North Platte, near present Fort McPherson (built originally in 1864 as Fort Cottonwood) National Cemetery. -- Nebraska, pp. 348, 349; Paden, op. cit., pp. 100-102.
72. This stream empties into the Platte at a point just south of present Lexington, Neb. It became the location of a celebrated trading post and station on the Pony Express. -- The Oregon Trail, pp. 71, 72.
73. Fort Kearny was built in 1848-1849 primarily to afford protection to emigrants on the Oregon trail against Indian attacks through this region. It was one of the most important posts and supply depots west of Fort Leavenworth.
74. The junction of the Leavenworth road and the road from Nebraska City on the Missouri river was located at a point called Dogtown in the early days, because of a prairie dog village near by, some eight or nine miles east of Fort Kearny. -- Paden, op. cit., pp. 82, 83. Here Salisbury and his companions turned southeastward toward the Kansas settlements.
75. Salisbury may have come down 32-mile creek, although he does not so name it, to the Little Blue river. Perhaps "muddy crick" was his own name for 32-mile creek along which the Leavenworth road passed.
76. Under this date the Cleveland (Ohio) Leader reprinted a letter from a Rockford, Ill., newspaper, that mentioned a party of Clevelanders had purchased a gold mining claim at Pike's Peak, giving all their money and nearly all their supplies. After working their claims for about four weeks, they struck nothing. One man starved and the rest vanished. Except for the starving man, this item pretty well describes the fate of Salisbury's mining party in the gold regions.
77. Anxious to get back East as quickly as possible, Salisbury and his companions struck off on a more direct route than following the winding river course of the Little Blue river.
78. These are tributaries of the Little Blue coming down from the north.
79. The present name is Rock creek.
80. Marysville is located on the Big Blue river. Here the westward emigrants traveling the road from St. Joseph, Mo., joined with those coming up from Independence and Kansas City, although the latter might choose to cross the Big Blue at Independence crossing a few miles south of Marysville. -- Paden, op. cit., pp. 62, 63. In 1859 Marysville was the first substantial settlement encountered by travelers coming east from the mountains (the last passed by those headed west). For both it was a welcome haven for purchasing supplies.
81. He means the Big Blue.
82. This was Black Vermilion creek which was crossed by the roads from St. Joseph and Leavenworth.
83. Seneca was the point at which the road crossed the Nemaha river, which, although steep-banked, was not usually difficult to cross in late summer.
84. Granada is about 16 miles southeast of Seneca, and 13 miles due south of present Sabetha.
85. This was the Kickapoo reservation to which the Eastern Indians had been assigned in the 1830's. Originally including some 76,000 acres, the reservation was gradually being whittled down in size. -- Ibid., p. 471.
86. This place, named for the Kickapoo chief Kennekuk, marked the point at which the military road from Ft. Leavenworth merged with the Oregon trail from St. Joseph. Paden, op. cit., p. 59. It was located about five miles west of present Horton. -- Kansas, p. 494. See Eugene H. Roseboom, ed., "Charles Tinker's Journal, a Trip to California in 1849," The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, Columbus, v. 61 (January, 1952), p. 78.
87. Huron is located about ten miles east of present Horton.
88. Lancaster is about ten miles due west of Atchison.
89. The fort had been established by the government here in 1827 to provide protection for the Santa Fe traders. The town had been started by squatters from Missouri in 1854. It received its greatest boost when the famous freighting firm of Russell, Majors and Waddell in 1857 made Leavenworth the headquarters for its operations and later it became the terminus of the Leavenworth and Pike's Peak stage line. When Salisbury visited here in 1859, Leavenworth with a population of slightly under 8,000 was the largest town in Kansas territory. -- The Oregon Trail, p. 48; Kansas, pp. 234-236.
90. This was one of five ferries operated across the Kansas river between Kansas City and Topeka. -- Paden, op. cit., pp. 34, 35.
91. A quarter of a century earlier the Shawnees from Ohio had been relocated in this area by the federal government. -- Ibid., p. 21.
92. The name derived from a blackjack tree near a spring which served as a landmark in the vicinity. -- Federal Writers' Project, Missouri (American Guide Series, New York, 1941), p.403.
93. Unfortunately this undecipherable word appears to be the key to the meaning of the sentence. It was likely a slang expression of the day.
94. Georgetown was located near present Sedalia, which became the leading settlement in the area after the Missouri Pacific line was extended there in 1861. -- Missouri, p. 399.
95. Berea (Ohio) Enterprise, December 28, 1920; Cleveland (Ohio) Plain Dealer, December 23, 1920; personal interview with Salisbury's great-grandson, David Louis of Cleveland.
96. Hannibal (Mo.) Messenger, April 28, 1859, quoted in Hafen, Colorado Gold Rush, p. 306.