THE seventieth annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society and board of directors was held in the rooms of the Society on October 16, 1945.
The meeting of the directors was called to order by President Ralph R. Price at 10 a. m. First business was the reading of the annual report by the secretary.
This is the seventieth annual meeting of the Society and the end of my fifteenth year as secretary. Perhaps it is the place for a review of accomplishments but we have so many new projects under way that it seems better to look toward the future. Since it is customary to celebrate 75th anniversaries it may be that by 1950, when we have had five years of peace, a diamond jubilee will be more in order. It is enough to say that the Kansas Society is among the largest state associations in the country, is possibly the best-balanced, and that it is being developed systematically in all departments. The new microfilm division, for which the 1945 legislature appropriated $33,800, is in line with the latest archival procedure. The new Annals of Kansas, now being compiled through an initial appropriation of $8,000, will be a valuable addition to our published history. And repairs and redecoration for the Memorial building through an appropriation of $11,500, will again put the Society's physical plant in first-class condition.
Now that the war is over the Society is looking forward with the rest of the country to more normal operations. The demand for birth certificates, required by all war workers, has already decreased, and it may soon be possible for employees in this department to get back to tasks that have had to be neglected. Two members of the staff are still on leave in the service. Lt. Edgar Langsdorf is in France. Ens. Josephine Louise Barry, USNR, is in California.
President Ralph R. Price reappointed Judge John S. Dawson and T. M. Lillard to the executive committee. The members holding over were Robert C. Rankin, Charles M. Correll and Gen. Milton R. McLean.
Four members of the board of directors died during the year. They were John G. Ellenbecker, Marysville; Isaac B. Morgan, Kansas City; Victor Murdock, Wichita, and Mrs. George Norris, Arkansas City. Mr. Ellenbecker was president of the Kansas council of the American Pioneer Trails Association. Mr. Morgan was a well-known Kansas City educator. Victor Murdock was a former congressman and long-time editor of the Wichita Eagle. His historical articles, published almost daily for thirteen years, were a popular front-page feature of the evening Eagle. Mrs. Norris, a pioneer Arkansas City resident, was long active in women's club work in the state.
As mentioned, the legislature made an appropriation for a new microfilm division. A discussion of this project will be made at the afternoon meeting. Work on the new Annals of Kansas, which was authorized by the legislature, began on July 1, with Jennie Owen in charge. The following are acting as an advisory committee: Fred Brinkerhoff of Pittsburg, Cecil Howes of Topeka, Dr. J. C. Malin of Lawrence and Justice William A. Smith of Topeka. One meeting has been held. The appropriation for the Memorial building provides for repointing all stone and terra cotta and repairing and painting all exterior woodwork. Specifications have been drawn and bids are now being asked for this work. Money is also available for repairing and redecorating many of the interior walls and ceilings. Since they are not subject to damage by the weather the state architect has recommended that this work be postponed until labor and materials can be contracted to better advantage.
Another appropriation of $7,000 provides for the installation of a new section of steel shelving in the newspaper division.
Salary increases of from five to fifteen percent were given to members of the staff. Although there are still discrepancies, this appropriation helps bring salaries for most positions more nearly in line with what is being paid for similar work in other state institutions. Slight increases were also given to the custodians of Old Shawnee Mission and the First Capitol building.
Two other increased appropriations are: $500 a year added to the book fund; and money for the salary of an additional janitor. Other appropriations remain the same.
The Society is greatly indebted to the 1945 legislature for these appropriations and especially to the members of the committees on ways and means, fees and salaries, state affairs and buildings and grounds.
Last November the Society received a bequest of $5,634.79 from the estate of Elizabeth Reader, who died August 17, 1943, in San Diego, Cal. The net amount after California inheritance taxes were deducted was $5,251.19. With the approval of the executive committee, $5,200 of this money was invested in U. S. savings bonds.
Elizabeth Reader was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel J. Reader. Mr. Reader came to Kansas in a covered wagon in the spring of 1855 and settled on a farm near Indianola, north of Topeka, where he lived until his death in 1914. A diary which he had kept from the time he was thirteen years old was presented to the Society by Miss Reader a number of years ago. This diary and a journal of reminiscences are among the most interesting manuscripts the Society possesses. They are invaluable to any one doing research in the territorial period. The proceeds from Miss Reader's bequest will be used to purchase books and documents relating to this field.
During the year 1,724 persons did research in the library. Of these about 700 worked on Kansas subjects, 500 on genealogy and 500 on general subjects. Numerous inquiries were answered by letter and there were many requests for loans by mail from the loan file on Kansas subjects. More than 85,000 cards
were filed in the Library of Congress catalog. From October 1, 1944, to July 1, 1945, 3,303 clippings were mounted and cataloged.
An exhibit of early Kansas printing was prepared for display in the museum during International Printing Education week. Photographic copies of early maps of the United States and Kansas owned by the Society were made at the Topeka Army Air Field for lectures by Capt. Carl J. Holcomb. Typed and printed genealogical records were presented by the Society of Colonial Dames, the Daughters of the American Revolution, the Daughters of Founders and Patriots and the Daughters of American Colonists. Other gifts to the library include collections of books and pamphlets from Mrs. H. J. Haskell, Mrs. Lillian Ross Leis, Mrs. Effie Van Tuyl, Mrs. John Tasker, Mrs. Pearl Keller, Mrs. J. Ralph Schnebly, Wendell Johnson, B. F. Young and the E. A. Austin estate. Mrs. W. B. Culbertson presented records of the work of the Topeka USO.
During the year 336 pictures were classified, cataloged and added to the picture collection. One hundred of these were pictures of General Eisenhower's homecoming celebration, taken en route from New York and Washington to Abilene. The picture collection is in constant use by publishers of newspapers, books and magazines. During the year copies of pictures of early-day Kansas scenes were made for the following: A book on the Santa Fe railroad to be issued by Look; Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia, by F. E. Compton and Company, Chicago; This is the U. S. A., by the Museum of Modern Art, New York; Album of American History, by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York; and the World Book Encyclopedia, by the Quarrie Corporation, Chicago. Also, the Kansas Power and Light Company used many early Topeka pictures in an advertising series called "Then and Now in Topeka."
The principal accessions for the year were the Kansas statistical rolls for 1937 and 1938 consisting of 6,100 manuscript books. These statistics are compiled currently by assessors of the state board of agriculture.
Five manuscript volumes and 100,288 individual manuscripts were received during the year.
The Douglas County Historical Society gave typed copies of tombstone inscriptions, 1854 to 1940, from twenty-nine rural cemeteries in Douglas county. They were indexed by the Betty Washington chapter, D. A. R., of Lawrence. D. D. Murphy sent inscriptions from markers in a cemetery six miles north of Oswego in Labette county.
Records of marriages in Russell county, 1880 to 1882, were given by Judge J. C. Ruppenthal.
Dr. Riverda H. Jordan of Avon Park, Fla., presented a biography of Benjamin Harding, his grandfather, a pioneer of Doniphan county.
Fifty-one documents were received from the Shawnee county commissioners through their chairman, Ed Camp. They include land patents, deeds and mortgages in Shawnee county from 1854 to 1870. The names of C. K. Holliday, John Ritchie, Thomas Ewing, James H. Lane and Edmund G. Ross appear in these documents.
Will T. Beck of Holton, Frank Metz of Hays and Judge J. C. Ruppenthal of Russell responded to the Society's request for William Allen White letters. Other manuscripts were received from Mrs. Mary 0. Derrick Coleman, Lee H. Cornell, Clara B. Eno, Mrs. Ella M. Ensminger, Mrs. Ethel M. Pox, C. S. Gibbens, Ada Bel Tutton Gifford estate, Charles M. Harger, Claud W. Hibbard, E. H. Hulburd, Kansas Farmer, Karl Kennedy, Leavenworth City Library, Helen M. McFarland, Vallie McKee, Mrs. Flora V. Menninger, Mrs. Percy Miller, Minnesota Historical Society, Bert Moore, Mabel Moss, Jennie Small Owen, Frances 1. Sands, Mrs. Faye McCartney Shaw, Mrs. William L. Smith, Robert Stone, Harriet A. Tomson, Mrs. B. H. Unrich, Mrs. F. J. Warren, The Woman's Kansas Day Club, Rea Woodman and Clayton Wyatt.
More than three thousand patrons were served by the newspaper and census divisions during the year. Forty-six hundred single issues of newspapers and 3,100 bound volumes were consulted; 4,768 census volumes were searched and from them 2,501 certified copies of family records were issued.
Eighty-nine reels of microfilm, purchased from the State Historical Society of Colorado, have been added to the Society's collections. They cover the weekly Colorado Chieftain, Pueblo, June 1, 1868, to June 12, 1873, and February 25, 1875, to January 20, 1876; The Daily Chieftain, from April 28, 1872, to December 31, 1898. These papers contain many references to western Kansas.
The 1945 List of Kansas Newspapers and Periodicals was published in September. It showed the issues of 695 newspapers and periodicals being received regularly for filing, nine more than were shown in the 1944 List.
Of the 695 publications in the 1945 List, 52 are dailies, seven semiweeklies, 411 weeklies, one three times monthly, 33 fortnightlies, 16 semimonthlies, two once every three weeks, 104 monthlies, 13 bimonthlies, 24 quarterlies, 27 occasionals, two semiannuals and three annuals, coming from all the 105 Kansas counties. Of these, 134 are listed republican, 24 democratic and 241 independent in politics; 107 are school or college, 38 religious, 22 fraternal, nine labor, six local, 14 military, eight industrial, 14 trade and 78 miscellaneous.
On January 1, 1945, the Society's collection contained 50,367 bound volumes of Kansas newspapers and more than 10,000 bound volumes of out-of-state newspapers dated from 1767 to 1945.
In addition to the 695 publications regularly received by the Society as gifts from Kansas publishers, miscellaneous newspapers have been received, including several early and rare issues from Michigan, New York and Wisconsin, the gift of Mrs. Daisy Lamb, of Douglass, and other papers from Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.; Mrs. Henry J. Haskell, Kansas City, Mo.; Dr. Edward Bumgardner, Lawrence; Walter E. McKeen, Manhattan; the Topeka City Library, Lt. Col. John W. Carrothers, Irvin L. Cowger, N. E. Saxe and Mrs. Charles R. Sneller, of Topeka.
The attendance in the museum for the year was 32,805. There were 28 accessions. From January 15 to May 27 the museum was open from 2 to 5 Sunday afternoons. Among the accessions was a wood conveyor from the Paxico flour mill which was built in 1878 by the Strohwig brothers. Wm. W. Snead of Topeka donated
a bull whip which was used by early-day freighters. The handle is heavily loaded and the end is tipped with wire. The Woman's Kansas Day Club gave a Winchester rifle which was used by Dr. Arthur Hertzler of Halstead. The pen with which Governor Ratner signed the merit law was presented by Mrs. William Allen White of Emporia.
During the year the following have been subjects for extended research: Biography: William Allen White; Gen. Dwight Eisenhower; W. E. Campbell; William Mathewson; Jesse James. County and town history: History of Smith county; history of Axtell, Kan.; history of Stillwater, Okla. Education: History of Park College. Churches: Presbyterianism in Kansas; German Methodist churches; Baptist churches. General: Missouri river; negroes; salt and its effect on the Trans-Mississippi West; Populist party; Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroad.
The Kansas Historical Quarterly is now in its fourteenth year. Owing to the war, the 1944 and 1945 numbers were printed with fewer pages, and both years will be bound and indexed together as Vol. 13. With its August, 1945, number the Quarterly appeared for the first time in a slick-paper illustrated
cover, featuring General Eisenhower, with photographs of his homecoming celebration inside. Much of the credit for the high rating of the magazine among the state historical magazines of the country should go to Dr. James C. Malin, associate editor, who is professor of history at Kansas University. The Quarterly is widely quoted by the newspapers of the state and is used in many schools.
Now that gasoline is no longer rationed more visitors are being received at the Mission, although it will be some time before they reach prewar numbers. Minor repairs and improvements continue to be made on the property.
This year marks the one hundredth anniversary of the completion of the North building. It is the newest of the three brick buildings now standing and was first used as a dormitory where girls of the various Indian tribes lived while attending school at the mission. Some of the Methodist missionaries, who were teachers in the school, also lived there. Later it was the home and office of Andrew H. Reeder, first territorial governor. In 1940 the building was restored and in 1942 it was refurnished in the period of 1850. The Kansas D.A.R. is conducting a centennial celebration at the building on October 17. Mrs. Dorothy Berryman Shrewder, the present state regent, is a direct descendent of the Rev. Jerome C. Berryman who was superintendent of the Mission at the time the building was erected.
During the war general traffic through the Fort Riley reservation was prohibited and visitors to the old capitol building were limited to soldiers of the post and their families. Last year the registration was only 521. The building and grounds have been maintained in good condition.
In closing this report I wish to acknowledge my
indebtedness to the members of the staff. During the course of a year many
persons from out of the state visit the Society to do research and almost
invariably they go out of their way to praise the spirit of cooperation they find
in every department. Respectfully submitted,
At the conclusion of the reading of the secretary's report James Malone moved that it be accepted. Motion was seconded by John S. Dawson.
President Price then called for the report of the treasurer, Mrs. Lela Barnes. The report, based on the audit of the state accountant for the period August 31, 1944, to August 30, 1945, follows:
This donation is substantiated by a U. S. savings bond, Series G, in the amount of $1,000. The interest is credited to the membership fee fund.
Received from the Elizabeth Reader estate,
Interest on the bonds purchased with this bequest will be credited to the membership fee fund. It will be expended for historical materials in accordance with the terms of the bequest.
This report covers only the membership fee fund and other custodial funds. It is not a statement of the appropriations made by the legislature for the maintenance of the Society. These disbursements are not made by the treasurer of the Society, but by the state auditor. For the year ending June 30, 1945, these appropriations were: Kansas State Historical Society, $34,750; Old Shawnee Mission, $3,750; First Capital of Kansas, $1,074.
On motion of T. M. Lillard, seconded by John S. Dawson, the report was accepted. The report of the executive committee on the audit by the state accountant of the funds of the Society was called for and read by John S. Dawson.
OCTOBER 12, 1945. To the Board of Directors, Kansas State Historical Society:
The executive committee being directed under the bylaws to check the accounts of the treasurer, states that the state accountant has audited the funds of the State Historical Society, the First Capitol of Kansas, and the Old Shawnee Mission from August 31, 1944, to August 30, 1945, and that they are hereby approved. JOHN S. DAWSON, Chairman.
On motion of Standish Hall, seconded by Milton R. McLean, the report was accepted.
The report of the nominating committee for officers of the Society was read by John S. Dawson:
OCTOBER 12, 1945. To the Board of Directors,
Kansas State Historical Society:
For a one-year term: Jess C. Denious, Dodge
City, president; Milton R. McLean, Topeka, first vice-president; Robert T.
Aitchison, Wichita, second vice-president. Respectfully submitted,
The report was referred to the afternoon meeting of the board. There being no further business the meeting adjourned.
The annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society convened at 2:30 p. m. The members were called to order by the president, Ralph R. Price.
The address by Mr. Price follows:
ON January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the union as the thirtyfourth state. Kansas was a real example of "To the Stars Through Difficulties." Financial difficulties continued to be very real in this state till after the panic of 1873 and the grasshoppers of 1874. And yet within three years after its birth this new state out on the very frontier of civilization, and in the midst of a great Civil War, had established, or at least determined the location of, three state institutions of higher education: The University of Kansas
at Lawrence, the Kansas State College at Manhattan and The Kansas State Teachers College at Emporia. For many years these three schools were generally called K. U., the Agricultural College and the Normal School. It is hard for us of today to realize the poverty, the sparse population and the primitive conditions of those early days in Kansas. For example, Emporia was a town of 500, and had only a triweekly stage to Lawrence, and the first railroad did not reach Manhattan till 1866. So it is but natural that these schools had a hard struggle in their early years, especially in the matter of financial support. But they do show forth the spirit and the high ideals of Kansas as revealed in its very earliest years.
I happen to have a personal interest in each of these three schools, and when I learned that I was to prepare a paper for today's occasion I promptly decided that I wanted to take these three schools as my theme. I was born on a farm ten miles south of the University of Kansas. I did two years of graduate work at this institution. I also did my first teaching there, where for two years I taught sections of the famous old class in English history. We used that splendid text that the author, John Richard Green, called A Short History of the English People. This was a fortunate beginning for one who had chosen for his life's work the teaching of history and government.
Then in 1903 I was elected to be head of the department of history and government at the Kansas State College at Manhattan, in which capacity I served the state for thirty-nine years. I am still teaching American history and government on a part-time basis at this institution, where I have thoroughly appreciated my opportunity to serve many generations of college students, always regarding them as the future leaders of the state of Kansas.
And, to complete the trilogy of my interest in these schools, it so happened that just forty years after I joined the faculty at the Kansas State College at Manhattan the Board of Regents called my son, James F. Price, to serve as- president of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia. Thus you see why I was interested in preparing a paper on these three Kansas schools.
By the act admitting Kansas as a state in 1861, the federal government had donated to the state seventy-two sections of public land "for the use and support of a state university." In this year 1861, a bill passed both houses of the state legislature locating the state university at Manhattan. This bill was vetoed by Governor
Robinson, whose home was in Lawrence, and there the matter of locating the university rested till 1863. It would seem that there might be grounds for claiming that here is where the rivalry between Lawrence and Manhattan had its beginning. In this connection, it is interesting to note that Gov. Charles Robinson, of Lawrence, wanted I. T. Goodnow, of Manhattan, then State Superintendent of Public Instruction, to agree to locate the university at Lawrence and the state capital at Manhattan.
On July 2, 1862, President Lincoln signed the so-called Morrill act, providing for a grant to each state from the federal government of 30,000 acres of public land for each United States senator and representative from that state, for the endowment of what came to be known as the land grant colleges. Kansas, then having one representative and two senators, thus received 90,000 acres for the endowment of such a college. This law stated the object of such colleges to be "without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts." Now it so happened that members of the Methodist church had by this time established at Manhattan a school called Bluemont Central College, with a provision in its charter including in its curriculum the teaching of agriculture and the mechanic arts.
On the passage of the above noted Morrill act, the trustees of Bluemont Central College promptly offered to give to the state the whole institution, including one hundred acres of land with its threestory stone college building and its library and other equipment if the state would locate the new land-grant college at Manhattan. This offer was accepted by the state in a legislative enactment approved February 16, 1863, and what was at first known as The Kansas State Agricultural College was thus located at Manhattan.
Meanwhile, the state university had not yet been officially located, and Emporia now made a strong effort to secure this institution, offering the state eighty acres of land for this purpose. A bill to locate the state university at Emporia was before the committee of the whole in the house of representatives of the state legislature, when a Douglas county representative moved to substitute the Lawrence bill for that of Emporia, and the motion carried by a close vote.
Lawrence offered the state fifteen thousand dollars and forty acres for a campus if the state would locate the university in that city. The bill was then passed by the legislature to the effect that
if Lawrence actually delivered title to the forty acres and actually deposited the fifteen thousand dollars within six months therefrom, the university would be located at Lawrence; otherwise the Emporia poria offer would be accepted and the university would be located in that city. Charles Robinson now offered the forty acres on Mount Oread in exchange for other property in the city of Lawrence. Amos A. Lawrence, of Massachusetts, and treasurer of the old New England Emigrant Aid Company, gave $10,000 in notes owed to him by another college, and the citizens of Lawrence signed notes for a total of $5,000, thus providing the required $15,000 and the forty acres of land. Then the governor, on November 2, 1863, finally declared the state university located at Lawrence.
Under the circumstances, it was very natural that the State Normal School, as it was then called, was located at Emporia by an act of the legislature, approved March 3, 1863. Thus were located the three Kansas state colleges in 1863, after much rivalry between these three towns. And that in itself is quite a chapter in Kansas history.
As already noted, the federal government had given the State University an endowment of 72 sections of public land, and the Agricultural College an endowment of 90,000 acres. The federal government had also given to the state as a possible endowment for a normal school salt springs "not exceeding twelve in number, with six sections of land adjoining each." In this connection, I find a statement that "The Kansas State Normal School is the first state normal school to receive as endowment land granted by the act admitting the State to the Union." By the end of 1863 the state had located each of these three schools, but for many years the legislators seemed to think that these schools should live on the income from their land endowments, together with such tuition or fees as they might collect from their_ students. However, for years these schools had very few students; and during these early years there was practically no income from their land endowments. In some cases the towns where these state institutions were located found it necessary to give substantial financial assistance to keep "its" particular state school in operation. This is a discouraging chapter in the history especially of the University and Normal.
We must remember that these schools were born during the Civil War, and that Kansas suffered heavy financial losses before and
during this war, including, for example, Quantrill's raid on Lawrence. Then came Indian wars, droughts, the panic of 1873, the grasshoppers of 1874 and prairie fires, not to mention mortgages so characteristic of a young state, the deflation following a long war, and the handicaps that always accompany frontier life.
Take, for example, the case of the University. Its first building long known as Old North College, was completed by the fall of 1866, not by any state appropriation but by funds secured from various sources. The legislature of 1866 made the first appropriation for the University. It included a total sum of $4,000 for the salaries of the faculty. Each of the three members of the then faculty, Snow, Rice and Robinson, was to receive a salary of $1,200 a year. This legislature of 1866 also appropriated the sum of $3,000 for the purchase of apparatus, library and furniture. In 1868 the regents asked for $13,800, but the legislature appropriated only $7,500. Finally, in 1870 the citizens of Lawrence voted that city bonds should be issued to the amount of $100,000 for the erection of a new, much-needed university building, later named Fraser Hall after the then chancellor. After the city had paid interest on these bonds amounting to $90,000, the state assumed this debt. However, the legislature of 1873-1874 refused to vote $35,000 to complete this building. Moreover, this legislature reduced the appropriation for salaries of the faculty members, so that the faculty was reduced from nine members to six.
The records show that Emporia had similar financial burdens on account of the Normal School. Emporia donated twenty acres of land to the state for a campus. When the Normal School opened its doors in 1865 it literally had no doors to open. The city of Emporia permitted the use of one of its public school buildings for the new Normal School. In 1872 the legislature appropriated $50,000 for a new building, provided Emporia would contribute $10,000 more for this building. In 1874 the president's salary was reduced to $2,200, the two professors' salaries were reduced to $1,400 each and the two women teachers to $900 each. Two years later the legislature declared that the appropriation of 1876 was to be the last appropriation ever to be made for the support of the State Normal School at Emporia. As late as 1893 the legislature made an appropriation of $50,000 for a new wing to the main building. But the citizens of Emporia raised $1,500 to pay for the additional land needed for this building.
Reverting to the salt springs land endowment of the Normal
School, the Emporia News of March 7, 1863, says that "The endowment of this institution, in land, is fifty-nine sections." And the state law approved March 3, 1863, turning this land over to the Normal School as an endowment, provides that when this land should be sold the money received for said land should be invested in stocks yielding "not less than six percentum per annum upon the par value of said stocks."
As to Manhattan and the Agricultural College, you will recall that this institution started with the land, buildings and equipment of Bluemont Central College; and with a nominal public land endowment of 90,000 acres, which ultimately amounted to about half a million dollars. I do not find that Manhattan was' ever called upon to contribute directly to the support of the Agricultural College. However, the attitude of the state legislature toward this college is shown by the following summary of early appropriations, quoted from pages 26 and 27 of Dr. J. T. Willard's excellent History of the Kansas State College. He says "The legislature of 1863 made no appropriation whatever for the College; that of 1864 appropriated $2,700 for salaries `for the years . . . 1863 and 1864,' $125 for insurance of buildings, library, and apparatus, and $60 for lightning rods. In 1865, $125 was appropriated for insurance, and $3,200 for salaries and 200 copies of the catalogue. In 1866 the appropriations were: $125 for insurance, and $60 for lightning rods; $4,000 for current expenses, contingent on its receipt in income from the investment of the land endowment funds; and provision was made for state bonds to the extent of $5,500, which it was expected would be repaid by income from the endowment to be received in the future. These bonds were to cover arrearages and the current expenses for 1866."
After discussing the appropriation by the legislature of 1867, Dr. Willard notes the following interesting provision: "Besides the sums thus definitely allowed [for buildings, fences, insurance, etc.], $5,200 was provided for salaries `to be taken and deemed a loan from the State of Kansas to the State Agricultural College, to be reimbursed to the State after the State shall have been reimbursed for the $5,500 lent to said college for the year 1866."
Possibly I should have limited this paper to the early history of these three schools. But one reason why I chose this subject was rather to note, though briefly, the reason, or justification, for these schools in our day, when one of the great problems with which we
are confronted is that of making democracy safe for the world. Our boys have done their full share of winning the war, and thus making the world safe for democracy. Are these three Kansas state schools, supported as they are largely by the national and state governments, doing their full share in winning a permanent peace and in making democracy safe for the world? Our recent experience with Germany and with Japan has made us, as never before, conscious of the great importance of education in matters of government, peace and prosperity, or of a world at war.
Thoughtful students of our American institutions have noted that the time has come when, more than ever before, in our new industrial society and in our new world relations, we must have more well trained leaders in our political and governmental affairs if our democracy is to survive and if the new world is to live in peace. These students also note that it is in our colleges that the men and women are being trained who will be the leaders of our new world. Every college student, from the very fact that he has attended college, becomes for life a leader-either a positive leader for the better things, or a negative leader as an educated man who refuses to work in the church or other community enterprises or to take an active, helpful part in political parties, elections and government as not being worthy of his best efforts.
Students of our college policies also note that the tendency of our state schools has been more and more to devote themselves to training men and women in the art of making a living more easily, of becoming more and more efficient in their technical education. And now the question is being raised whether the time has definitely come when these schools, supported largely by state and nation, should devote more attention and effort specifically to training their students, the leaders in our democracy, in much better and more thorough understanding of our history, our government, and our world relations. In this connection, training and leadership are also imperative in the matter of the' spirit and attitude and moral responsibility toward society and government. Our State Board of Regents, charged as it is with fixing the broad general policies of our state educational institutions, has recently selected a new leader for each of these three schools. (This part of this paper was written some months ago.) In each case they chose not a strictly professional educator, trained simply in the older tradition of the schoolmen, but in each case they chose a younger man with a viewpoint from the outside, practical, business world of
real life; apparently with the idea of re-orienting or re-directing in part the function, the purpose or objective of these schools. In doing this they selected in each case a man from the Middle West, in fact from Kansas. Each of these new leaders had been born in KansaS and had received his undergraduate training in Kansas Schools.
In the case of the University, they chose as chancellor, Deane Malott, a graduate of the University over which he was now called to preside. In the case of Kansas State College at Manhattan, they chose Milton Eisenhower, a graduate of that institution. And in the case of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia they chose James Price, also a graduate of the Kansas State College at Manhattan. Each comes to the leadership of his school as a young man, with a considerable business and world-wide experience in addition to his scholastic training and educational preparation. Deane W. Malott, at the age of forty-one, assumed the duties of chancellor of the University of Kansas, July 1, 1939. Milton S. Eisenhower became president of Kansas State College July 1, 1943, at the age of forty-three. And in 1943 James F. Price was elected, at the age of thirty=six, to the presidency of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia.
Deane W. Malott was born in Abilene, where he received his public school education. He received his A. B. degree from the University of Kansas in 1921, and his M. B. A. degree from the Harvard school of business administration in 1923. He served as assistant dean of this school from 1923 to 1929, when he was elected vice-president of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company of Honolulu. He served in this capacity till 1933, when he returned to Harvard as associate professor and where he inaugurated a course in agricultural industry. While a student at the University of Kansas he waS a member of many organizations, including Beta Theta Pi, Delta Sigma Rho, Alpha Kappa Psi, the glee club, the dramatic club, etc. In 1939, he was called back to his alma mater as chancellor of the University of Kansas. The presidents of the other four State schools have all been appointed since that year, 1939.
Milton S. Eisenhower was born September 15, 1899, also in Abilene, and in the schools of this town he also received his public school education. He was graduated from the Kansas State College in 1924 with a bachelor of Science degree in industrial journal
ism. He was on the college staff in 1923-1924, until he resigned to become American vice-consul at Edinburgh, Scotland. In May, 1926, he entered the career service of the federal government and two months later became assistant to Secretary of Agriculture William M. Jardine. He became director of information of the Department of Agriculture in December, 1928.
In 1938, at the request of Sec. Henry A. Wallace, Mr. Eisenhower became coordinator of the land-use programs of the Department of Agriculture, continuing also as director of information until January, 1941, when he resigned the latter position. In March, 1942, he was appointed by President Roosevelt to direct the War Relocation Authority; he organized and directed the relocation of Japanese-Americans evacuated from the Pacific coast. As soon as the Japanese-American evacuation was organized and under way, the President appointed Mr. Eisenhower associate director of the Office of War Information. In December, 1942, shortly after the Allied invasion of North Africa, President Roosevelt sent Mr. Eisenhower on a special mission to study refugee relief and relocation problems in Algeria and Morocco. Mr. Eisenhower resigned his position as associate director of the OWI on June 30, 1943, to become president of the Kansas State College at Manhattan.
James F. Price was born in Manhattan, May 28, 1906, where he received his public school education. He completed the four-year work in high school in three years. While doing this, he played on the high school football and basketball teams, was a member of the glee club, debate team, and dramatics; and he made a record grade of Straight A's in every subject he took in high school. He spent his freshman year at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, where he held the Dudley Perkins scholarship, with the highest stipend this school offered. His sophomore and junior years were spent at Kansas State College, where he played on the varsity football and basketball teams, was a member of the glee club and the debate team, and took the leading part in a college operetta. During his senior year he was a student on the University Afloat, where he spent the college year studying and traveling around the world under well-guided direction. He served as president of the student body during the year. This gave him unusual contacts at the ports of the nations they visited all around the world. It also gave him valuable administrative experience.
Mr. Price was graduated from Kansas State College in 1927, "with honors," and was elected to the all-school honor scholarship society
of Phi Kappa Phi, as well as to other honorary societies, including Phi Mu Alpha, Pi Kappa Delta, Alpha Kappa Psi, the "K" fraternity and Purple Mask. Later, as a student at Stanford University, he was also elected to the law fraternity Delta Theta Pi and to the national educational fraternity Phi Delta Kappa. He spent the summer of 1927 studying at the University of Paris and traveling in Europe. He was in Paris the night Charles A. Lindbergh dropped out of the sky.
After having been graduated from Kansas State College, Mr. Price spent three years in the graduate school of law at Stanford University in California, receiving the LL. B. degree in 1930. He was admitted to the bar for the practice of law in California and Kansas. He was at once employed as legal adviser for a group of American and English financiers in Shanghai, China, where he lived for nearly three years. Here he was admitted to the practice of law in China. He was in Shanghai when Japan dropped bombs on a part of that city in 1931. Next, Mr. Price held a partnership seat on the New York Stock Exchange for two years. During this time he also held seats on the Cotton Exchange and on the Wheat Exchange. He then returned to Stanford University for another graduate year of study in law, and was awarded the master of laws degree in 1937. During his period of work in Stanford University, Mr. Price also worked in cooperation with the school of education of that institution.
Meanwhile, Mr. Price was elected head of the department of business and social studies of Menlo Junior College, and instructor in law in the night school of the University of San Francisco school of law. Two years later he was elected professor of law on the regular faculty of the University of San Francisco school of law. Then in the spring of 1941 he was elected dean of the school of law of Washburn Municipal University of Topeka. And in 1942 he was drafted to serve as director-secretary of the Kansas Industrial Development Commission. This commission plans to make Kansas the cross-roads of the airways of the nation as well as of automobile travel. The commission carries as its slogan: "Kansas-Where East Meets West, and Farm Meets Factory." Finally, in the spring of 1943 the State Board of Regents selected Mr. Price as president of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia, and he entered on the duties of this office July 1 of that year.
These three younger leaders of these three state schools immediately developed a fine spirit of cooperation in working together
for improved team work in the three schools for the state and for the nation. Time does not permit any elaborate discussion of their work, but we might note specifically that at the University, under Chancellor Malott, a new course in Western civilization goes into operation this year, training for world understanding. The University is also inaugurating a new course of lectures on America at Peace.
At Kansas State College, under President Eisenhower, four new comprehensive courses go into effect this year. One of these is Man's Physical World. Another is Biology in Relation to Man. One eight-hour course is Man and the Cultural World. And the fourth is an eight-hour course of study in Man and the Social World. In addition to these, there is a $200,000 endowment at the Kansas State College especially for the teaching of American citizenship. This endowed Institute of American Citizenship also goes into operation this year. Also this year the students of Kansas State, under the guidance of Prof. A. Bower Sageser, and with strong outside lecturers to help, are organized in study groups of the International Security Assembly to understand better the world in which we live.
At the State Teachers College of Emporia, under the leadership of President Price and Dean Robert Bush, and after long and thorough consideration by the whole faculty, it was agreed that in all of their courses and in all of their teaching there should be a more conscious effort in the spirit and direction of preparation for better home and family life, and for better leadership in government.
Also, during President Price's second year of leadership, the Teachers College developed a new plan of radio classroom education for the rural and elementary schools of the state. This new step in education, directed from the Teachers College at Emporia, also has gone into operation this year, under the special direction of Prof. Russell Porter and in cooperation with the State Board of Education and the Kansas state radio network. This new step forward in public school education gives promise of greatly improved interest, method, and content in all rural and elementary schools of the state. Once more, Kansas takes the lead.
On account of his wife's health, President Price found it necessary to move his family to Colorado. So he resigned the presidency of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia, effective July 1, 1945. He most sincerely regretted that he was not able to remain in Kansas to carry on the plans he was developing here. Mr. Price
was at once appointed by the University of Denver as dean of the school of law, of the school of commerce, accounts and finance, and director of public administration.
The Board of Regents then elected David L. MacFarlane as the new president of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia, effective July 1, 1945. Mr. MacFarlane was born in Scotland, but when he was five years old his parents brought him to America and they settled in Massachusetts. Mr. MacFarlane received his B. A. degree from Northwestern University in 1916, his degree of bachelor of sacred theology at Garrett Theological Institute at Northwestern University in 1917, and his Ph. D. degree from Edinburgh Uni versity of Scotland in 1931. Meanwhile he entered the ministry of the Methodist church. In 1922 he became head of the department of history and government at Southwestern College, Winfield. In 1935 he became a member of the history department of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia, and the next year was made dean of men at that institution. In 1943 he was drafted temporarily from this position to become chairman of the Kansas Board of Social Welfare. And in 1945 he returned to the Teachers College as its president.
Thus ended the period when each of the five Kansas state schools had as its president a man who had been born in Kansas.
WITH THESE THREE KANSAS STATE SCHOOLS
You will recall that Kansas had more constitutional conventions than any other state that ever entered the union-four of them. It is interesting to note that in the first of the constitutions, prepared by the Free-State men at Topeka in 1855, it was provided that "The general assembly may take measures for the establishment of a university . . . for the promotion of literature, the arts, science, medical and agricultural instruction." And this same constitution also stated that "Provision may be made by law for the support of normal schools." The University of Kansas was the first state university in the great plains region. It was co-educational (largely because of financial limitations) and was the third state university in the nation and one of the first institutions of higher learning to become coeducational.
The law creating our university was copied largely from a similar law in Michigan. This provided for the office of a chancellor. Kansas did not quite know just what the duties of this office were. The
first chancellor, the Rev. R. W. Oliver, did not do any teaching, in fact was not a member of the faculty, but served as president of the Board of Regents, and drew no salary as chancellor.
The first University faculty consisted of three young men, E. J. Rice who later became president of Baker University; D. H. Robinson, who became the first dean of the state University; and F. H. Snow, who served as chancellor of the University from 1890 to 1901.
In the beginning most of the students of these three state schools were below college grade. There were few high schools in Kansas to prepare students for college work. All three of these schools had preparatory departments for many years. The University, for example, discontinued its preparatory department in 1891. When the University opened its first session September 12, 1866, there were 55 students, 26 women and 29 men, all in the preparatory department. They met in old North College.
The State Normal School opened February 15, 1865, with only one member on its faculty and with eighteen students, all below the college level. They met in one of the public school buildings of Emporia in a room equipped with borrowed furniture.
Kansas State College was the first of these three state schools to open, it being practically the continuation of Bluemont Central College. Its first catalogue, that for the year 1863-1864, gives the names of 94 students in the preparatory department and fourteen in the college proper, with six teachers on the faculty. In fact, Kansas State College claims to be the third institution of higher learning in the state. St. Mary's College claims to be the first, and Baker University the second. Three attempts were made at Lawrence to found a college before the University got started: one by the Presbyterian church, one by the Congregational church and one by the Episcopal church.
The University and the Normal School each graduated its first class in 1873, and each had four students in its first class.
In the early years of the Agricultural College both Greek and Latin were taught in this institution. It was the Rev. John A. Anderson, who served as president from 1873 to 1879, when he resigned to enter congress, who was one of the leaders in transforming the college at Manhattan from a classical to what was more emphatically an agricultural and industrial institution. This change was considered as nothing less than revolutionary in that day.
At first every student attending the State Normal School was
required to sign a pledge that his purpose in attending was to fit himself to become a teacher. This pledge was discontinued in 1901. For many years each representative in the state legislature could select one student from his district to attend the State Normal School for twenty-two weeks, tuition free. The student was to receive a teacher's certificate on completion of the twenty-two weeks. The school at Lawrence has always been called the University of Kansas. The school at Manhattan was at first designated as the Kansas State Agricultural College, but by an act of the legislature, approved March 5, 1931, the name was changed to the Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science. By another act of the legislature approved a few days later, in 1931, the Kansas State Teachers College of Hays was renamed the Fort Hays Kansas State College. At first the school at Emporia was called the Kansas State Normal School, but in 1923 the name of this institution was changed to the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia. And this same year, 1923, the institution that had been started at Pittsburg in 1903 as the Kansas State Manual Training Normal School was changed to the Kansas State Teachers College at Pittsburg.
In 1876 the Concordia State Normal School and the Leavenworth State Normal School were to cease to be state institutions. It was in this connection that the legislature also declared that the appropriation of 1876 would be the last ever to be made to the Normal School at Emporia.
In 1900 congress gave the Fort Hays military reservation to Kansas for educational purposes, and in 1901 the legislature gave 4,000 acres of the reservation for a western branch of the State Normal School.
By 1891-1892 the Normal School at Emporia had 1,404 students enrolled, and was claimed to be "the largest normal in the United States." In 1925, notwithstanding the establishment of the schools at Pittsburg and at Hays, the Normal at Emporia was still the third largest.
As early as 1891 there was a beginning of a summer school at the Normal. In 1901 the legislature made its first specific appropriation for this summer school in the amount of $10,000. By 1908, practically the entire faculty had to be retained for the summer school. The University and the Agricultural College also started their summer schools at the beginning of the century.
At the University a school of religion was established in 1921. "This was one of the first to be established in a state school.
It now ranks as a major department of the University." University credit, not to exceed six hours, is allowed for work done here. The Rev. Edwin F. Price is now dean of this school, and between 300 and 400 students are annually enrolled. The six different churches in Lawrence assume all the expense of this school. At the Kansas State College the Methodist church and the Presbyterian church has each had for many years an assistant pastor in charge of the student work at this institution. A definite movement is on foot both at Lawrence and at Manhattan to erect a chapel building on the campus of each school.
To all this, I have attached the names and terms of those who have served as the chief executives of these three Kansas state colleges. They are as follows:
* Not a member of the faculty.
Following the address of the president the report of the committee on nominations was then called for:
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS FOR DIRECTORS To the Kansas State Historical Society: OCTOBER 16, 1945.
Your committee on nominations submits the following report and recommendations for directors of the Society for the term of three years ending October, 1948:
Upon motion by John S. Dawson, seconded by John F. Doane, the report of the committee was accepted unanimously and the members of the board were declared elected for the term ending October, 1948.
The annual report of the Shawnee Mission Indian Historical Society was given by its president, Mrs. C. V. Scoville.
There being no further business the annual meeting of the Society adjourned.
The afternoon meeting of the board of directors was called to order by President Price, who asked for a rereading of the report of the nominating committee for officers of the Society. The report was read by John S. Dawson, chairman, who moved that it be accepted. Motion was seconded by Frank A. Hobble and the following were unanimously elected:
For a one-year term: Jess C. Denious, Dodge City, president; Milton R. McLean, Topeka, first vice-president; Robert T. Aitchison, Wichita, second vice-president.
There being no further business, the meeting adjourned.