IN the three or four decades following the establishment of Kansas territory in 1854, few Kansas artists attempted to depict life in Kansas; a situation not particularly surprising since Kansas, in this period, had few artists of any kind. In these decades the prairie wilderness was transformed into an agricultural state of growing importance in the economy of our United States and the transformation-physically, economically and politically-required the almost undivided attention of our predecessors. To be sure, there was cultural growth, especially in the fields of education, of journalism, and of music, but on the whole the energy of these earlier Kansans was directed chiefly to the establishment of farms, homes and villages, to the building of railroads, to combating inclement weather and voracious insects and to a participation-at times a quite vociferous and rugged participation-in the politics attendant upon the formation of a new territory and state created on the virgin and spacious plains of the great West.
It is not surprising, therefore, that Kansas, in its early history, could enumerate but few artists among its citizens.  The only Kansas artist in the period under consideration to achieve recognition on anything approaching a national scale for his portrayal of Kansas life was Henry Worrall.  Of course, as some Kansans know,
Frederic Remington ran a sheep ranch in Butler county in 1883 and he should therefore be considered a Kansas resident in this period. The year spent in Kansas was so important in the career of this popular illustrator of Western life that special consideration will subsequently be paid to him. The Kansas scenes depicted by Remington, however, are but little known, so that our statement concerning Worrall made above will stand.
Henry Worrall, born in Liverpool, England, on April 14, 1825, immigrated to this country with his family in 1835. After a precarious boyhood spent in Buffalo and Cincinnati, he came to Kansas in the late 1860's.  There is no record that Worrall lead art training of any kind. He had been a glass cutter in Cincinnati and as a young man had achieved a local reputation as a guitar player and teacher and composer of guitar pieces. In fact, one of his compositions, "Sevastopol," which he sold to a publisher in Cincinnati for $15, subsequently became exceedingly popular and sold thousands of copies. In 1868 Worrall arrived in Topeka, where
he made his home until his death in 1902. It was not long before he became a local celebrity and the Topeka newspapers had frequent comments on his activities. By the time Kansas celebrated its first quarter-centennial of statehood in 1886 Worrall was a public figure known throughout the state. Noble Prentis, for example, in addressing the quarter-centennial celebration, stated that Kansas women were able to discuss "all the artists from Henry Worrall to Praxiteles."  /P>
Worrall was a man of many talents, as the above discussion may have suggested and as his subsequent history shows. He established an extensive vineyard, took part in many public musical activities and within a year after his arrival in Topeka was making oil portraits. In addition he delivered illustrated lectures with gusto and felicity, and played pranks on his friends.  In fact, his puckish humor appears to have been one of his predominant traits for it appears frequently in his illustrations, many of which are caricatures.  To add a still more personal touch concerning the buoyant character of this Kansan, so well-known in his day but now virtually forgotten, we can quote from a letter of one of his friends and pupils, J. W. Valentine. Mr. Valentine writes, "Many times he, an old gray-haired man, and I, a fifteen-year-old, went serenading the girls of Bethany college and other girls over Topeka,
about midnight. He played the guitar accompanying my violin playing. He said this fun reminded him of when he was a young fellow in Cincinnati and he enjoyed it."  Worrall must have really enjoyed life!
We must return, however, to Worrall's career as a pictorial recorder of past Western life. His fame in this field lies in the fact that he was an occasional contributor to Harper's Weekly and to Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper as well as a contributor to many minor and local publications. He is probably best known, however, as the illustrator of two very important books of Western history: McCoy's Historic Sketches of the Cattle Trade and W. E. Webb's Buffalo Land. In addition, Worrall made a number of original sketches and paintings which have never been published. His work as an artist will be discussed by considering each of the four groups of work mentioned above. The reader should be reminded, however, that no lurid Western scenes will be found among Worrall's work as it portrays a transition era in the development of the West.
FRANK LESLIE'S ILLUSTRATED NEWSPAPER
Worrall's work in these two pictorial journals recalls many interesting incidents of past Kansas life. A few of this group, however, are illustrations made in our neighboring states of Colorado and New Mexico (then New Mexico territory). As published, these illustrations were many times redrawn by other artists; either because the draftsmanship was not satisfactory or because the dimensions of the drawings submitted by Worrall to these publications did not suit their page sizes.  The illustrations listed chronologically include:
1. "Through the Veta Pass-The Ascent on Dump Mountain-Grade, 217 Feet Per
Mile" (about 1/2 page), Harper's Weekly, v. 21 (September 15, 1877), p. 720.
1879-The State-House in Topeka" (about 1/2 page), ibid., v. 23
(February 8, 1879), p. 105 [reproduced on the cover of this magazine] .
Water Three Hundred Yards to Irrigate a Small Garden"; "A Large `Jumbo' Near Dodge City, on an Island in Churchill Reservoir," and "Reservoir Near Garden City, Irrigating Fifteen Acres--Stocked With German Carp."
Illustrations l, 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the above group were obviously drawn on out-of-state excursions. Worrall traveled extensively over Kansas and into southeastern Colorado in the employ of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroad (see page 251) and the above illustrations probably resulted from such excursions. Veta pass is in southeastern Colorado, about 100 miles southwest of Pueblo  and the engineering feat involved in running the Denver and Rio Grande railroad over the steep ascent of Veta pass was regarded as one of the marvels of the 1870's.  The illustrations listed as Nos. 5, 6, and 7 were also probably made at the same time despite the difference in the place of publication. Here the illustrations resulted from the completion of the railroad to Las Vegas. 
The illustrations listed under No. 2 were drawn in connection with the dedication of the John Brown monument at Osawatomie on August 30, 1877. The monument was dedicated on the twenty-first anniversary of the battle between Proslavery and Free-State men, the latter supposedly led by Brown.  Ex-Gov. Charles Robinson was the chairman at the dedicatory services and Sen. John J. Ingalls, the leading orator of Kansas, delivered the main adddress. 
"The First Public Inauguration of a Governor in Kansas" (No. 3-reproduced on the cover of this magazine) was drawn on January 13, 1879, "a bitterly cold day," and shows Gov. John P. St. John delivering his inaugural address on the east steps of the state house. Governor St. John, who probably had a larger mustache than any other Kansas governor (a photograph of St. John is also reproduced with the above illustration showing him with a mustache of truly magnificent proportions), described in his address the progress of the state, pointing out that "now" (1879) the state's population was 900,000, that it possessed 2,300 miles of railroads,
4,500 schoolhouses, and "a population intelligent, patriotic and enterprising, and with almost boundless natural resources within her boundaries, Kansas may well look forward to a future of still greater prosperity." 
"The Colored Exodus" (No. 4-one scene reproduced in the picture supplement) shows the terminal station in Topeka arranged to receive the immigration of colored people from the South. In the late 1870's the immigration reached its flood tide and thousands of Negroes-many of them destitute-reached Kansas in the hope of finding new homes and improved fortunes in the state where John Brown had achieved his fame. As many as 11 Negro colonies were established in Kansas, one of them far out on the Great Plains northwest of Kinsley, Edwards county. Senator Ingalls is reported to have said: "I do not think there is any class prejudice or any feeling of hostility to the colored people that would prevent their being cordially welcomed as an element of our population. We have an area of about 81,000 square miles, comprising 55,000,000 of acres of arable land, not more than one-tenth of which has been reduced to cultivation. The remainder is open to settlement under the Homestead Act, requiring five years' residence before title can be secured, and I am inclined to think we could absorb 100,000 of these people without serious injury or inconvenience."
The lack of capital and the rigors and vicissitudes of Kansas climate in time discouraged the majority of these immigrants and they drifted on. One of these Negro colonies has survived, however, to the present day and Nicodemus, Graham county, is the only all-Negro town in the state. 
"Departure of the `Corn Train' From Wichita" (No. 9-reproduced in the picture supplement) records a turn in the economic affairs of the state. In 1874, after the great grasshopper infestation, Kansas had solicited aid for many citizens of the state made destitute by the insect damage.  In 1884, 10 years later, Kansas was able to repay her debt in part when great floods in the valley
of the Ohio river made homeless and hungry many inhabitants of the valley. Kansans listened to the appeal for help and sent a train of 31 carloads of corn, payment "with interest" as the gayly decorated cars proclaimed. 
"Cattle in a Blizzard on the Plains" (No. 10) is a graphic reminder of the great blizzards occurring in the winters of 1885-1886 and 1886-1887. In fact, so disastrous were the blizzards that the resulting wholesale loss of cattle ruined many cattlemen. Theodore Roosevelt's ranching venture in the Dakotas, for example, came to an abrupt halt in 1887 after the great blizzards of the two winters left him with scarcely an animal and with a loss of nearly $50,000.  /P>
"The Kansas Trouble at Topeka" (No. 11) recalls the profound interest which Kansans then and now take in their politics. The two contending parties (Populist and Republican) of 1893 each had their own legislature and each refused to recognize the other. Open warfare nearly resulted but the affair was finally settled in favor of the Republicans. 
"The Opening of the Cherokee Strip" (No. 12-one sketch reproduced in the picture supplement) with Worrall's sketches "made on the spot," record pictorially the opening of "the last great body of arable land in the United States." Although dramatic in retrospect it was called at the time "the most disgraceful and disorderly scramble that has ever occurred in the distribution of public lands." Worrall's sketches are not the only graphic recordings of this event but they are probably the best known. 
The last group of the sketches listed above (No. 13), recalls the fact that many attempts have been made to irrigate the arid lands of the High Plains. Waters from mountain streams, from the rivers of the High Plains and from artesian wells have all been used in many such experiments since the tide of Western migration began. 
One other illustration appearing in a national publication should, however, be mentioned in this group of Worrall's work. Thomas Nast, the well-known illustrator, published in Harper's Weekly for August 10, 1872  a cartoon, "The Cat's-Paw.-Any Thing to Get Chestnuts," showing Boss Tweed (the monkey) wearing a Tammany collar using a cat's-paw to take hot chestnuts from a stove, the Goddess of Liberty looking on. The claim was made that Worrall had sent to Harper's Weekly a cartoon illustrating the fable of the monkey using a cat's-paw to take hot chestnuts from the fire with Uncle Sam looking on.  The cartoon had been photographed by Knight of Topeka before it was sent to the Weekly. The Weekly never acknowledged the receipt of the drawing but after three months the Nast cartoon appeared with the same composition but the figures changed to suit Nast's campaign against the Tweed ring; the title still remained the same as that used by Worrall, "The Cat's-Paw.-Any Thing to Get Chestnuts."
The illustration for which Worrall achieved his greatest local fame was a caricature, "Drouthy Kansas" (reproduced in the picture supplement). It appeared originally as the cover page of the Kansas Farmer for November, 1869, although it had received mention before this date,  and had been photographed by Knight,  the well-known Topeka photographer, and distributed as card photographs.
Strictly speaking, this caricature probably does not deserve recognition in this series of articles as it does not depict any real
scene in past Western life. To neglect it, however, would render our study of Worrall far from complete. Caricature was Worrall's strongest point, for he was not a skillful draftsman, but his everpresent sense of humor found its outlet in line drawings whose figures were readily recognizable and whose humor was particularly suited to the taste of Westerners. If Worrall's caricatures do not contribute greatly to our pictorial knowledge of past Western life they do contribute to our knowledge of Western taste and humor.
"Drouthy Kansas" will illustrate this point. It was drawn in 1869 when the climatic reputation of Kansas still suffered from the drought of 1860.  The late 1860's in Kansas, however, were years of heavy rainfall and good crops, facts to astonish the Eastern visitors who still beard the persistent tales of 1860. A group of Cincinnati friends of Worrall who came to Topeka in 1869 were evidently of the frame of mind described above. Before their arrival, Worrall made for their benefit the large charcoal sketch "Drouthy Kansas." It depicted men climbing ladders and using hatchets to cut ears of corn from huge stalks; watermelons so big that two men could stand on them; sweet potatoes that required a derrick to lift them from the ground, and wheat fields yielding 50 bushels to the acre. In the middle distance a river was shown swollen in flood with rain coming down in sheets and in the background a clearing sky and rainbow. The caricature proved immensely popular; it was talked about in the press, it was printed on the cover page of an issue of the Kansas Farmer and used as a broadside in advertising the same publication; it appeared in the widely distributed Resources of Kansas, by C. C. Hutchinson, published in 1871 as a handbook to attract settlers to Kansas, and it was painted on the drop curtain of Liberty Hall, an auditorium and theater in Lawrence. It was "the best advertisement for Kansas that was ever published" reported several Kansas papers.  The tide of enthusiasm for the cartoon finally turned, however. After the grasshopper year and drought of 1874, residents from the grasshopper belt made long journeys to cuss "the man who got up that 'picter.' . . . Delegations waited on him to inform him
that, had it not been for the diabolical seductiveness of that picture they would never have come to Kansas to be ruinated and undone by grasshoppers."  Other caricatures by Worrall we shall discuss later but it can be remarked in passing that this form of "art" constituted Worrall's most characteristic output.
A number of Worrall illustrations appear in The Rocky Mountain Tourist, a publication issued by the Santa Fe railroad to attract the tourist trade. A number of editions of this booklet were issued, all of which contained Worrall sketches. In the first edition (Topeka, 1877) signed sketches by Worrall included "The Grand Canon of the Arkansas-Royal Gorge"; "Carter's Farm, in Rice County"; "Display of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. at the Centennial [of 1876] ." In addition, there were two unsigned sketches, "Buffalo Trails" (as it is in characteristic Worrall style) and "Kansas Corn" which surely was drawn by Worrall as it depicts corn taller than a house. Sketches by other artists also appeared in the Tourist. Later editions contained still other Worrall sketches.  That most of the Worrall sketches in The Rocky Mountain Tourist were drawn from direct observation is confirmed by the following comment in the Topeka Commonwealth in 1877: "J. G. Pangborn and Henry Worrall, of this city, went west over the Santa Fe, with a view to see the country and get up `copy' for the next `Tourist's Guide.' Mr. Worrall will set on [sic] the extreme car and sketch the varying scene as the train glides along. We may expect some good sketches and pithy articles."  /P>
Another group of Worrall illustrations, many of considerable interest, appears in the Reports of the State Board of Agriculture for
the years 1875, 1876, and 1877-1878. For the most part they are views of Kansas towns and cities and were apparently made from direct observation. The illustrations in the Report for 1876, however, are sketches of the exhibits, displays and galleries in the Kansas-Colorado building at the centennial exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. Worrall played a very active part in collecting, preparing and arranging these exhibits. He was employed by the State Board of Agriculture beginning in the summer of 1875 and continued his task at the centennial itself until its close late in 1876.  To appreciate fully the importance which the State Board of Agriculture attached to the Kansas exhibit it must be recalled that the drought and grasshopper year of 1874, with its widespread publicity, was, in 1875, a very tender spot in the conscience of Kansas enthusiasts and every possible aid in presenting the best aspects of the state to the nation were considered. One prominent Kansan, looking back many years after the exhibit, wrote, "The best effort for encouraging immigration ever made by Kansas was her agricultural display at the Centennial Exposition," and, "the genius of Worrall" was credited as playing a part in its success. 
Twenty-five thousand copies of the Fourth Annual Report of the State Board of Agriculture were printed and distributed at the exposition to aid further in dispelling the gloom cast by the Kansas grasshopper year.  Here again Worrall played an important part, for the Report contained many Worrall illustrations.
The signed Worrall illustrations in this Fourth Agricultural Report, all woodcuts, include "Territorial Capitol Ruins, at Lecompton"; "Birdseye View of Burlington," dated "4-3-75"; "Mill and Water-Power [Junction City] "; "Views in Abilene and Vicinity" (includes "T. C. Henry's Fenceless Wheat Field at Abilene. Twelve Hundred Acres, July 1875"-reproduced in the picture supple-
ment);  "View of Leavenworth, From Pilot Knob," dated "7-1475" (reproduced in the picture supplement) ; "Blue Rapids [four views] "; "Rocky Ford, Pottawatomie County, Kansas," and "Manhattan From the Rail Road Bridge at the Mouth of Blue River."  In addition to the sketches listed above in the Fourth Report there are two others, "View of Atchison, From the East Bank of the Missouri River" (p. 193), and "View of Wyandotte and Vicinity" (p. 433), which were signed "R. W." It is quite probable that these are both Worrall's illustrations; either the artist who transferred the Worrall sketches to wood or the engraver who made the wood cuts converting the "H" to "R." Only one other signed sketch appears in the Fourth Report, "Bridge Over the Missouri River, at Atchison, Kansas" (p. 195), and its signature is "Merick," almost certainly the W. M. Merrick mentioned in Footnote 236 In addition to the two illustrations signed "R. W." there is an unsigned sketch in the Fourth Report (p. 409), "View of Topeka, the Capital of Kansas." It is quite probable that this sketch was drawn by Worrall; as he is known to have made other drawings of Topeka. 
The First Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture (1877-1878) contains two full-page illustrations credited to Worrall. Both, however, were reprinted from school geographies, copies of which have not been located. The first is a view of Topeka (p. 415) looking southwest across the Kansas river, the capitol building being on the extreme left and nearly on the horizon.  The illustration was reproduced from the "Kansas Edition of the Eclectic Geographies" and bears the notation "after Worrall." The second illustration (p. 454), taken from Mitchell's New Intermediate Geography, depicts the "Great Bend of the Missouri River [at Kansas City] ." As other Kansas illustrations appearing in the First
Biennial Report were taken from the same geography it is possible that they were drawn by Worrall and the artist not credited.  Other local publications containing Worrall illustrations are known. A booklet, 25 Years Ago, contains two reproductions of Worrall paintings.  As the paintings were of allegorical scenes, they are of little interest now. Promotional literature of land and railroad companies such as The Rocky Mountain Tourist, mentioned above, employed Worrall illustrations of Kansas on numerous occasions.  Such illustrations, it almost goes without saying, were designed to represent the most pleasing and attractive views possible.
State, county and local publications, historical and promotional are still other sources of Worrall illustrations; 42 and lastly large lithographic posters used in advertising state and county fairs were probably a still more fugitive form of Worrall's art. 
Historic Sketches of the Cattle Trade by Joseph G. McCoy was published in Kansas City in 1874.  It has been called by competent students a "classic work" and "one of the most valuable accounts of the cattle trade."  The point which concerns us in this classic of the West is the fact that a statement on the title page reads "Illustrated by Prof. Henry Worrall, Topeka, Kas." The illustrations, some 126 in number (plus 20 or 22 full-page advertisements as mentioned in Footnote 44), include 57 portraits, 53 views and 16 cartoons. The portraits were undoubtedly drawn on wood from photographs as were probably several of the illustrations listed as views. Most of the views are full page and depict various aspects of ranching, cattle drives, the packing house industries, and life in cattle towns, especially Abilene, the end of the Texas cattle trail in the early days of cattle shipping. The wood engravings are poor but nevertheless retain considerable value and interest. Some are purely imaginary;  others are given legends which do not correspond to fact. On p. 94 is the full-page illustration, "Col. O. W. Wheeler's Herd, En Route for Kansas Pacific Railway, in 1867." Obviously either the legend is incorrect or it was not drawn from life, for again, it may be remarked, Worrall was not in Kansas in 1867. Many years later, however, McCoy reproduced this illustration in an autobiographical sketch with the legend "Herd on the Trail Enroute to Wichita. Sketch Drawn in 1873 by Prof. Henry Worrell [sic] of Topeka."  Comparison of this illustration with the Frenzeny and Tavernier illustration of a trail herd approaching Wichita, also drawn in 1873,  shows some surprising
similarities. The trailing herd depicted in both cases shows the same form, a long sinuous line of similar curves with cowboys at intervals on both sides of the herd. One might guess that one illustration was drawn from the other but this possibility seems unlikely as both were published at practically the same time. 
Very probably the explanation of the similarity in the illustration, coupled with McCoy's statement, lies in a news item in the Topeka Commonwealth, October 11, 1873, p. 4, col. 3, which states "Paul Frenzeny and Jules Tavernier, artists and correspondents of Harper's Weekley [sic] , in company with Prof. Worrell [sic] , the well known artist of Topeka, are in Wichita for the purpose of taking sketches of that town and vicinity." It is thus a distinct possibility that the two illustrations depict the same scene. In some respects the Worrall illustration is the better of the two from the standpoint of factual knowledge. It shows a broader sweep of characteristic country and depicts the cattle as longhorns and not the Eastern cows of Frenzeny and Tavernier. The long horns of the longhorns, if the reader can gather my meaning, are not anatomically correct even in the Worrall illustration, but as already pointed out, the wood engravings in McCoy are all poorly executed so we have no way of determining whether the fault lies with the engraver or with Worrall. 
McCoy, in his autobiographical sketch previously noted, also reproduced and made comment in the legend on another of the Worrall illustrations. The illustration appeared originally under the title, "Winter Herding Upon the Upper Arkansas River.-Dennis Sheedy's Camp."  In the autobiographical account it appears under the title, "Camp Scene; Herd Awaiting Buyer on Kansas Range.-Sketch From Life Drawn in 1872 by Prof. Henry Worrell" (reproduced in the picture supplement) 
Bieber, who as we have pointed out, carefully edited McCoy's book in 1940, states in his preface that he "has reproduced the text of the first edition (of McCoy) in its entirety, but has omitted the advertisements and most of the crude illustrations which have little or no historic value." Six out of eight of the illustrations Bieber
From a photograph taken about 1890.
WAS PROVIDED IN FLORAL HALL AT THE TOPEKA FAIR GROUNDS.
SKETCHED BY WORRALL, JULY 14, 1875.
FROM A BROADSIDE PUBLISHED BY THE KANSAS FARMER IN 1869 OR 1870.
An illustration from W. E. Webb's "Buffalo Land" (1872). Although Worrall's depiction of the Unnaturalized Indian may show several anachronisms (note the cup), that of the "Naturalized" Native American may have been drawn from life, for frequent reference to drunken Indian on the streets of Topeka can be found in newspapers of the period.
From Joseph McCoy's "Historic Sketches of the Cattle Trade" (1874). The title given by McCoy in 1909 to this illustration reads: "Camp Scene: Herd Awaiting Buyers on Kansas Range. Sketch From Life Drawn in 1872" by Henry Worrall.
UPPER: Abilene and the much-discussed wheat field of T. C. Henry, July, 1875. The introduction of a foreground figure at an easel is a frequent feature of Worrall landscape illustrations.
uses, however, are from McCoy's original work, and five of them are Worrall's work.  Of the two additional illustrations employed by Bieber, one is a halftone reproduction of a photograph of McCoy and the other is a photograph entitled "Shipping Point for Texas Cattle, Abilene, Kansas, 1867. From a Photograph." The photograph is of value because it shows the type of cattle car in use in 1867 and depicts men's attire. But the source of Bieber's information concerning the photograph is not cited although his material in the text is fully documented. Such practices, as I have pointed out in the general introduction to this series, are common among professional and amateur historians alike when it comes to illustrations.  In addition, Bieber (without comment) has changed the titles of all five of the Worrall illustrations and in one has changed the locality of the scene depicted from Kansas City, Mo., to Kansas City, Kan.  We have already admitted that the woodcuts in McCoy are crude but they record many scenes of past life which are nowhere else available, and in general Worrall can be depended upon to give a fairly accurate portrayal of scenes which he actually observed. It is possible that Bieber's opinion may have been based on the Worrall cartoons in McCoy, which are, judged by present standards, certainly the crudest of the crude. At first sight they are of little historical value but it should be mentioned that they are important in a history of taste and humor, for apparently they were regarded as humorous in their day; otherwise the publishers would not have gone to the expense of preparing and printing them.
In W. E. Webb's Buffalo Land this same characteristic of Worrall appears in numerous caricatures and cartoons.  In fact this feature is even more pronounced in the Webb book than it is in McCoy and for good reason.
Buffalo Land is essentially a story of the humorous and sporting adventures of a group of individuals on the Great Plains of Kansas and Colorado. Webb has given fantastic and fictitious names to the members of his party and their story is told with a levity that is sometimes marked by a grisly humor. For instance, the party met a plainsman in a Topeka hotel who regaled them with the story of Western justice meted out to a mule thief. Webb gives the plainsman's account in verse:
We started arter that 'ere pup,
There is no evidence, either internal or external, that Worrall was a member of Webb's party, but with such text to guide him, Worrall must have found an illustrative job that fitted his own tastes and talents to a high degree, and "Hung for Contempt of Court" was one of Worrall's illustrations.  It should be remarked that
Worrall, in addition to possessing a sense of humor in agreement With the context of Buffalo Land, Was also Well acquainted With and had participated in just such excursions as the Webb party undertook (see pp. 262, 263). The illustrations in Buffalo Land (With the exception of a few credited as "From a Photograph") are therefore all imaginary but Were drawn by one Well qualified for the task. As in Historic Sketches of the Cattle Trade the illustrations are reproduced through the medium of the Wood cut. Although still crude, as judged by modern standards, the engraving Was better done in the Webb book than in McCoy's.
It should not be thought, however, that Webb's book and the Worrall illustrations are of value only as part of a history of American humor. The very frequent reference made to the book by present-day Writers on plains history of the 1870's is well deserved, for Buffalo Land had other aspects than simply humorous ones. The characters, whether real or fictitious, traveled through a real land where characteristics were ably and truthfully described. Extensive appendices are also given in the book for the benefit of homeseekers, sportsmen and would-be ranchers. "The information given concerning the matters treated of we can endorse as being entirely authentic; and it is information of interest and value, to Kansas and to the country at large. . . . The book is profusely illustrated from designs by Professor Henry Worrall, of Topeka-all of them good, and some of them, particularly the frontispiece, of striking excellence," reports The Kansas Magazine on the first appearance of the book.  Later in the same year The Kansas Magazine commented again on Buffalo Land:
Mr. Webb's book is written in a fresh and vigorous style, and gives the first really correct and satisfactory idea of the Plains country that has been published. It embraces the results of extensive personal experiences and observations within the last three years, and is not a mere reproduction, in a new garb, of what Greeley, Richardson and others saw and heard in their flying trips across the continent. Everything desirable to be known about the interesting region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains, for any purpose whatever, is told in a manner that leaves nothing to be guessed at; and the illustrations, from original designs of Professor Worrall, of Topeka, add materially to the naturalness and general attractiveness of the work. 
The Worrall illustrations in Buffalo Land despite their imaginary
character, We can therefore conclude are interesting and valuable-if humorous-records of past Western life.
Worrall painted frequently in oil. Many of these oils were portraits which from the standpoint of this series of articles would be of little interest, especially as his portrait work is not particularly good. However, as Worrall is a Kansan and therefore of local interest we should at least mention the Worrall material of this type now available. These portraits Were for the most part those of prominent Kansas citizens. Worrall essayed, however, a painting of Lincoln  the location of which is not now known.
The State Historical Society possesses oil portraits by Worrall of Judge John Guthrie,  Gov. James Madison Harvey, and Gov. Thomas Andrew Osborn (the most pleasing one of the group). In addition, the Historical Society has an oil portrait of Gov. A. H. Reeder (of territorial days and therefore probably painted after a photograph).  Other portraits painted by Worrall and reported in the press include Dr. F. L. Crane, Charles C. Whiting,  Col. Tom Moonlight, U. S. Marshal S. D. Houston,  and Miss Minnie Beals, "the Topeka Nightingale."  Probably there are many more Worrall portraits in Kansas homes but not otherwise recorded or remembered now. Probably, too, many of these paintings, treasured in their time, have gone the way of their flesh and blood originals.
In addition to the portraits, there are still available a number of other Worrall paintings or drawings that, for the most part, have clever been published. Also among the holdings of the State Historical Society are the following paintings: "Topeka From the West in 1870";  "Buffalo Herd" (dated 1871 and showing surveyors' stakes of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroad) ;
"First House in Topeka" (reproduced in the Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 12, facing p. 152), and "The Kansas Exhibit" (interior at the centennial exhibition of 1876).68 Another Worrall painting with which U. S. Vice-Pres. Charles Curtis was familiar was of the famous Pappan ferry near Topeka on the Oregon trail and which Curtis said Worrall painted from imagination "as it appeared in 1854." 
In somewhat the same class but on a larger scale was a huge panoramic view of Kansas in which Worrall depicted the inevitable prairie schooner in the foreground. Slung beneath the wagon was the familiar bucket and trailing close behind was a big "yaller" dog. The background was interspersed "with hills, valleys, prairies, farms, forests, rivers, railroads, cities, towns, coal mines and other things." 
Among the additional drawings reported, but apparently no longer extant, was one of especial interest. It was the remnant of the Daniel Morgan Boone settlement of about 1827 some ten miles above Lawrence on the Kansas river and drawn by Worrall about 1900.  It is unfortunate that this pictorial record of the connection of the son of the famous Daniel Boone with Kansas has been lost.
Two groups of very interesting Worrall sketches have been preserved by the State Historical Society. They were drawn by Worrall when on buffalo hunts in western Kansas in 1871 and 1873. Their preservation is due to the fact that Knight (see Footnote 72) photographed them, since the photographs, not the original sketches, are available. In addition to the sketches, newspaper accounts of the latter hunt have also been found. A party of prominent Topekans left- their city on a "special train for the plains in search of buffalo, grizzley bear, antelope, saddle-rock oysters, peppermint, stoghten bitters and herring." The Kansas Pacific railroad provided the party with a special car and presumably special provi-
sions and refreshments.  Such trips were not uncommon in their day, for buffalo shooting from excursion trains of the Kansas Pacific was a frequently advertised feature.  The "party," planned to last a week, traveled west to the railroad boom towns of Sheridan and Kit Carson, then south on a short line connecting the Kansas Pacific with the Santa Fe railroad at Las Animas, Colo. From Las Animas the trip was made by coach and rail to Denver and the return then made over the Kansas Pacific to Topeka. Worrall, the Commonwealth reported, shot the first of 68 buffalo killed on the excursion; in addition their bag included 11 antelope. Many of the incidents of the trip Worrall included in small cartoon sketches, one of which was the famous trestle bridge near the town of Sheridan which was so frequently employed, according to story, for the purposes of frontier justice. 
Henry Worrall died in Topeka on June 20, 1902, at the. age of 77. According to one of his well-known contemporaries, T. C. Henry, he was "a man whose unique public services Kansas should honor."  Important and useful as were his many contributions to the state, his public services have been until now long since forgotten. This brief review of some of those contributions is a belated reminder to present-day Kansans of a predecessor who gave generously of his time and talents in the state's development. "All his life has been devoted to art. His ability, taste and judgment have often been of great service to the people of Topeka and Kansas and he did much for the advancement of art in the middle West," was the judgment of the Topeka Herald in commenting on Worrall's life. 
I am indebted to Miss Helen McFarland, librarian of the Kansas State Historical Society, and to Miss Maud Smelser, accession librarian of the University of Kansas, Lawrence, for bibliographical information concerning the McCoy and Webb books mentioned in the text. The aid of J. W. Valentine of Kansas City, a personal friend of Henry Worrall, is also gratefully acknowledged, but most of all I am indebted to the dean of Kansas historians, George Root of the State Historical Society, whose voluminous knowledge of past Kansas life and past Kansans (Mr. Root was also a personal friend of Henry Worrall) is a genuine asset to the state. Mr. Root not only generously gave me his notes on Henry Worrall but supplied many personal recollections as well.
DR. ROBERT TAFT, of Lawrence. is professor of chemistry at the University of Kansas and editor of the Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. He is author of Photography And the American Scene (Macmillan, 1938), and Across the Years On Mount Oread (University of Kansas, 1941).1. For a brief summary of art in Kansas up to 1928, see Edna Reinbach, "Kansas Art and Artists," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 17 (1926-1928), pp. 571-585. In passing, it might be observed that the history of art in Kansas deserves a modern and extensive study. In 1940, Harry Still of Lawrence claimed that his grandfather, Henry Still, made the sketch in the Weekly for September 5, 1863. Henry Still, according to his grandson, lived in Tonganoxie, some 15 miles from Lawrence, and he visited Lawrence the day of the raid and made drawings. Sketching was Still's hobby, according to the younger Still, and after making the drawings they were sent to the Weekly. Harry Still refers only to the sketch in the issue of the Weekly for September 5, 1863, but it seems more probable, from the legends of the two drawings stated above, that the second drawing may have been an attempt at factual depiction of Lawrence after the raid by Still. Still may have drawn the first illustration but the action it portrayed was undoubtedly imaginary.
2. There were other Kansans who contributed scenes of Kansas events to the illustrated press in the early years of the state, but the work of such artists is usually difficult to identify. For instance, Lawrence during the Quantrill raid of 1863 was depicted in Harper's Weekly, v. 7 (September 5, 1863), p. 564 (full page). The illustration is not signed nor does the legend or the text in the Weekly make any attempt to identify the artist; it is quite probable that the illustration was purely imaginary. In the issue of the Weekly for September 19. 1863, p. 604, however, there appears the full-page illustration, "The Ruins of Lawrence, Kansas-Sketched by a Correspondent."
While on the topic of early Kansas sketches. several very interesting ones of Atchison appear in Harper's Weekly for 1866: "Eastern Terminus of Butterfield's Overland Route, Atchison, Kansas," "Driving the First Spike on the Atchison and Pike's Peak Railroad," and "Butterfield's Overland Mail-Coach Starting Out From Atchison, Kansas," in the issue of January 27, 1866, v. 10, p. 56, and "Commercial Street, Atchison, Kansas" in the issue of July 28, 1866, p. 476. All four sketches are credited to "William M. Merrick." William Marshall Merrick was undoubtedly a citizen of Kansas when the sketches were made, for according to George Byron Merrick, Genealogy of the Merrick-Mirick-Merck Family of Massachusetts (Madison, Wis., 1902), p. 360, a daughter of William was born in Atchison on March 11, 1866, and another in Lawrence on September 29, 1868. Merrick himself was born in 1833 in Wilbraham, Mass., and &t the time the above Genealogy was published in 1902, he was "a draughtsman by profession, with his office in Chicago." No subsequent data on Merrick has been found.
This footnote might well be extended into some pages if all the minor (minor in number. but not in interest) illustrators of Kansas were considered. Note, of course, that we are restricting ourselves for the moment to Kansas illustrations by citizens of Kansas. Traveling artists, such as Frenzeny and Tavernier, considered in the first number of this series, have left important pictorial records of Kansas. Again, we cannot make a complete survey of such artists at present but the first sketch-at least it is the first sketch in my records-made in Kansas may be noted here. It was "War Dance in the Interior of a Konza Lodge" and was drawn by the artist Samuel Seymour on August 24, 1819, near the site of Manhattan.-See Edwin James' Account of an Expedition From Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, first published in Philadelphia, 1823. A reprint of this account (after an English edition) appears as volumes 14-17 in R. G. Thwaites, ed., Early Western Travels (Cleveland, 1905). The citation to the Seymour illustration will be found in v. 14 of the Thwaites edition, p. 209, and the illustration on the opposite page.
3. Part of the biographical information on Worrall stated above and in the text which follows will be found in obituary notices in the Topeka Capital, June 21, 1902, p. 6, col. 4 ; Topeka Herald, June 21, 1902, p. 1, col. 3; Topeka State Journal, June 21, 1902, p. 5, cols. 1, 2. J. W. Valentine (see Footnote 5) who was for many years an intimate friend of Worrell, wrote me on January 5, 1946, that Worrall was so despondent as a youth in Cincinnati that he twice attempted to commit suicide.
4. Kansas Historical Collections, v. 3 (1883-1885), p. 459. The Prentis speech was made, along with many other speeches, in Topeka on January 29, 1886; the comment above, of course, unwittingly reveals the public attitude toward art in 1886-for art in Kansas in 1886 was a matter discussed only by women.
5. Worrall's early musical activities in Topeka are recorded in the Topeka State Record, January 17, 1869, p. 4, col. 2; April 28, 1869, p. 2, cola 1; Topeka Commonwealth, October 13, 1869, p. 3. col. 3; his artistic activities in ibid., August 4, 1869, p. 3, col. 1; November 23, 1869, p. 3, col. 1; State Record, April 2, 1870, p. 4, col. 3; his grape culture in ibid., October 28, 1870, p. 4, col. 1; Commonwealth, March 31, 1875, p. 4, col. 1. The State Record for July 1, 1870, p. 4, col. 1, reports Prof. Henry "Worrell [sic] makes one of his characteristic speeches tonight at the Congregational [raspberry] Festival, and plays on his wood and straw piano." The Valley Republican, Kinsley, reported on February 23, 1878, p. 3, col. 2: "Our Kansas artist, who has a reputation almost national, Prof. Worrell, entertained a Kinsley audience last Saturday evening with one of his interesting crayon and musical programmes. The verdict of rich, rare, and racy was voted unanimously. Prof. Worrall is a genius and a gentleman, and he can always secure a full house here. Come again." The Topeka State Record, August 23, 1870, p. 4, col. 2, states Henry Worrall perpetrated a "sell" on George W. Crane.
Worrall's musical activities in Cincinnati were described by J. W. Valentine of Kansas City, Mo., in letters to the author dated January 4 and 5, 1946. Worrall apparently was a teacher in a conservatory of music in Cincinnati. He played not only the guitar on which he was a real expert, but the violin, the viola, the flute, the double bass and other instruments. For a time he traveled with a celebrated violinist, Tasso by name, as accompanist. Mr. Worrall met his wife, according to Mr. Valentine, at the Cincinnati conservatory where he gave her guitar lessons.
6. These caricatures began to appear early in his Topeka career. The Topeka Commonwealth, August 4, 1869, p. 3, col. 1, states: "Worrell, the prince of artists and musicians, has concocted and executed a most admirable burlesque on the picture of the infantile group of the Commonwealth proprietors, recently taken by Capt. Knight [a well-known Topeka photographer] . A peep at Worrall's carricature is worth more than a physician's prescription for the worst case of biliousness. Knight has taken photographic copies of the carricature"; and on May 11, 1871, p. 4, col. 2, the Commonwealth, "At McMeekin's is a fine engraving, executed by Topeka's celebrated artist and caricaturist, Prof. [Henry] Worrall, of Wild Bill [Hickok, the famed marshal of Abilene] 'toting' on his shoulder the refractory and absconding councilman of Abilene. Knight has photographed it.
7. Mr. Valentine now in his eighties, so wrote me on January 4, 1946.
8. Worrall's illustrations, when signed, have signatures in various forms. Probably "H. Worrall" was used the most frequently but in addition Worrall," H. W.," W" and occasionally an "H" superimposed over a "W" are employed.
9. Glenn Danford Bradley, The Story of the Santa Fe (Boston, 1920), pp. 151, 152. The Denver and Rio Grande narrow gauge from Pueblo had crossed the mountains (through Vets pass) and had reached Fort Garland in the San Luis valley in 1877
10. A glowing account of the trip over the pass appears in the New York Semi-Weekly Tribune, January 29. 1878, p. 5, col. 1, and Helen Hunt (Jackson) had likewise described its wonders in "A New Anvil Chorus," Scribner's Magazine, v. 15. (January, 1878), pp, 386-395. The article is credited in the index of Scribner's to "H. H."
11. According to Bradley, op. cit., p 204 the New Mexico and Southern Railroad Company reached Las Vegas on July 4 1879
12. Harper's Weekly, v. 21 (September 22 1877) p 748. For a modern revew of this famous border battle see James C. Malin, John Brown And the Legend of Fifty-Six (Philadelphia, 1942), pp, 619-628.
13. For the significance of the John Brown monument as a part of the John Brown legend, see ibid., ch. 14.
14. Harper's Weekly, v. 23 (February 8, 1879), pp. 105, 106; see, also, Topeka Commonwealth January 14, 1879, p 3 cols. 2-4.
15. Kansas, American Guide Series (New York, 1939), p. 329. For studies of the Negro colonization in Kansas during the 1870's, see Nell Blythe Waldron, The Colonies Organized by the Negro Race." in "Colonization in Kansas From 1861 to 1890," doctor's dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., 1923, pp. 121-131; also Lee Ella Blake, "The Great Exodus of 1879 and 1880 to Kansas," master's thesis, Kansas State College, Manhattan, 1942. The Blake study includes a letter of Gov. John P. St. John, dated January 16, 1880, which states "that since last April, 15,000 to 20,000 colored refugees have arrived in Kansas." The statement of Senator Ingalls given in the text will be found in Harper's Weekly, v. 23 (July 5 1879) p 534; see also, ibid. (May 17, 1879), pp. 384, 386.
16. That outside aid was very real is shown by the fact that the Kansas Central Relief Committee received donations from outside the state of nearly $75,000 in cash, $75,000 in army rations, and 265 carloads of supplies, among other contributions.-Kansas Central Relief Committee, Report of the Executive Board (Topeka, 1875), pp. 8-7.
17. Harper's Weekly, v. 28 (April 5, 1884), pp. 223, 224.
18. Hermann Hagedorn, Roosevelt in the Bad Lands (Boston, 1930), appendix, p. 482.
19. For a review of the Kansas political troubles of 1893, see Kansas Historical Collections, v. 16 (1923-1925), pp. 425-431.
20. For contemporary newspaper accounts of the opening of the Cherokee strip see the Arkansas City Daily Traveler, September 12-19, 1893. The issue of the Traveler for September 16, 1893, p. 1, has five illustrations depicting various aspects of the opening of the strip all of which are signed "D. Gibson." As one of them depicts an incident that took place on September 16 the illustration must represent an imaginary event. It is my guess that Gibson was an illustrator for a metropolitan newspaper sent to cover the event. For photographs of the opening of the strip, see Leslie's Weekly, September 28, 1893, p. 208 (the photographs are credited to Rogers, Wichita"); and in more recent times "Strip" photographs can be found in George Rainey, The Cherokee Strip (Guthrie, Okla., 1933).
21. The Reports of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture indicate that suggestions and attempts for irrigation were solutions often sought in the relief relief of arid western Kansas, especially after the large influx of immigrants to the region in the early 1880's followed by the disastrous drought of 1887; see, for example, "Irrigation for Homesteaders in Western Kansas," Seventh Biennial Report of the State Board of Agriculture (1889-1890), Pt. II, pp. 219-223, and Ninth Biennial Report (1894-1895), pp. 324-379; see, also, James C. Malin, Winter Wheat in the Golden Belt of Kansas (Lawrence, 1944), pp. 90. 91, for earlier suggestion on irrigation. Worrall, himself, had a signed review of irrigation in western Kansas in the issue of Harper's Weekly that contained his illustrations (September 29, 1894, p. 931).
22. Full page, p. 624.
23. Topeka Commonwealth, August 4, 1872, p. 4, col. 4. This item, a letter to the editor, complained not only of this Worrall-Nast cartoon but of the "smouging" of other Topeka pictures by both Harper's Weekly and Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper.
The reference to Leslie's in this letter strongly suggests that a group of important Kansas illustrations appearing in Leslie's for 1871-1872 were the work of Worrall. The group (listed below) are sometimes credited "By our special artist" and several have the signature "Bghs" appearing on them. "Bghs" was Albert (Alfred?) Berghaus, a member of the Leslie's art staff who undoubtedly redrew the signed illustrations. The possible Worrall sketches include: "Shooting Buffalo on the Line of the Kansas Pacific" (full page), Leslie's, June 3, 1871, p. 193; Loading Cattle at Abilene," ibid., August 19, 1871, p. 385; "Buffalo Hunt of Grand Duke Alexis," ibid., February 3, 1872, p. 325; Whiskey on the Plains," ibid., February 3, 1872, p. 328; Cartoons on the Buffalo hunt by Grand Duke Alexis, "By our special artist, from a telegraph pole," ibid., February 10, 1872, p. 349.
24. Topeka Daily Commonwealth, September 23, 1869, p. 3, col. 3; D. W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas (Topeka, 1886), pp. 509, 510, states that the cartoon was published in the Kansas Farmer, November, 1869. This issue, however, is lacking from the file of the Farmer available in the State Historical Society.
25. For Capt. J. Lee Knight, see Robert Taft, "A Photographic History of Early Kansas," Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 3 (1934), pp. 3-14.
26. For the great drought of 1860 see the discussion by James C. Malin, "Dust. Storms," in ibid., v. 14 (May, 1946), pp. 137-144.
27. For "Drouthy Kansas," see Topeka Commonwealth, September 23, 1869, p. 3, col. 3; March 31, 1875, p. 4, col. 1. The sketch is reproduced (full page) on p. 41 of Hutchinson's Resources of Kansas (Topeka, 1871). The State Historical Society possesses one of the advertising broadsides of the Kansas Farmer as well as a duplicate in oil of the sketch. The original sketch was a charcoal drawing according to some of the above contemporary accounts. The Report of the State Board of Agriculture 1873 (Topeka, 1873), reported (p. 47) that "Prof. Henry Worrall exhibited the original sketch of `Drouthy Kansas' so widely copied and well known at the exhibition of the State Agricultural Society in September, 1870.
28. Topeka Commonwealth, March 31, 1875, p. 4, col. 3.
29. I have seen three editions of The Rocky Mountain Tourist, all are credited to J. G. Pangborn as author or editor. The first edition mentioned in the text is dated "Topeka, 1877." The second, not greatly different from the first is also dated "Topeka. 1877." The third edition was called The New Rocky Mountain Tourist and San Juan Guide (Chicago, 1878), and was more extensively illustrated. Pages 5-20, inclusive, of this edition are devoted to southwestern Kansas and the Arkansas valley and the illustrations in this section appear to be exclusively after Worrall drawings although other Worrall sketches appear elsewhere in the volume. Among the more important of these views are: "Larned From the East," "Rice County-Sterling & Vicinity," "Looking Up the Walnut Valley From Bissils Point," "Great Bend and Vicinity," "Larned and Vicinity," "Kinsley and Vicinity," "A Prairie-Dog Town," and six Colorado sketches. Most of the Colorado mountain illustrations, however, were done by the well-known artist. Thomas Moran.
30. Topeka Commonwealth, October 7, 1877, p. 4, cod. 2. Kinsley views by Worrall from the third edition of the Rocky Mountain Tourist appear in the Edwards County Leader, Kinsley. for March 14, 1878, p. 2. In addition to the illustrations from this edition of the Tourist, the Leader (p. 3) reproduced two other illustrations not appearing in the Tourist. One, "A Bird's Eye View of Kinsley and the Arkansas Valley." is signed by Worrall and the other, "A Prairie Scene in the North Part of Edwards County," has no discernible signature but was probably based on a Worrall sketch. Both illustrations are very poorly reproduced. The issue of the Leader for March 28, 1878, also contains Worrall illustrations but they are centennial views from the Fifth Annual Report of the State Board of Agriculture cited in Footnote 31. That Worrall was in Kinsley earlier in 1878 is shown by the comment cited on page 243, and by the Valley Republican, Kinsley, of February 23, 1878, p. 2, where a statement was made that "Prof. Worrall sketched the neat new residence of Judge Reed, on the avenue, Saturday." I am indebted to Prof. James C. Malin for these three items from Kinsley papers.
31. "Report of the Centennial Managers" in the Fifth Annual Report of the State Board of Agriculture (Topeka, 1877), pp. 211. 228, 234. Worrall began employment with the state board on July 12, 1875, and was paid $1,500 a year and his traveling expenses as he went about the state collecting materials for exhibits. While at the centennial he was paid at the rate of $2,000 a year with the additional provision that "his return trip [was] to be paid." The report is profusely illustrated and many of the illustrations (wood engravings) were doubtless taken from photographs. Worrall's illustrations, including a number of full page ones, deal with Kansas exhibits. They are signed usually by the initials "H. W." and some are dated.
32. George W. Veale, "Coming In and Going Out," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 11 (1909-1910), pp. 5-12. Veale in Footnote 8 of his article makes mention of Worrall's "genius." Worrall's accomplishments at the centennial, however, were recognized at that time. Not long after his return from Philadelphia, Topeka citizens honored him for his work there with an elaborate benefit. In the Topeka Commonwealth, January 4, 1877, p. 4, over a column and a half is devoted to a description of the benefit and it is specifically stated that Worrall's "taste and ingenuity had much to do with the success of that show.
See, also, ibid., November 3, 1876, p. 4, col. 2. Worrall's worth to Kansas had already been recognized by a still earlier benefit in 1875. ibid., March 31, 1875, p. 4, col. 3.
33. "Report of the Centennial Managers" (cited in Footnote 31), p, 237.
34. T. C. Henry in Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9 (1905-1906), pp. 502-506, stated that Worrall interviewed him and illustrated his famous wheat field for "a Chicago newspaper." From the context of the Henry article it would appear that the interview was in 1875 and Worrall may have used his illustrative material for both the Chicago paper and the Fourth Report.
35. Fourth Annual Report of the State Board of Agriculture. The views in the order listed appear on pp. 64, 234. 245, 250, 313, 331, 379, and 394. The State Board of Agriculture presumably employed Worrall to make the sketches for them. For example, the Topeka Commonwealth reports (April 2, 1875, p. 4, col. 1): Prof. Henry Worrall "hied him to Burlington to take a birds-eye view of that town, for the state board of agriculture." Note that the date of this item is in agreement with the date on the illustration of Burlington cited in the text.
36. A sketch of a proposed bridge over the Missouri at Leavenworth was also drawn by Merrick and reproduced in Hutchinson, op. cit., p. 54.
37. See Topeka Commonwealth, June 14, 1870, p. 4, col. 4, and Footnote 38.
38. The view of Topeka mentioned above (in the Fourth Report) looks directly south across the Kansas river with Kansas avenue lying nearly in the middle of the illustration. The Commonwealth for July 31, 1878, p. 4, col. 1, mentions the view of Topeka appearing in the First Biennial Report and states that it was drawn for "a geography of Kansas which is being prepared by Van Antwerp, Bragg & Co., Cincinnati."
39. The First Biennial Report is unusually good about crediting its sources of illustrations, a custom not common in the 1870's. Many of the illustrations were from photographs and the photographer is credited. Two are credited to other artists; one a sketch of Monument Rocks in Gove county is credited to S. W. Williston, later a well-known Kansas scientist, and the other is a sketch of the small town of Oberlin, Decatur county, credited in the text to H. W. Pollitz of Oberlin.
40. F. L. Crane, 25 Years Ago (Topeka, 1879). Crane refers to the Worrall paintings on p. 4.
41. Although I have made no systematic examination of such material I have seen a number of such illustrations. Kansas in 1875 (Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad, pub., Topeka, 1875) contains a full-page illustration by Worrall, "The Arkansas Valley Near Great Bend, Kansas." A number of Worrall illustrations appear in B. C. Keeler's Where To Go To Become Rich (Chicago, 1880). On p. 29 of this guide to wealth there appears a group of three illustrations bearing the legend "Mennonite Farm, Line of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad," credited to Worrall. One of this group was reproduced in a German handbook Neustes von Kansas (J. S. Richter, Hamburg, Germany, 188?), also a publication tract of the A.T.&S.F., p. 42, under the title "Das Dorf [village] Gnadenau in Marion County, Kansas." It should, of course, be noted that a given Worrall illustration frequently appears in more than one publication as is the case in the instance cited here.
42. The Andreas-Cutler History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883). for example, contains two and possibly three Worrall illustrations (pp. 179, 756, 1370). Again I have made no systematic examination of such literature which totals a considerable volume. At times the quality of illustrative work in such material may reach a high level. The really elegant-yes, elegant is the proper word-lithographic illustrations in the Official State Atlas of Kansas (L. H. Everts & Co., Philadelphia, 1887). are especially notable. Although these illustrations (some measure 12 by 15 inches in size) depict conditions in a prim, orderly and very precise manner they nevertheless give a comprehensive view of Kansas homes, farms and towns in 1887. I do not mean to imply that the illustrations were Worrall's work; in fact they do not resemble Worrall's "art" at all and none of the illustrations is signed. In the "Preface" of the above volume the only comment made on the source of the illustrations is the statement "agents and artists were sent into every portion of the State" in securing material for the book. If Worrall was one of the artists thus sent, the lithographer has removed any trace of Worrall's individuality in the final illustrations.
43. The Topeka Commonwealth, June 24, 1871. p. 4, col. 2, states "Prof. [Henry] Wornall has has drawn a sketch of the state fair grounds. . . The drawing has been sent to Chicago to be engraved for the posters of the state agricultural society." Somewhat similar to this type of work, were sketches and water colors made by Worrall of proposed improvements. For instance, the Commonwealth, July 11. 1872, p. 4, col. 3. reports that Worrall was engaged to prepare a landscape view for the proposed ornamentation of the Washburn college campus; and the Commonwealth, May 28, 1887, p. 5, col. 3, states "The Boston syndicate's intentions on Martin's hill in the way of landscape and other art are portrayed on canvas by Professor Worrall. There will be a base ball ground, boulevards, promenades, circle rail road, lake, observatory and everything necessary in a first class summer resort."
44. According to Ralph P. Bieber who edited a reprint of McCoy's book, as Southwest Historical Series, v. 8 (Glendale, Cal., 1940), pp. 65, 66, the McCoy book appeared originally as a series of joint articles by McCoy and J. Parker Mitchner in The Cattle Trail, a weekly Kansas City paper. McCoy collected and enlarged the series and published it under the title given above in the text. A facsimile reprint of McCoy's book was also published by The Rare Book Shop, Washington, D. C., in 1932. The latter is an admirable supplement to Bieber s exhaustive and painstaking work, for it gives the student an exact copy of McCoy's original book (now a collector's item and very scarce), while the Glendale reprint makes no attempt to render the McCoy book in facsimile and omits many of the cruder illustrations and the very interesting and useful advertisements appearing in McCoy's original edition. Incidentally there must be at least two bindings or printings of McCoy's original work, for the reprint of 1932 contains two pages of advertisements between pages 22 and 23 which do not occur in 1874 editions (University of Kansas and State Historical Society copies) which I have examined.
45. The first comment is that of James C. Malin, "Notes on Historical Literature of the Range Cattle Industry," Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 1 (1931-1932), p. 74, and the second is by E. E. Dale, The Range Cattle Industry (Norman, Okla., 1930), p. 204.
46. For example, on p. 25 of McCoy there appears the illustration, "Mobbing Dougherty in Southwest Missouri," which is supposed to depict a scene in 1866 before Worrall came West; in the same category is "Abilene in 1867" on p. 45.
47. Joseph G. McCoy, "Historic and Biographic Sketch," Kansas Magazine, Wichita, v. 2, December, 1909, pp. 45-55.
48. See the first article in this series, Kansas Historical Quarterly, February, 1946. opposite p. 32.
49. The McCoy book was out by May 28, 1874, as notice of it appeared in the Wichita Eagle for that date (cited by Bieber, op. cit., p. 66); the Frenzeny and Tavernier illustration appeared in Harper's Weekly, v. 18 (May 2, 1874), p. 386.
50. For a more satisfactory depiction of the long horns see the advertisements of Hunter, Evans & Co. or of White, Allen & Co., in the advertising pages of McCoy, op. cit. The artist who has spent the greatest study and care in depicting the long horn is Henry W. Caylor of Texas. His work will be discussed in more detail later in this series.
51. McCoy, op. cit., p. 394.
52. McCoy in Kansas Magazine, December, 1909, p. 47.
53. I am assuming that all illustrations in McCoy's book, with the exception of the portraits which were probably engraved directly from photographs, were drawn by Worrall. This assumption is based on the statement on the title page of McCoy and his brief mention of Worrall in the autobiographical account. It is true that two of the illustrations in McCoy's original book are signed "Beal-Del" and one "F. Lundsley Del." (Worrall's signature nppears with any definiteness on only one illustration.) The illustration signed by Lundsley, a cartoon, is so typically Worrall's that the above signatures have little, meaning. In fact it was not an uncommon practice in the days of wood engraving for an artist in redrawing another artist's work on wood, to sign his own name rather than that of the original artist. Frequently, too, the wood engraver put his initials in but he usually had the good grace to affix "Se" after them. The engraving firm, also, usually had to get their advertisement into the illustration as well.
54. For the sake of record, the photograph of the Abilene stockyard used by Bieber was taken in Abilene in the fall of 1867 by Alexander Gardner. It approximates Gardner's view No. 115 of the Kansas State Historical Society's collection or Gardner's view No. 25 at the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis.-See Robert Taft, Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 3 (1934), pp. 3-14; v. 6 (1937), pp. 175-177.
55. Bieber, op. cit., gives the five illustrations (which are most excellently reproduced) on pages 161, 207, 269, 327, and 351. The corresponding illustrations in McCoy, op. cit., appear on pages 94, 140, 205, 273, and 306. The transposition in localities occurs on page 327 in Bieber (the corresponding illustration is on page 273 of McCoy); on page 275 of McCoy is an illustration, "View of Kansas Stock Yards," which presumably was located at Kansas City, Kan. The omission of the advertisements in McCoy made by Bieber is not justified in the writer's opinion. In addition to lending "atmosphere" they do have a definite historical value despite Bieber's statement. I have found them useful for several purposes; see Footnote 50, for example.
56. The copy I have used is W. E. Webb, Buffalo Land (Cincinnati and Chicago: E. Hannaford & Company. San Francisco: F. Dewing & Co., 1872). I have seen a Library of Congress card for the book cited as above and another Library of Congress card reading the same as above save that of the San Francisco publisher. The American Catalogue (New York, 1880), p. 791, lists the same title with the publisher, Maclean, Philadelphia, 1872, and Henry Farrfield Osborn, Cope: Master Naturalist (Princeton, N. J., 1931), p. 703, cites still another publisher for Webb, "Hubbard Bros., Philadelphia, 1872." The American Catalogue, p. 16, states of Maclean, now ceased publication." The British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books (London, 1884), v. 55, lists an edition of Buffalo Land for "Philadelphia, 1873."
The subtitle of Buffalo Land reads, "An Authentic Account of the Discoveries, Adventures, and Mishaps of a Scientific and Sporting Party in the Wild West. . . Replete with Information, Wit, and Humor." The illustrations are credited on the title page, "From actual photographs, and original drawings by Henry Worrall."
57. Buffalo Land, p. 76.
58. I have made some effort to determine if Webb's account is that of a real expedition or not. The expedition, which Webb reports, seems to have taken place in the fall of 1868. On page 366 of his book Webb speaks of the death of Dr. Moore (J. H. Mooers) and Lieutenant Beecher as a recent event. Both of these men were killed on September 17, 1868, at the Battle of Beecher's Island on the Arickaree in eastern Colorado. The frontispiece by Worrall bears the date "'69." Webb also quotes at long length from a report by the naturalist, E. D. Cope (pp. 339-365 of Buffalo Land). Cope's full-length report from which the above-mentioned excerpt was taken appears in Survey of Montana, Fifth Annual Report of Progress (Washington, 1872) Pt. 111, pp. 318-349. Cope, in the full-length report, speaks several times of Webb (pp. 319, 325, 336, and on p. 327 Cope refers to "my friend Dr. Wm. E. Webb of Topeka". Henry Fairfield Osborn, Cope: Master Naturalist, discusses Cope's trips to Kansas in search of paleontological material but Cope's first Western trip was not made until 1871. Cope (Osborn, op. cit., p. 161) in a letter dated Topeka, September 7, 1871, stated that he was planning a special expedition in November, 1871, "with Webb to combine fossils and land business. Such an opportunity is very fine with a man who knows the ground." No subsequent letters of Cope appear in Osborn that would indicate whether the trip was made or not and Dr. Edwin H. Colbert of the American Museum of Natural History, who is preparing a biography of Cope, writes me that he has been unable to find any letters of Cope (or field notes) that would indicate whether the Webb-Cope expedition was made.
This extensive note is made as there is the possibility that Webb's character "Professor Paleozoic" was Cope, but it now appears unlikely. Prof. O. C. Marsh was another pioneer paleontological collector in western Kansas but an examination of Charles Schuchert's and Clara Mae LeVene's O. C. Marsh (New Haven, 1940), makes it appear unlikely that Marsh had any connection with Webb. Still another possibility, if Webb's character "Professor Paleozoic" had an actual prototype, is Prof. B. F. Mudge, for many years geologist of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture. Mudge was a collector for Marsh (see O. C. Marsh cited above) and is known to have made many collecting expeditions; see letters by a member of Mudge's party in Leavenworth Conservative, November 2. 4, 10, 12, 1869 (each letter is printed on page 2).
Still another possibility is that Webb conducted a party through western Kansas consisting of Louis Agassiz (the well-known naturalist of Harvard University), Sen. Roscoe Conkling of New York, Samuel Hooper of Boston, J. P. Usher, Secretary of the Interior in Lincoln's cabinet, and others. Agassiz and the party were in Leavenworth in August, 1868 (Leavenworth Conservative, August 28, 1868, p. 1, cols. 1, 2) and went to the end of the rail on the Kansas Pacific and then overland to Denver, returning east by way of the Union Pacific through Nebraska.-Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, Louis Agassiz (Boston, 1886), v. 2, p. 661. Some connection with the National Land Company (of which Webb was manager) and Agassiz is indicated by a paragraph in the Topeka State Record, November 4, 1868, p. 2, col. 2, and by a statement in Buffalo Land (p. 326) in discussing the fossil remains of a huge reptile discovered by the party near Sheridan, Kan. "It" (the fossil), writes Webb, "now rests in the museum at Cambridge, Massachusetts."
There is, of course, the possibility that the Webb expedition was a composite of several expeditions. The Kansas Magazine, Topeka, v. 2 (July, 1872), p. 100, states that Buffalo Land "embraces the results of extensive personal experiences and observations within the last three years."
Webb was "a gentleman well known throughout the State in connection with land and immigration affairs."-The Kansas Magazine, v. 1 (April, 1872), p. 383. The title page of Buffalo Land cites him as "W. E. Webb of Topeka, Kansas" and Andreas-Cutler, History of the State of Kansas, p. 1291, states that in 1866 a party from St. Louis, including W. E. Webb, selected lands for colonization in the vicinity of present Hays. F. E. Haas, register of deeds of Ellis county, wrote me under date of April 15, 1946, that William E. Webb acquired title to the SW1/4 of 33-138-18W from the Union Pacific Railway company by warranty deed dated October 26, 1868; this quarter section is now part of the townsite of Hays. Webb's name can occasionally be found in the Topeka papers for the period under discussion. For example, the Commonwealth, August 4, 1869, p. 3, col. 2, describes preparations for a Western trip over the K. P. R. W. by a party including "Dr. Webb and wife, of the National Land Company," and the State Record on January 20, 1869, p. 4, col. 1, reports the marriage of "Dr. W. E. Webb, the Manager of the National Land Company."
Webb was also the author of two articles entitled, "Way Down South Among the Cotton," published in The Kansas Magazine, v. 1 (May, 1872), pp. 406-415; (June, 1872), pp. 518-522, and "Neb, the Devil's Own," v. 2 (August, 1872), pp. 128-133. The latter article recites presumably some of Webb's experiences at Sheridan, Kan., "four years ago."
The Kansas Historical Collections, v. 10 (1907-1908), p. 279, has a brief biographical sketch of Webb stating that he represented Ellis county in the state legislature of 1868 and that he platted Hays City (present Hays) in 1867, concluding with the statement, "He died in Chicago." Mr. Stanley Pargellis of the Newberry Library, Chicago, recently wrote me that their genealogical department had no information on Webb and that the Chicago Historical Society and the Chicago Bureau of Vital Statistics could furnish no information on Webb.
59. The Kansas Magazine, v. 1 (April, 1872), pp. 383, 384.
60. ibid., v. 2 (July, 1872), p. 100. The books of Greeley and Richardson referred to, are, of course, Horace Greeley, An Overland Journey (New York, 1860); and Albert T. Richardson, Beyond the Mississippi (Hartford, Conn., 1867), and subsequent editions.
61. Topeka Commonwealth, July 27. 1873, p. 4, col. 3.
62. The portrait of Judge Guthrie, a well-known Topeka character and an inveterate chewer of the "vile weed," was secured many years ago for the Society by George Root. After retrieving it from some neglected source, Root brought it to the Society's rooms where it was duly inspected by other members of the staff. One of them, evidently an enthusiast for stark realism in art, inspected it critically and then pronounced judgment. "That portrait won't do at all. The judge's white vest is too white and there are no tobacco stains streaking down the front. Take the picture back where you got it." The critic's advice, however, was not followed, for the Worrall portrait of Guthrie still hangs in the foyer of the Memorial building along with pictures of other past Kansas notables.
63. This oil painting was accepted by the State Historical Society in 1879.-Twenty-Seventh Biennial Report of the . . . Kansas State Historical Society (1931), p. 24. 64. Daily Kansas State Record, Topeka, April 2, 1870, p. 4, col. 3.
65. Ibid., October 28, 1870, p. 4, col. 1.
66. Topeka Commonwealth, November 23, 1869, p. 3, col. 1.
67. This view is probably the one mentioned in the Topeka State Record, April 2, 1870, p. 4, col. 3, and in the Commonwealth, June 14, 1870, p. 4, col. 3.
68. "The Kansas Exhibit" was acquired by the Society in 1913 for the sum of $15. See Eighteenth Biennial Report . . of the Kansas State Historical Society (1913), p. 79. The First House in Topeka," mentioned above, was also redrawn for publication and used as the frontispiece for F. W. Giles' Thirty Years in Topeka (Topeka, 1886), "Preface." Giles also mentions (pp. 150, 151) another original work of Worrall painted in 1889. It was a scene on the stage curtain of Union Hall (Topeka) depicting various aspects of Topeka life, some of which were humorous in character.
69. See letter of Charles Curtis to George Root, September 16, 1933.-Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 2 (1933). p. 368.
70. Topeka Commonwealth, January 22, 1871, p. 4, col. 2.
71. Albert R. Greene, "The Kansas River-Its Navigation," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9 (1905-1906), p. 321. reported that Worrall drew the sketch "a few years ago." The Daniel Boone connection with Kansas is briefly mentioned in Andreas-Cutler, History of the State of Kansas, pp. 60, 252, 253. The date of settlement given in Andreas-Cutler is 1829.
72. Topeka Commonwealth, October 19, 1873. p. 4, col. 2 ; October 28, p. 4, cols. 2, 3. The receipt of the photographs of the Worrall sketches by the Society are reported in the Kansas Historical Collections, v. 1-2 (1875-1880), p. 88. Worrall also took part in a similar buffalo hunt in 1871, the "Sketch Record of the Hunt, Nov. 1, 2 & 3 1871" reveals. The "Sketch Record" embraces a series of Worrall hunting sketches photographed by J. Lee Knight.
73. In the Kansas City (Mo.) Times, October 25, 1938, p. D, I described such an excursion. The story was based on accounts found in the Kansas Daily Tribune, Lawrence, October 9, 1868, p. 2, col. 2; October 10, p. 2, col. 3; October 11, p. 2, col. 3.
74. For mention of frontier justice and "the hanging trestle" at Sheridan, see De B. Randolph Keim, Sheridan's Troopers on the Border (Philadelphia, 1870), p. 44; Homer W. Wheeler, The Frontier Trail (Los Angeles, 1923), pp. 49, 50; Leavenworth Conservative, June 25, 189, p. 4, and March 26, 1870, p. 4. W. E. Webb in The Kansas Magazine, v. 2 (August, 1872), pp. 128-133, in a story ' Neb, the Devil's Own," also described frontier justice at Sheridan.
75. Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9 (1905-1906), p. 505.
76. Topeka Herald, June 21, 1902. p. 1.