FOUR of Julia Louisa Lovejoy's letters were published in volume 11 of The Kansas Historical Quarterly. They told of the Lovejoys' journey to Kansas and their settling at Manhattan in 1855. The letters that follow continue the story of Mrs. Lovejoy's pioneer experiences, as described in her correspondence to Eastern newspapers and in personal letters to her family in New Hampshire. Letters from her son and husband are also included.
Not long after their arrival in the territory the Rev. Charles H. Lovejoy was placed in charge of the Fort Riley mission. After serving five months he was assigned to Lawrence by the Methodist Episcopal Church conference of November, 1855.  The family, however, remained for a time on their claim adjoining Manhattan in order to hold it. Their first winter in the territory was unusually cold and in their "balloon" house,  Mrs. Lovejoy had difficulty in keeping her family from freezing. She wrapped her baby in her furs and blankets "to keep him from perishing, near the stove." "O how I sighed," she wrote, "for a comfortable home, in N. E. again."  In the spring of 1856 Mr. Lovejoy was sent East to solicit funds to build a church, and when he returned in August he moved his family to Lawrence. For two years they lived in Lawrence when the excitement of the Border trouble was at its height.
The Methodist conference of April, 1857, transferred Mr. Lovejoy to the Oskaloosa mission. Since there was no parsonage on the circuit and houses were scarce, Julia and her small son, Irving, moved to a claim at Palmyra, ten miles south of Lawrence.  Here she lived in a little log cabin in the woods. With her two-year-old son she spent many days and nights entirely alone, "in times when strong-minded men feared for their personal safety."  She fared
better the next year, however, when her husband was sent to Sumner,  at that time a thriving town on the Missouri river. On the bluffs overlooking the river he built a frame house and moved his family there. Julia was delighted with her home. She also enjoyed the people of Sumner, the majority of whom had come from New England. For the first time she felt at home in Kansas territory.
The Lovejoys were permitted to stay only two years in Sumner, for in March, 1860, they were assigned to Olathe.  Only about a dozen Methodists lived in this circuit and there was but a "faint prospect, of a support for his family."  House rent was also high, so Julia and Irving moved back to Palmyra, now called Baldwin City.  On June 12, 1860, Julia wrote in her diary:
We are now dwellers in a cozy little cabin 12 by 16 feet, built of unhewed logs, the interstices, daubed with clay, one half a window-frame with a few panes of glass, and aside from the annoyances of mice, and other troublesome vermin, that by right of "pre-emption," & "pre-occupancy" infest our quiet retreat, we should find ourselves, very pleasantly situated for this Conference year. Mr. Lovejoy's field of labor, is 25 miles, from the residence of his family.
Julia had long wanted to visit her family in New Hampshire  and at last her desire was realized in August of 1860, when she and Charles made the journey together. Their visit, however, was saddened by the news of the death of their daughter, Mrs. Juliette Whitehorn, at Manhattan in November.  They remained two years in the East, returning to Kansas in March, 1862. Charles was assigned to the Wyandotte circuit and Julia and her son again returned to their claim at Baldwin City.
In April, 1863, Charles Lovejoy enlisted in the army, becoming chaplain of the Seventh regiment, Kansas cavalry.  His son, Charles J., had previously enlisted and was adjutant in the Twelfth regiment, Kansas Volunteer infantry.  Late in the year Chaplain Lovejoy was stationed at the Post Hospital, Corinth, Miss. Julia
joined him and began teaching a school for white children during the day and one for Negroes in the evening. This proved too strenuous for her and her health began to fail. Early in 1864, when the Post Hospital was moved to Memphis and the Seventh Kansas was ordered to Leavenworth, Julia returned to her home, reaching there some time in February.
In the fall of that year the Lovejoys changed their membership to the Free Methodist church, the Methodist Episcopal church having become too formal for Charles.  When the war was over they were sent to a pastorate at Lebanon, Ill. They remained one year, then returned to Kansas, arriving in September, 1866.  Although they continued their church work, Charles and Julia Lovejoy made their farm pear Baldwin their permanent home. Here Julia died on February 6, 1882.  During the early years Julia Lovejoy had been kept busy looking after her home and family while her husband was away, sometimes weeks at a time, on his circuit. She nevertheless found time to keep up her correspondence for a number of newspapers. In a letter to her family she wrote: "there is not one button, or patch off of anything in my gem of a Cottage, and within less than a week, I have sent to the press at St. Louis, Cleveland, Ohio, and Baldwin City ten communications." 
Some of the papers for which she wrote were: The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H., Granite State Whig, Lebanon, N. H., New York Tribune, Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass., Central Christian Advocate, St. Louis, Mo., and the Christian Messenger, Montpelier, Vt. She was editor of the "Ladies' Department" of The Western Spy, Sumner, and wrote for various other Kansas papers.
Mrs. Lovejoy wrote of events taking place in the territory, the suffering and hardships of the pioneers, relief, crops, the gold rush, etc., but the burden of her song was the political struggle between the Free-State and Proslavery adherents. She and her husband were strong Abolitionists even when the name carried a stigma with it. And the murder of Charles' cousin, Elijah P. Lovejoy, at Alton, Ill., by a Proslavery mob only intensified their hatred of slavery. Julia urged her family and friends to migrate to Kansas to help the Free-State cause. Her letters did much to attract the
attention of Eastern people to the struggle in the territory. They also brought down the wrath of the Border Ruffians upon her, and attempts were said to have been made to kill her and Mr. Lovejoy.  Her descriptions of Border warfare agree in the main with historical accounts. Possibly there are some exaggerations, but she endeavored to get the truth, saying: ". . . We always write things just as they are, to the best of our knowledge, and if we afterwards learn that we are misinformed, we invariably send a correction, if the affair is of any moment."  At the time when Julia Lovejoy was writing for newspapers there were few women correspondents in the United States. Women had not yet been emancipated politically and it was considered unladylike to take part in politics. Julia had previously had little use for women politicians and apologized for her activities. In a letter of December 2, 1857, she wrote:
But we want to say a few things with regard to matters politically, in this our adopted home. As much as we once hated the idea of women politicians, no true woman who has been cradled among the liberty loving people of New Hampshire, . . . could be in Kansas, and see what we have seen and feel what we have felt, and not wax enthusiastically zealous for universal freedom. 
Copies of Mrs. Lovejoy's personal letters were given to the Historical Society by Mrs. Ellen Emeline Webster, her grandniece. The newspaper clippings and a diary. were the gift of her son, Irving R. Lovejoy.
LAWRENCE, KANSAS TERRITORY,
September 5th, 1856.
MR. EDITOR- I am not able to sit up but a few moments, having had a severe attack of bilious intermittent fever, and my husband sick with bilious fever at the same time, and our nurse, who kindly proffered his aid, being an old gentleman upwards of 70, crippled with rheumatism. Altogether, in these "`dark days" of crime, we have had a sorry time of it, as every hour almost, of our sickness, some startling intelligence of new murders and depredations saluted our acutely nervous senses. Thanks to an ever watchful Providence, we are both now convalescent.
Our hearts sicken at the atrocities perpetrated daily upon the
innocent and unoffending.-Ossawattamie has been laid in ashes, every house
burned, and four of our men killed.-The gallant Brown, while searching after his
saddle, was shot dead in the street. Fifty Ossawattamie families shelterless, are
now living in their waggons in the woods, endeavoring to escape these fiends in
human form-Heaven and Elijah's ravens to feed them! This was a beautiful town,
about the size, I think, of Lawrence. Judge Wakefield's house and four of his
neighbor's were burnt night before last. The ruffians have burnt every Free State
man's house in Leavenworth, pressed the men into their service, at the peril of
their lives, driven the women and children, with just the clothes on their backs,
into the boats and sent them down the River. Children with no parents to take
care of them, were pushed into the boat and sent off too! Our men have driven
their army twice this week, at the North, between here and Lecompton, and near
Black Jack, between this place and Westport. At Black Jack the two armies were
drawn up in line of battle, a ravine separating them, but after viewing our brave
fellows, they concluded that running was the better part of valor, and took to
their heels, and put spurs to their horses, as though Lucifer was hard after
them, and entered Westport, (as we learned by a lady who came in the stage
yesterday from thence) and told the people that "Lane had 10,000 men, and was
coming down to destroy the place," and they went to fortifying the town. Lane had
about four hundred men with him, all told, and they, 'tis said, numbered five to
ere long their blood will be avenged! Our men have gone over the river, to
help the Delaware Indians, today. The Ruffians are stealing their horses, and
committing other depredations amongst them, burning one of their houses and an
Indian boy with it-this will arouse their ire, and they are a powerful tribe. Now
these fellows will find they have got somebody besides Yankees to fight! The Sacs
that passed through here, we hardly think will dare to fight us, because they
will lose their lands by so doing. A scout is now watching on Oread Mount, a few
rods from my window, in the direction of Lecompton.
JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.
LAWRENCE, KAN. TERRITORY,
September 19, 1856.
MR. EDITOR  :-There have been times in life's history, when under circumstances like those that surround us this moment it would have been impossible for us to have written or even composed our nerves sufficiently to follow one continuous train of thought, but we have of late been so accustomed to murder and bloodshed under the most appalling forms, we can write at the cannon's mouth with men weltering in their gore, hard by, as we do this morning.
The "signs of the times" betoken peace and quiet for our little
city, at least for a time, after such perils, by day and by night, as we had
been through, as had well-nigh worn us out, with incessant excitement, and
-watching-our men became lax in keeping their scouts on the lookout. Lane and his
men had gone to Grasshopper Creek-others had returned to Topeka, as our new
government [Gov. John W. Geary] had been here and promised to stand by us,
much space as possible, and then poured a volley of balls into them-the
Missourians returned the fire and then retreated into a ravine behind a cornfield
to screen themselves as much as possible --our men then returned to town, and
about twenty-five horsemen and fifty foot-men marched out on to a high rolling
prairie, and drew themselves up in line of battle-a few shots were exchanged,
when our men marched upon them, and they wheeled and fled like frightened sheep,
when our men followed hard at their heels, firing as they went, killing three or
four, and thus on and on they flew as in a race for life, some two miles toward
Franklin till they reached their camp, when our men turned back toward town. Had
they then known our weakness, as the troops had not arrived, we should now
probably have been murdered, and our city laid in ashes! [George W.] Dietz[l]er,
just escaped from prison, shot six times, and he says "he knows they must have
Tuesday [Monday], September 15.-Our government and troops arrived yesterday and hastened down to meet the enemy and turn them back as they hove in sight with their blood-red flag waving, bent on our destruction. They have contented themselves during the night in getting all the herds (from our free-state settlers), and horses they could find in that vast bottom, stretching between here and Franklin, and our cow we suppose among the rest, and what we shall all do in these deplorable times heaven only knows. Will not some of the friends of freedom help replace our lost homes, and cow, and these other losses by ruffian hands that have brought devastation and ruin to our homes? Last night two or three young ladies came running into town crying bitterly, daughters of our good brother Anderson, having run four miles from Franklin along a bypath through the timber, bareheaded, dragging along little children by the hand. Their house had been burned and their good, gray-haired mother in Israel shot at, and they feared their brother's wife, the mother of a little family, had been murdered. Think of this, my sisters in New Hampshire, pure-minded, intelligent ladies fleeing from fiends in human form whose brutal lust is infinitely more to be dreaded than death itself.
Last night, about sunset, about two hundred approached the town of Lawrence with three white flags waving ([Ex-Sen. David R.] Atchison was in this gang), they were permitted to come to the foot of Mt. Oread, when the U. S. troops met them and planted their cannon so as to blow them to atoms if they made any attempt to attack us, as they threatened to do, and this morning they left for Lecompton followed by the other portion of the army that stopped at Franklin for the night watched there by a detachment of troops. The government thinks it is policy to let them pass on to Lecompton unmolested. They had just left Lawrence this morning before the troops followed them and shot a Mr. Buffum, one of our men, for trying to rescue his horses they were stealing.  Oh, how our men ached to fight them this morning and last night as they just came from Franklin, where they had ruined so many of our people and turned homeless on to the prairies, but the government, for good
reasons, no doubt, would not permit it. He gives the free state men universal satisfaction, but we are told the ruffians tried to assassinate him at Franklin! It looks ominous to us, after coming upon us to destroy us, so large a force should be permitted to concentrate at Lecompton-for our own part, for the first time in all this commotion unless help speedily comes and our governor gets a stronger force, we have no doubt our doom is sealed! To-day is a trying time for our faith. My husband, by excitement and exposure, has brought on a relapse of bilious fever, from which he has just recovered-my babe is growing worse, his fever is raging dreadfully to-day, and we have but a few dollars left for any emergency. A few months ago prosperity smiled upon us, but war has fallen heavily upon us and now shall we be left single-handed and alone from all our friends to peril our all for freedom and our New England friends stand aloof? We have not received the first dollar from any source to help sustain our losses, and do not expect to, as all are in trouble here, unless our friends in the East help us a little, and hundreds are worse off than we having no house to shelter them. We have good "claims," but who will buy a "claim" in this territory when war is determined to sweep us all out?
LAWRENCE, K. T.,
Monday, Sept. 22, 1856.
MR. EDITOR  :-If we recollect rightly, our last thread for the Democrat was broken off abruptly, at the shooting of Mr. Buffum, who lingered a short time in excruciating agony, and expired, having received the whole contents of the ruffian's rifle into his bowels, for no crime, but endeavoring to secure his hard-earned property from being taken before his eyes by murderous thieves. The two brothers lived together and were trying to make them a home-the other a deaf and dumb mute. We know not what will become of him in these perilous times. Captain Thorn, of Maine, living near by, testifies he "had the last article of personal property he owned, taken by them, before the troops arrived," and nothing has been re stored to him, or the surviving Buffum. The troops endeavoring to arrest some of the murderous gang, a wretch, named [W. F.] Donaldson, who was with Titus, at the taking of his fort, with horrid oaths, declared HE should not be arrested, and fired at the troops, hitting one of them in the shoulder, when the other soldiers rode up,
and with their carbines laid him dead on the spot. Then some of the rest threw
his mangled remains into their feed-box, at the back of one of their baggage
wagons, carrying him along as though he had been a vile beast of prey! O the
demoralizing effects of war!
what inclined to excitability; but if this did not set the blood to galloping
through my veins with unwonted velocity, then I never inhaled the air of the
Granite Hills, consecrated to freedom forever.
wished that heaven would raise up some God-fearing Judith, of apocryphal
biography, if none else could be found, who would confront this Holofernes at the
head of our enemies, and in burning, scathing words, tell him the "Avenger of
blood" is on his track, and soon justice, human and divine, will be meted out to
him. A time will come, we doubt not, when the manly school-boy, conning his
"task" to repeat the list of "Presidents of the United States," will wish the
name of Franklin Pierce expunged from among those illustrious worthies, unworthy
to be found in such company.
JULIA LOUISA LOVEJOY.
P. S.-The above is written from a sick bed; and let none of the friends of Julia Louisa Lovejoy attribute this to "malice aforethought," but the "shaking of the fever and ague," which perhaps will "shake" out a few more items, before it passes off.
Dec. 7th/56 LAWRENCE K. T.
DEAR UNCLE AND FAMILY  : Father received a letter from you last week. we were very glad to hear from you. I was surprised to hear that you had not reed any letters from us as I have written several times to you myself and I could not understand the reason why you did not answer them. Since the troubles have ceased our mail has been regular. I came down here last week it having been nearly six months since I had seen father and mother. Found them in much better health than they had been for some time. Irving is rather unwell now the rest of the family as well as usual. I have sold my claim on the Big Blue and rented Fathers. I intend living here this winter. Father wished me to say to you-if you would rent your farm and come out here it should not cost you anything after you got here. Mother says tell Colby that Father Hardy nor none of his children have as good
a house or live any better than she does. There are as good chances now as
ever for making claims. The Shawneese have been sectionized, and their lands the
garden of Kansas are to be opened for preemption after the first day of Jan.
1857. I design taking one of them myself. Our crops were excellent this year. The
weather is delightful, as warm as May. The Dr. [Whitehorn] and Ettie
are living at Manhattan. I leave for them tomorrow. If you have any desire like
the rest of mankind to get a pleasant home cheap and a chance to make money, I
advise you by all means to come to Kansas. Rent your farm. Get a good place for
your family-and try the coming season with us. Give my love to all the family
relations.- also to Mrs. Lucindy Palmer & husband and tell them -with all my
heart I wish them much joy and a happy life. Business has returned with redoubled
vigor to this country since the troubles have ceased. I designed to have made a
trip to N. H. this fall but could not arrange my business so as to well leave.
Father has gone to Franklin to attend his appointment. He says he shall write you
a long letter soon.
Yours with respect,
CHARLIE J. LOVEJOY.
[On the last page of her son's letter Julia Lovejoy wrote:]
DEAR C [OLBY]. AND E [LIZA].: I should have answered your very acceptable letter the hour received but was obliged to have the house immediately for the plasterers to work on the house. We have passed thro perilous times but now if our babe was well and our little E[dith].  did not lie in the COLD COLD grave, nothing of a temporal nature would make us sad, if our friends were well. When we write to father and mother we write to the entire family indiscriminately, we wish it so understood. O how I love you all and want to see you all, none can tell. Colby and Daniel  let out your farms if you can and come here in March and take a "claim," and with the blessing of God you may make your fortune! We have no object but your temporal good and the cause of freedom in thought. All who can come, will find it for their good. Months we have looked for letters, but in vain. All write immediately, and we will tell you what to do in coming here, if you come. I worry about father and mother daily. O must I never see them on earth? May I meet them in
heaven! Love to all the family. Wilbur, Egbert, D. Scott  and all come, and we will warrant you will be satisfied, if there is no more war! The babe has fussed in my lap all the time I have been writing.
LAWRENCE K. T., Dec. 9th, 1856.
with the harness, for $365. Two hundred and fifty of this, he paid yesterday to a pro-slavery man here for 8-city lots in Lawrence. The slaveocrats know they must leave and are selling their claims and city stock for half their value. One lot, no better than Charles' was sold for eight hundred dollars. Now is the time to get improved claims, of these fellows, for a little sum, and many at the South of us, have left their corn in the field, houses and all for fear, and any one who is disposed, can take possession. Kansas will be saved, we believe, notwithstanding our defeat in the states. Wealthy men and emigrants are pouring in weekly. Who of you will come, and by helping freedom, help yourselves? Now is the time! Let us know immediately. Our house is of stone, after the same model as the Ferrisburg (Vt.) parsonage, tho larger, the entire finish of black walnut, very nice, costing about $800. I tell you all tho we have felt the horrors of war, if we were not in Kansas already, we would come as soon as steam could bring us. Dear Edith's death is the only drawback. Come on all who can. You need now have no fears on the River. Wilbur and E[gbert]. would make their fortunes, with God's blessing. I want to fill a sheet but must stop. Wish Dr. W [hitehorn ] . could see C[aroline]. & M [atilda] . tell us their symptoms, that he may prescribe. He is a great Dr. in truth. Ette is very fortunate, well and happy.
JULIA L. L.
1. Julia L. Lovejoy, "Diary," May 5, 1856.-MSS.
division, Kansas State Historical Society.