"It may safely be saidthat nine-tenths of those engaged in the stock-business in the Far West aregentlemen. Here is a fascinating, health-restoring and profitable occupation forthe great army of broken-down students and professional men, and in crowds theyare turning their backs upon the jostling world to secure new life and vigor uponthese upland plains," George R. Buckman in Lippincott's Magazine,1882.
AMONG the many diverse, interesting andentertaining social phenomena that have made up the past American scene and itslife, one of the most curious and, in retrospect, one of the most romantic was the wholesale migration to the plains of the Great West in the early1880's. The professional historian has catalogued this emigration as one of thefactors making up the life of that age, but the phenomenon itself deserves morethan mere cataloguing, for it is an important exceedingly important movement that was to affect profoundly American life and American culture insubsequent years.  That this judgment is more than mere rhetoric becomes
apparent when one considers the careers of a single quartet of Westernemigrants. The most notable of the quartet was the young and bespectacledTheodore Roosevelt whose cattle-ranching career of several years began in theDakotas in 1883. His ranching life led eventually to the leadership of the RoughRiders and their part in the war with Spain. The ultimate reward of thespectacular leader of the Rough Riders was his elevation to the White House. Emerson Hough, the second of our quartet of the West, began his professional life(the study and practice of law) in a cow camp at White Oaks, New Mexicoterritory, in 1881. His experiences at White Oaks laid the foundations for acareer as a noted chronicler of the West, which probably reached its zenith inone of the greatest of our motion picture plays The Covered Wagon.  Thethird member, Frederic Remington, ventured his patrimony in a sheep ranch inKansas in 1883, and the fourth member was Owen Wister who made his first trial ofranch life in Wyoming in 1885. In The Virginian, Wister's most popularbook, he created characters and lines that live to the present day.  Onehas only to recall Wister's line-now used so much as to be threadbare "When you call me that, smile," to appreciate the point.
Of these four men, only Roosevelt and Wisterwere known to each other previous totheir Western life. None of their trails crossed in their early years in theWest, but in later life all became very intimately acquainted with each other andwith each other's work. Roosevelt and Wister were to become Remington's mostardent admirers and protagonists; Hough, on the other hand, was doubtlessRemington's severest critic. All four, however, were extremely active andarticulate exponents of the West and its life.
For every one of this articulate quartet,however, there were thousands of inarticulate embryo ranchers in the West before1885. Although Mr. Buckman's estimate that ninety percent of these newcomers were"gentlemen" may be unduly optimistic, it is probably true that the sunshinyatmosphere of the wide open spaces was rent by many a curse with a pronouncedHarvard accent. Cursing, indeed, seemed to be almost a necessary requirement ofthe difficult life of the West, a fact recognized by that genial philosopher andfount of considerable wisdom, Mr. Dooley, a contemporary well known to thequartet mentioned above. "No wan," points out Mr. Dooley, "cud rope a cow orcinch a pony without swearin'. A strick bringin' up is th' same as havin' awooden leg on th' plains."  This sage observation is given added pointwhen it is recalled that the inability of the future leader of the Rough Ridersto use some of the stronger parts of speech in the Saxon language nearly led todiscrediting him as a rancher. At his first round-up, Roosevelt urged one of hishands to head off cattle that were making a break for freedom with the shrill cry"Hasten forward quickly there!" The roar of laughter that followed was echoed atmany a campfire and Roosevelt almost became the laughing-stock of the countryround about, but his vigorous character eventually weathered the near disaster. 
More pertinent, however, than the question oflanguage on the plains; is the question "What brought this great influx to theformer haunts of the buffalo?" The answer to this question is too long andinvolved to consider in detail here. The immediate causes in each case weredoubtless as numerous as the immigrants themselves but there are certain broadaspects of the problem that we can point out and which will not be irrelevant inunderstanding Remington and the success that he later achieved.
The building of the railroad westward and theremoval of the Indian barrier were of fundamental importance in the westwardmigration. Once the main barrier was down and access to the vast new country waseasier, the trek began. Adventurers, big-game hunters, settlers in search ofcheap land, health-seekers, gold-seekers, enterprising young politicians,restless young men-these and many other types-joined the army of the newforty-niners. Leading the van was the world-roaming, inquisitive Englishman. Manyof this class were sportsmen, but England's need of beef was also an importantfactor in the westward surge, so important that a Royal
Commission was sent from England in the late 870's to study cattle raising onthe plains. As a result of its favorable report-and even before-many Englishmenwere among those who sought the plains of the New World. "The Americancattle-trade is exciting much interest in England, where two of our most pressingneeds just now are cheaper meat and outlets for our boys" is, for example, thepreface of a contemporary account in an English periodical.  If the Englishmanstarted the trail west, the whole world soon followed suit and representativesfrom nearly every civilized nation of the globe could be found on the prairiesand plains of the West.
Why our countrymen the Easterners joined this march to the West is not as readily explained. Emerson Hough in laterlife ironically attributed the "discovery" of the West to three well-knownAmericans and infers that these three were responsible for the great interest inthis region. "Buffalo Bill, Ned Buntline and Frederic Remington," writes Houghwith feeling, tinged no doubt by envy, "all, might one hold the niche in fame ofe'er a one of these tripartite fathers of their country! It is something to havecreated a region as large as the American west, and lo! have not these three donethat thing?"  Hough, of course, was referring to the West created in the minds ofthe Easterner by the above trio, for the West, it scarcely needs be said, wasdiscovered long before Remington's day. Hough's commentary, however, is revealingin that it serves to emphasize the part that Remington played in American lifeduring his heyday (1890-1909). But what was the lure that led Roosevelt, Houghand Wister to the West? Remington felt that Catlin, Gregg, Irving, Lewis andClark aroused his incentive for the Western venture.  Their influence, I amsure, was supplemented by still other sources; sources that consciously orunconsciously affected many Americans who migrated to the plains in the early1880's. In the first place, there was considerable popular literature, both inbook and periodical form on the subject, preceding and contemporary with thebeginning of the decade in question. Such books as Col. R. I. Dodge's ThePlains of the Great West (published in England as The Hunting Grounds ofthe Great West), Vivian's Wanderings in the Western Land, Campion'sOn the Frontier (Campion made his Western venture as a result of
interest aroused by Catlin's paintings), and Camps in the Rockies by W.A. Baillie-Grohman were all published between 1877 and 1882, several beingsufficiently popular to require publication of more than one edition. The periodical literature, too, of this same
interval contains numerous articles on the West and its attractions; manytimes illustrated by artists from first-hand observations." These Westernillustrations are of sufficient importance to warrant more extensive discussion;a discussion which we will, however,
postpone until later in this series. But probably more important than thebooks,periodicals and illustrations of the period was still another source ofinformation-the newspapers. One can scarcely pick up an issue of an Easternnewspaper of almost any decade after 1850, without finding news items from theWest concerning Western migrations; accounts of Indian troubles; tall stories offrontiersmen and highwaymen and letters from homesteaders, miners andtravelers-some of it authentic, much of it garbled and a great deal of it luridreporting of imaginary events. In fact, so terrible was the reporting in manycases, that Western inhabitants complained of the treatment they received at thehands of Eastern newspapers. Robert Strahorn, a Westerner and a free-lancewriter, who wrote under the pseudonym of "Alter Ego" for the Rocky Mountain Newsof Denver, and other newspapers, commented on his colleagues in the East in thefollowing acid vein:
Of manners and morals of western people generally,much is said that is far beyond the pale of truth. Nearly every eager itemizer,from the manager of a representative eastern paper down to the senseless andsuperficial scribbler for the eastern backwoods press, comes to the new west withmind literally charged with glowing absurdities and with an unyieldingdetermination to realize these absurdities. Why this should be is partlyexplained by the fact that eastern readers demand experiences from the westernplains and mountains which smack of the crude, the rough and the semi-barbarous.
The Indian question, especially, Strahornpointed out, was invariably overworked by these Eastern correspondents who sawIndians behind every clump of sage brush, menacing the traveler at every step inhis journey across the plains. No doubt, the cause of this extraordinary interestin the Western Indian that the Eastern newspaper reporter displayed Was greatlystimulated by the appalling military disaster that overwhelmed Custer and hiscommand on the hills above the Little Big Horn river in the summer of 1876 the centennial year.  Custer's defeat certainly had the effect offocusing the attention of the entire World upon the Western region and thenewspaper interest in this event and succeeding Indian questions is readilyunderstandable, no matter how imperfectly they were reported. The considerablevolume of Western literature-in newspaper, periodical
and book makes it apparent then that the West had been "discovered"-inwhatever sense the word may be used-long before Remington's day. The West wasearly a part of the national consciousness, and the events and literature in thedecade from 1876 to 1886 had developed a consuming interest in the life of theplains. No matter, for our present purpose, if the great bubble of an abundantranch life burst with sickening suddenness in the terrible winter of 1886-1887and if the migration from the plains was almost as rapid as the earlieremigration to the Western land; for, despite the bursting of the bubble, thisconsuming interest was shared by a large audience, and there were many in thataudience Who had partaken of that life. By the late 1880's the time was opportunefor still other chroniclers who could recall and recapture the life just passedwith pen, pencil and brush. They soon appeared and among them was Remington. Thefact that he was fortunate enough to have lived for a time this life on theplains, led naturally, if not directly, to his mature achievements as one of thecountry's leading illustrators.
The year that Remington lived in Kansas was theonly time that he established residence on the plains, although in subsequentyears he made frequent Western trips for inspiration and fresh material. In thisrespect he was unlike Charley Russell, whose work has frequently been comparedwith that of Remington. Russell spent most of his life as a resident of the Westand worked for some years as a cowhand. As a result, his work is frequently moreexact, as far as detail goes, than was that of Remington, who was primarilyinterested in action rather than exact detail-an important point to keep in mindin comparing the two artists.  The Kansas experience, however, was notRemington's first Western venture. Late in the summer of 1881, as a youth of 19,he had spent some Weeks on the plains of Montana and that trip had apparentlycast its spell over the youngster.  Some sketches had resulted from this tripand one had been published by Harper's Weekly in 1882 Which was used, however, toillustrate an incident of life in the then Arizona territory. 
In his Butler county days. A photograph probably
made at Peaabody in 1883.
Robert Camp, Remington's immediate neighbor. From an original sketch made by Remington in 1883 and identified by Mr. Camp in 1943. Courtesy of the Remington Art Memorial.
A year and a half spent at the Yale Art Schoolwas terminated early in 1880 by the death of his father who left him a patrimonyof several thousand dollars.  After he quit school, Remingtoncorresponded with a Yale friend, Robert Camp of Milwaukee. Camp was graduatedwith the class of 1882 and late in the same summer went to south-central Kansasto try his hand at sheep-ranching, one of the many individuals in the Westernmigration of the early 1880's. Remington, if he could have followed his owninterests, would doubtless have found his way to the cattle range and establishedhis own cattle ranch. But the initial venture in a cattle ranch on any save themost modest scale, was an expensive business. Theodore Roosevelt, for example, inless than a year invested over eighty thousand dollars in establishing his cattleranch in the Bad Lands of Dakota. 
Remington had no such sum to invest and Camp, inhis correspondence, pointed out that a sheep ranch could be established with thesmall patrimony that Remington had available.  Further, Campdescribed the country where he had made his establishment, and life on his ranchwith such enthusiasm that Remington was soon eager to join his friend. Camp madethe necessary arrangements for the purchase of a small ranch adjoining his own onthe south, and early in the spring of 1883 Remington left Albany for a farewellvisit to his family at Canton and then set out for the plains of Kansas. 
The Kansas "ranch," the purchase of which Camphad arranged for Remington, was a quarter section (one hundred and sixty acres)in northwest Butler county. Butler county is and was also in Remington'sday a huge rectangle of land, so large that it has been humorouslyreferred to as "the State of Butler." It is a rolling upland that lies on theextreme western edge of the Flint Hills, a high escarpment running north andsouth which roughly divides the eastern third of Kansas from the remainder of thestate. The escarpment rises abruptly from the prairies on its eastern side butslopes upward gently on the western side, merging again into prairie level, andstill farther west-much farther-becomes eventually the High Plains. The FlintHills proper are vast swells, treeless but covered with bluestem grass, and formone of the great natural pasture lands of the world. Sheep and cattle raising andgrazing had begun in the eastern Flint Hills almost with the opening of Kansasterritory in 1854. As settlers moved west after the Civil War, the stock industrygradually moved with the migration. In the late 1870's after a year or so ofextremely dry weather and the failure of grain crops, greater attention wasdirected to the utilization of the natural resources of the country, especiallythe native grasses. As a result, a considerable boom in the raising of sheepdeveloped in the western Flint Hills. Butler county and its neighbor to thesouth, Cowley county, became the leading "sheep counties" of the state." A goodmany young bachelors were attracted by this boom, among whom was Robert Camp; andshortly after, Remington arrived.
The immediate country where Camp and Remingtonhad their ranches if farms of 160 acres could be called ranches wasa sloping plain with almost no trees save along the water courses. Most of thewater courses deep gashes giving rise to steep bluffs were dryexcept during the wet seasons, although the principal one, the Whitewater river,usually was a flowing stream. Their immediate neighborhood was well settled sothat the country could by no means be regarded as frontier. Ten years earlierthere had been frontier difficulties with horse thieves and vigilantes, and thethen-cowboy capital, the rough and turbulent town of Newton,  was only fifteenmiles to the west of Remington's ranch. But these difficulties had longdisappeared by the time Remington arrived. They had left their effects, to besure, on the country. The language was that of the horse and cow country and thesheep ranchers rode horses as extensively as their neighbors to the west and worethe characteristic "chaps" as well. This sheep country, too, was still largelyunfenced, each farm owner fencing a patch of his land for his "corral." It shouldbe noted that in the early 1880's there was no odium attached to sheep ranching,nor any of the conflict between sheep and cattle interests which was so widelypublicized later in Western history.
The Camp and Remington ranches joined eachother. El Dorado, the county seat, was twenty miles south. Peabody, the nearesttown on the railroad, was some ten or twelve miles to the north. It was from herethat the young men laid in most of their supplies and carried on their businesstransactions the trips to town, of course, being made at infrequentintervals by horse. A tiny settlement, Plum Grove, was within three miles ofRemington's ranch, but the settlement consisted only of a general store Hoyt's store a schoolhouse, and two or three houses. 
Camp and Remington soon struck up anacquaintanceship with two other young bachelors and the four soon becameinseparable in their enterprises and sports. One of this group was JamesChap-
man, a youngster from Illinois, who "ran" another sheep ranch nearby. And, ofcourse, the ubiquitous Englishman was present. Remington, in an account of hisKansas experiences, designated him only as "Charlie B-," probably a pseudonym tohide the real name of one of that small army of remittance men then scatteredover the West. Remington wrote:
Charlie B. was your typical country Englishman, and the onlything about him American was the bronco he rode. He was the best fellow in theworld, cheery, hearty and ready for a lark at any time of the day or night. Heowned a horse ranch seven miles down the creek, and found visiting his neighborsinvolved considerable riding; but Charlie was a sociable soul, and did not appearto mind that, and he would spend half the night riding over the lonely prairiesto drop in on a friend in some neighboring ranch- in consequence of whichCharlie's visits were not always timely; but he seemed never to realize that achap was not in as good condition to visit when awakened from his blanket atthree o'clock in the morning as in the twilight hour.
Strange, isn't it, that Charlie was able towander over the prairies at night without danger from the redskin; or wasn't itstill stranger that friends visited casually back and forth at their own freewill whenever fancy struck them? It can thus be seen that life on a Kansas sheepranch was a far more prosaic affair than life in the West was so luridly built upto be by the newspapers of the period.
To be sure, to Remington's New York friends inAlbany and Canton, Kansas was really West and doubtless they felt it wouldrequire all of Remington's ingenuity and strength to keep his scalp from beinglifted by the savage redskin on week days and great skill with the weaponsprovided by Mr. Colt to prevent his massacre by the Bad Men of the West when hewent to town on Saturdays. Probably, too, Remington himself was not unwillingthat his Eastern friends should have this impression. Not long after his arrivalin Kansas, he wrote a hasty note from Peabody to William Poste, a legal friend inCanton, N. Y., who had examined some papers for him:
May 11, '83, Peabody
The tantalizing effect of this note on therecipient can readily be imagined and it certainly would do nothing to relievethe popular
impression of the West, an effect which young Remington was trying toperpetuate, for an examination of Peabody newspapers shows no such catastropherecorded.
Remington probably arrived in Kansas early inMarch of 1883. He was met in Peabody by Robert Camp, who was eager to take thenew arrival on a tour of inspection. The Camp ranch was first visited, butRemington was impatient to see his own property, and so without further delaythey were off to the Remington place. There he found a small frame house of threerooms, a well, two barns and a good-sized corral. The main part of the house, astory and a half high, consisted of a long living room below and a bedroom above.Built on the north side was a single room, a gable roofed affair, that served asthe kitchen.  The barns were chiefly for horses and considerable remodeling andextension was necessary for conversion to sheep. Remington had arrived earlyenough in the spring to witness lambing and sheep-shearing on the Camp ranch, sohe soon had some idea of the trials and tribulations of his new business. ThatCamp had really gone into sheep raising on a considerable scale is seen from thefact that Remington witnessed a wool clipping amounting to some seven thousandpounds.
As soon as he had gained some idea of his newundertaking, Remington set to work. Almost his first move, necessarily, was thepurchase of horses. Although sheep raising was the principal business of theregion, horses came first in the interests of the
ranchers and every chance meeting at Plum Grove or Peabody was an opportunityto discuss the merits of horses, to maneuver a swap of the animals or to promotea horse race whenever a newcomer of any reputation put in his appearance. Everyrancher kept a small string of horses for work and play. Upon the advice of Camp,several were purchased and finally Remington was able to secure, afterconsiderable dickering, a most unusual animal of which he became very fond. Shewas "a nervous little half-breed Texas and thoroughbred, of a beautiful lightgold-dust color, with a Naples yellow color mane and tail." She was promptlynamed Terra-Cotta, although to the other boys on the ranch, who had not had theadvantage of a year and a half at the Yale art school, she was called Terry.After the horses were purchased, a ranch-hand, Bill Kehr, was employed. Bill wasstill younger than his employer and was really more a boon companion than a hand.Bill also had several horses; one of them, Prince by name, was in appearance agrey sleepy old plug, but his appearance belied his character for he was really aspeedy animal and his owner had been able to use Prince's undistinguishedoutlines for his own advantage on several occasions. In fact, Prince had so muchof a local reputation that it was hard to match him up for a race. Jim Chapman,the friend of Camp and Remington, had acquired a horse, Push-Bob, with areputation for speed, about the time Bill Kehr went to work for Remington. A gooddeal of discussion as to the relative merits of Prince and Push-Bob took place inthe evenings after the chores were done, but the owners were cautious aboutputting the horses to the actual test. The race was eventually run but not untillate fall under circumstances that were unusual, to say the least, and with amost disconcerting outcome; but we must postpone for the moment this story untilwe get Remington well started on his ranching career. 
With his horses purchased and a ranch handemployed, Remington plunged eagerly into the task of getting the ranch inoperation. A large sheep shed was erected at the top of a slope overlooking hisrange, many hundreds of sheep were purchased, and supplies were freighted fromPeabody. Kehr, being accustomed to ranch work, took the lead in getting most ofthese tasks accomplished, leaving Remington the task of looking after horses andherding the sheep, although Remington was always able to get relief from thelatter task by employing one of the many neighborhood youngsters and
Fortunately for Remington and his boarders. themonotony of a diet of unwashed potatoes could be varied with canned sardines andcanned tomatoes; and doubtless the pile of empty tin cans outside Remington'scorral grew steadily larger with the months.
As spring advanced, Remington had more time toroam the prairies and he grew more enthusiastic about his new life. Thequarter-section directly west of his was offered to him and he promptly boughtit. The toil and drudgery of ranching were easily forgotten in the momentaryenthusiasm. This was the life, and how he did enjoy it. "The gallop across theprairie," he wrote in describ ing an early morning run to Bob Camp's place, "wasglorious. The light haze hung over the plains, not yet dissipated by the risingsun. Terra-Cotta's stride was steel springs under me as she swept along, brushingthe dew from the grass of the range. . . ." 
His rising exuberance as his new life developedwas in marked contrast to his behavior when he had first reached the Kansasranch. Several acquaintances who knew him then recalled that he was inclined tobe melancholy, "moody beyond anything I had ever seen in man" reported one of hisfriends. "In his moments of despair he was not only morose but recluse. He hidfrom the majority of all his fellows save one, a chap of his own age, JamesChapman, who hovered near as something of a guardian angel."  The cause of
this attitude is now hard to ascertain. All his life Remington was inclined tobe volatile for a time intensely enthusiastic, then despairing; but as hegrew older this behavior gradually disappeared. Possibly the youthful Remington,when he first reached Kansas, had been disappointed in love or it may have beenthat one of his chief interests in life drawing had as yet broughthim little satisfaction, or the death of his father, all may have played a part.But in the development of his new life the melancholia wore off and Remingtonsoon became more jovial and was well known and popular over the countryside. Manyof the children of the period recall the interest he took in them. His drawing,too, was by no means neglected, for he spent considerable time with his sketchbook. He sketched his ranch, his sheep, his neighbors and their activities. Hewent to Plum Grove and sketched the preacher who visited the schoolhouse onSundays and the sketch was then passed around the audience. A neighbor bought atrotting horse and Remington drew the horse. Bob Camp's cook was greatly pleasedwhen Remington drew for him on rough wrapping paper a sketch of a cow defendingher calf from the attack of a wolf. Many evenings a crowd would gather at theRemington ranch and Remington would sketch the individuals as they "chinned" withone another or as they boxed, for boxing was a favorite sport of the youngranchers. Few cared to put on the gloves with Remington as he was almost in theprofessional class and his opponents were always in for a good mauling when theyfought with the ex-Yale football player. 
The work of the ranch was so well settled intoroutine that by July Remington was getting restless again. Leaving the ranch inBill Kehr's hands, Remington, together with a friend from Peabody, GeorgeShepherd, decided to take a look at the country south and west. Just how extendeda trip on horse, of course they made at
this time is now unknown. They probably went down into Indian territory, notmanymiles south of Butler county and then may have gone west into New Mexicoterritory and back by way of Dodge City. At any rate, Remington had made ahorseback trip of some distance into the Southwest a further explorationof the Western scene.
He was back on his ranch before many weeks, forhis uncle Lamartine came out to visit him early in the fall. It was anunfortunate and tragic trip for Lamartine, for he and Frederic, in returning oneday from the twelve-mile trip to Peabody were caught in a violent plains'rainstorm. Exposure to the elements led to an illness for the elder Remingtonthat eventually developed into tuberculosis and led finally to his untimelydeath. To the burly young rancher, hardened by an outdoor life of many months,the storm was just a passing incident and without effect. It was with genuineregret, however, that he put his ailing uncle on the train for home, for he andLamartine, not greatly separated by years, had many interests in common. 
It was shortly after his uncle left inmid-October, 1883, that one of Remington's most memorable experiences in Kansasoccurred. He had ridden up to Bob Camp's ranch with James Chapman one evening,and after supper the three, together with Camp's cook, gathered around thekerosene lamp on the kitchen table. As Jim leaned his chair back against thewall, he suggested, "Look here, boys, what do you say to running jackstomorrow?"
"I seconded the motion immediately," wroteRemington in recalling the evening, "but Bob, the owner of the ranch, sat backand reflectively sucked his big pipe, as he thought of the things which ought tobe done. The broken fence to the corral down by the creek, dredging the wateringholes, the possibilities of trading horses down at Plum Grove and various otherthrifty plans weighed upon his mind; but Jim continued,-'It's nice fall weathernow, dry and cold; why a hoss will jest run hisself to death for fun; that oldBob mule scampered like a four year ole colt all the way to Hoyt's grocery withme today, and besides, there hain't nothing to do, and the jacks is thicker'ntumble weeds on the prairie."'
With Remington's added urging, Bob Camp was soonwon over and the sport was planned for the next day. "Jacks," it should bepointed out, are jack rabbits, animals that have "the most preposterous ears thatever were mounted on any creature but a jackass"
according to Mark Twain, who also remarked that the jack rabbit, when reallyfrightened, "straightens himself out like a yardstick every spring he makes." Atany rate, coursing the jacks was a thrilling chase, but usually not a verydangerous one for the rabbits. They were coursed by using dogs usually fleet-footed greyhounds to rout the rabbits out of their cover andon to the range. There the chase was taken up by the mounted hunters, each armedwith a lance, a light pole some six feet in length. The object of the chase wasto touch the rabbit with the lance, a feat not often accomplished. The chaseconsisted of quarter- or half-mile dashes in the open, followed by a suddenswerve in the line of the chase as the rabbit broke for cover. This was usually aslew (a depression) filled with tall grass, or a rough creek bed-a deep gash inthe prairie ordinarily dry but containing dwarf willows. Coursing jacks was thusexcellent training in horsemanship even if other gains were meager.
The hunt arranged by Chapman and Remingtonincluded seven horsemen; for, in addition to the original trio, there were JohnSmith, who furnished the greyhound, "Daddy," by name; Bill Kehr, Remington'sranch hand, who was riding Prince; Phip, Bob Camp's cook, who really should notbe called a horseman since he was riding "Bob," a mule somewhat advanced in yearsand who at various times in his long career had "elevated some of the best ridersin that part of the country toward the stars"; and, lastly, Charlie B-, theEnglishman, on a blue mare and rigged out in regulation English hunting togs,with the exception of the red coat, which several years' experience in the West,had taught him was not appreciated for its true worth. Remington was mounted, ofcourse, on his favorite, Terra-Cotta, and Bob Camp on a dependable but not speedymare, Jane, by name. Jim Chapman was riding Push-Bob, Prince's much-discussedrival; in fact, one of the reasons for arranging the hunt seems to have been thechance offered to get more real facts on the relative merits of the twohorses.
The party assembled at Camp's corral, moved downacross a dry branch of the Whitewater river that cut across Bob's quarter, up thebluffs and out on to the open range. They had not gone far until
"There's a jack-take him, Daddy," came a quick cry from Johnnie, and the nextmoment Johnnie's big bay was off. There goes the rabbit, the dog flies after. "Goon, Terra," I shouted, loosing on the bit, hitting her lightly with a spur, andaway we went, all in a ruck. Old Prince was shouldering heavily away on my right,Push-Bob on my quarter, Jane off to the left, and
Phip at a stately gallop behind-the blue mare beingleft at the post as it were. The horses tore along, blowing great lung-fulls offresh morning air out in snorts. Our sombreros blew up in front from the rush ofair, and our blood leaped with excitement. Away scurried the jack, with his greatears sticking up like two antique bed-posts, with Daddy closing the distancerapidly, and our outfit thundering along some eight rods in the rear. Down into aslew of long grass into which the rabbit and dog disappeared we went, with thegrass snapping and swishing about the legs of our horses. A dark mass on my leftheaves up, and "ho-there goes Bob head over heels." On we go. "Hope Bob isn'thurt-must have put his foot into a water-hole," are my excited reflections. Weare out of the slew, but where is the rabbit and the dog?
The rabbit dodged, doubled in its tracks whenout on the plain again, and came almost directly at Remington who lunged with hislance but missed as Kehr and Charlie swept by. This time the rabbit made for adry creek bed. Kehr and Charlie crashed together as they went down into the bedand both were unhorsed.
Remington, attempting to head off the rabbit,chose to go over a high bluff above the creek. But the descent was so steep thatTerra's knees bent under her and both she and her rider went down. Remington wasthrown to the bottom with such violence that he lay stunned on the ground, butsoon he and Terra were up again. To continue the comedy of errors, another rabbitwas run out of the creek and made straight for Phip mounted on his mule. Phipprepared to deal the fatal blow, but as he made ready the mule spied the rabbitcoming at him, shied violently and sent his rider sprawling and cursing on theplain.
The riders slowly gathered for a council of war.Bob Camp was the last to arrive, "a sketch in plaster," since the spot where hehad been unhorsed was a hole of soft blue mud. After a breathing spell, thehorsemen were out for another round. One rabbit had been run down and another wasstarted. It made its escape through the corral of a newly-settled rancher, "old"John Mitchner. John came out with a hospitable "how-de boys" and asked them todinner, an invitation which was eagerly accepted. While waiting for John's boy tocook up a meal of bacon and eggs, the conversation turned
to horses. As the hunters looked over John's stock in the corral, Jim Chapmanbegan to "rib" the old man about his horses and John replied, "Wall, my hossstock ain't nothin' to brag on now, because I hain't got the money that youfellers down in the creek has got fer to buy 'em with, but I've got a little maredown thar in the corral as I've got a notion ken run some shakes." This statementwas an open invitation for a race and in practically no time Jim had wageredPush-Bob against old John's little mare. Bill Kehr promptly joined in. "I'll betPrince can beat either of you," he said. "I'll ride him; and we'll all three run,the winner to take both, and it's a good time to see whether Prince or Push-Bobis the better horse."
They agreed, and dinner was forgotten as oldJohn went into the corral for his horse. When he led her out, so old and decrepitdid she seem, cupidity got the best of the remaining hunters. Remington put uphis favorite Terra-Cotta against another mare and her colt in old John's corral;Bob Camp bet Jane against four head of John's cattle; Jack Smith entered hishorse in the wagering; and Charlie, the Englishman, staked his blue mare againsta likely looking three-year-old in the old man's string. Only Phip on his mulewas immune to the fever and he expressed his doubts in no uncertain manner. Buthis voice was lost in the excitement as the three horses came into line for aquarter-mile race. Remington was to fire the starting shot. Charlie and Bob,together with old John's son, rode out on the plain and marked the finish lineand acted as judges. But let Remington tell the story of the race.
The three racers came up to the scratch, Bill and Jim sitting their sleek steedslike centaurs. Old Prince had bristled up and moved with great vim and power.Push-Bob swerved about and stretched his neck on the bit. The boys werebare-footed, with their sleeves rolled up and a handkerchief tied around theirheads. Old John came prancing out, stripped to the waist, on his mare, whichindeed looked more game when mounted than running loose in the corral. The oldman's grey, thin locks were blowing loose in the wind, and he worked his horse upto the scratch in a very knowing way. We all regarded the race as a foregoneconclusion and had really began to pity old John's impoverishment, but stillthere was the interest in the bout between Prince and Push-Bob. This was thefirst time the victors of the Whitewater bottoms had met, and was altogether thegreatest race which that country had seen in years. How the boys from thesurrounding ranches would have gathered could they have known it, but it is justas well that they did not; for as I fired the gun and the horses scratched awayfrom the mark, Old John went to the front and stayed there to the end, winning byseveral lengths, while Prince and Push-Bob ran what was called a dead heat,although there was considerable discussion over it for a long time afterwards.There was my
dear little Terra gone to the hand of thespoilsman, and the very thought almost broke my heart, as I loved that mare as Ishall never love another animal. I went back to the corral, sat down and began towhittle a stick. It took Bob and Charlie a half an hour to walk the quarter of amile back to the ranch. Bill and Jim said nothing kept them from flying thecountry to save their horses but the fact that they had nosaddles.
The six stood disconsolately looking through thefence of old John's corral as he herded in his newly acquired string. Then hereminded them of dinner, but for some reason they had lost their appetites, andwith a last look at their former mounts they started dejectedly for home, tenmiles distant. Phip and old Bob were used to good advantage, for all the saddleswere piled on the mule.
"Every man in this country will know this insideof two days," was the disheartening comment as they got under way. The full forceof this observation became only too apparent that evening when Remington and BillKehr rode down on new mounts, of course to Hoyt's grocery at PlumGrove to renew their larder. As they approached the front of the store and lookedthrough the window, they saw by the pale light of the lone lamp, old John perchedon a sugar barrel. He had quite an audience and as he reached the climax of hisstory, there arose a shout of laughter which was probably heard in El Dorado,twenty miles distant. Bill and Remington looked at each other and quietly decidedto go hungry the next day as they turned their horses about and headed for homewithout going into the store."
If this episode lingered long in Remington'smemory, still another one, following the horse race by a month or so, must havebeen equally well remembered and remembered with still greater regret for it was probably one of the causes leading to his withdrawal from ranchlife. A Christmas eve party had been arranged for the residents of Plum Grove andthe ranchers and settlers in its outlying territory. That night saw theschoolhouse crowded to its small capacity. Remington and all "the boys" werethere and so was a prominent member of the community who had incurred theirdislike. It is probable that a few drinks had made the boys more boisterous andcareless than usual, for as they saw the bald head belonging to the object oftheir dislike well up in the front of the audience, the target was irresistible.Large paper wads and small balls of mud began to fly toward the gleaming balddome. Such conduct was, of course, immediately reprimanded, and the guiltyparties were asked to leave the schoolhouse. The public reprimand
left its sting and made the culprits more obstreperous than ever. As theygathered outside the building, one of them spied a pile of straw. It was hastilypiled outside the window and set blazing with a cry of "Fire, Fire." A near panicresulted. The crowd poured from the doors and even from some of the windows, butfortunately, it was not disastrous. The affair naturally aroused considerablefeeling, and the more staid members of the community swore out warrants for thearrest of the perpetrators of the thoughtless prank. The Walnut ValleyTimes, published at El Dorado, even noted the event in its columns:
Some of the youngsters up in Plum Grove [northwestButler county], on Christmas eve., at an entertainment in the schoolhouse,behaved in most unseemly manner, judging by report, and got up a row whichassumed almost the proportions of a riot. The matter has culminated by a suit inthe district court; Fred Pennington [Remington], Wm. Kehr, John Smith, ChesterFarni [Harris?] and Chas. Harriman being the defendants. The first trial resultedin the disagreement of the Jury. Another trial is set for February 4th. The boysare a little "wild and wooly" occasionally in the northwest. 
The Times account is essentially correctsave that the matter was adjusted in the justice court before Justice Charles E.Lobdell rather than in district court. We have Lobdell's word for it that after atwo-days' trial in which the jury disagreed, the case was dismissed upon thepayment of costs, which, along with the attorney's fees and all other expenses,were borne by Remington. One of the attorneys referred continually to Remingtonas "Billy, the Kid," an allusion which evidently greatly disturbed youngRemington, as well it might. In fact, the whole affair was a source ofconsiderable embarrassment to him and he doubtless wished many times that he hadnot been so foolish and reckless. Up to this time, he had been popular in thecommunity, but, as a result of the prank, which easily might have had a far moreserious and tragic conclusion, he was looked upon with less favor. If Remingtonfelt guilty and brooded over the affair at the time, his sins have long sincebeen forgiven.  The story above has been told in Butler
county many times since that day, but always with forbearance and with pride-apride that young Remington was part of its life for a time and that hisexperiences on the prairies contributed to his knowledge of Western ways and ofWestern horses.
It was not long after the conclusion of thetrial that Remington decided to give up ranching. The bad light in which theschoolhouse incident had placed him was no doubt a contributing reason. But therewere other, and probably more important ones. In the first place, Remington wasnot cut out to be a rancher. "He didn't take a great deal of interest in theactual work of the sheep ranch," is the statement by which Robert Camp, now inhis eighties, sums up his recollections of Butler county days and FredericRemington.  Sheep ranching could go along smoothly in pleasant weather,especially when boys of the neighborhood could be hired to herd the flock,leaving the boss free to roam as his fancy dictated. But there was hard work,too. It was a herculean task to protect the bleating animals from the suddennorthern blasts of wintry weather. The sheep had to be dipped several times ayear, an extremely dirty, stinking and disagreeable task, and at lambing timealmost constant attention for weeks had to be given to the majority of the flock.In addition to these more or less routine drawbacks, there were the troubles ofshearing and the selling of the wool. Unfortunately for Remington, the price ofwool took a tremendous slump in the early spring of 1884, the first time he hadany for sale. 
As a result of these mounting difficulties and the embarrassment of the trial Remington began looking for apurchaser of his property. He found one before many weeks, sold his two quartersections, his sheep and remaining horses, and by May of 1884, after a year oflife on the Kansas plains, he quit the ranch. 
DR. ROBERT TAFT, of Lawrence, is professor of chemistry at the University ofKansas and editor of the Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. Heis author of Photography And the American Scene (New York, 1938), andAcross the Years on Mount Oread (Lawrence, 1941).
1. The Buckman article, quoted above, "Ranches andRanchers of the Far West," Lippincott's Magazine, Philadelphia, v. 29 (1882), p.435, begins by commenting on the Western exodus of young collegians andprofessional men from the overcrowded East. As far as I know, there has been nospecific or extensive study of this Western migration of the late 1870's andearly 1880'x. The fundamental origin and the economic causes of the migration andthe organization and conduct of the huge cattle companies have beensatisfactorily dealt with by Ernest S. Osgood, The Day of the Cattleman(Minneapolis, 1929), especially in the chapter "The Cattle Boom." W. P. Webb,The Great Plains (Boston, 1931), pp. 233-239, and Louis Pelzer, TheCattleman's Frontier (Glendale, Cal., 1936), are other sources of informationon these topics. The social aspects of the migration in all their interestingfeatures, however, still lack a chronicler. The contemporary literature listed inFootnotes 10 and 11 (far from complete, but somewhat more extensive than isavailable elsewhere) may serve as a starting point for such a study; and,incidentally, the present series contributes, I trust, to this interestingsubject.
28. M. L. Brown and the Outing article.
29. Quotation from the Outing article.
30. M. L. Brown.
31. I have made extensive examinations of the Peabodyand El Dorado newspapers of the period and have found occasional contemporarymention of Remington in these sources. In the Plum Grove notes of the PeabodyGazette, June 21, 1883, p. 4, is the item "Mr. Remington, on the `Johnsonplace,' is building a large sheep barn." The issue of July 5, p. 5, mentions aprospecting trip of Remington and George Shepherd to "the southern part of theState." The Gazette, October 18, p. 5, reports that "Fred Remington'sfather started for his home in the East, last Monday morning." "Father" isobviously in error and should read "uncle," for Mrs.Ella Remington Mills andPierre Remington both wrote me that Lamartine Remington, an uncle of FredericRemington, visited the Kansas ranch and caught a cold that developed intotuberculosis.
Mention is made of a trip that Remington and Robert Camp made to El Dorado inibid., December 13, 1883, p. 5, and the El Dorado Republican,December 7, p. 3.
From the interviews of M. L. Brown, it seems certain that preliminary sketchesthat Remington afterward worked into his more mature productions were made duringhis Kansas stay. Included among these were "The Last Stand" and "The BroncoBuster."
In addition to a small album of original Kansas sketches (approximately quarto insize) in the Remington Art Memorial at Ogdensburg, N. Y., reproductions ofsketches of direct Kansas interest appear in the Outing article (Footnote23), and in Harper's Weekly, v. 32 (April 28, 1888), p. 300, a half-pageillustration "Texan Cattle in a Kansas Corn Corral," which has been reproduced onthe cover of this Quarterly.
32. See reference to Peabody Gazette andLamartine Remington in Footnote 31.
33. The description of the race and the quotationsare from the Outing article.
34. Walnut Valley Times, El Dorado, January11, 1884. The item was discovered by Mrs. Bullock of El Dorado.
35. The affair at the Plum Grove schoolhouse wasrecalled by Rolla Joseph (mentioned above) who states that "it never would havehappened if the boys hadn't been drinking," and by the justice of the peace inthe case, Charles Lobdell. Lobdell, later a member of the state legislature andstill later the editor of the Kansas City (Kan.) Tribune, gave hisrecollections of the affair in the Tribune, October 29, 1897. Stillanother version of the story appears in the recollections of H. A. J. Coppins, aresident of the Plum Grove community in Remington's day. The Coppins'recollections, a valuable contribution as they contain several interestingsidelights, appeared in the El Dorado Times, November 24, 1943, 1 amindebted to Mrs. Bullock, who became so much interested in this Remington affairthat she attempted to trace the records in the justice court of El Dorado butfound, as the result of her search, that some cleanly and God-fearing formermayor of the town, had, in a burst of zeal for cleaning up things, thrown awayall old reports, the accumulation of years. Probably it is just as well that theywere destroyed for many a sinning soul will rest easier in his grave since therecords of his misdeeds are thus forever hidden from the eye of man.
36. From the interviews of W. I. Barth (1943).-SeeFootnote 19.
37. The difficulties of sheep farming in Remington'speriod are feelingly described in the recollections of a Kansan, William M.Wells, in The Desert's Hidden Wealth (1934), pp. 177, 178. In thiscategory of recollections, another item having some bearing on ranching in theFlint Hills is Frank Harris' My Reminiscences As a Cowboy (New York,1930). Harris, later a literary light, was a partner in a cattle ranch at Eurekain the 1870's. The book is cited as evidence to show the close contiguity ofcattle and sheep ranching in the Flint Hills area. In all of the contemporaryaccounts of sheep and cattle raising before 1885, I have never found anyindication that there was marked rivalry or hostility between the two. Indeed inAldridge, op. cit. (Footnote 10), mention is made of a cattle ranch andsheep ranch which were adjacent to each other. My colleague, Prof. James C. Malinof the University of Kansas, tells me that in his studies of agricultural historyon the plains, there is no evidence that there was marked rivalry between sheepand cattle raisers in this period. Some ranchers, indeed, raised both sheep andcattle; others were in some years cattle ranchers and in other years sheepranchers, depending upon the fluctuations of economics and weather.
38. See Footnote 20. It is probable that Remingtonleft before May. The Peabody Gazette, January 24, 1884, p. 5, has areference of the sale of the Remington place to "D. M. Greene." According to thisitem Greene planned to move to the Remington place "about March 1st," a usualdate for moving on the farm.