ISAAC McCOY in 1828 made two exploring tripsinto the Indian country. On the first of these, accompanied by an interpreter, hetook a party of Pottawatomie and Ottawa Indians to inspect lands west of theMissouri frontier. He left Saint Louis on August 21 and returned October 7. Ofthe second expedition, which left Saint Louis later in October under the commandof Capt. G. H. Kennerly, McCoy was treasurer. This time Chickasaw, Choctaw, andCreek delegations were taken west to the Neosho river and then south to FortGibson and the mouth of the Canadian river. McCoy reached Saint Louis the secondtime on December 24 and the next day started for Washington. Working up hisaccounts while traveling, he arrived in the capital on January 27, 1829, and twodays later addressed to P. B. Porter, Secretary of War, a lengthy reportdescribing his activities, the nature of the country explored, and the value ofthe lands to be assigned to the Indians. The section of McCoy's journal recordingthe first of these expeditions has been published.  The documents below areconcerned with the second. They have been arranged as follows: I, entries fromMcCoy's journal; II, McCoy's report; III, the reports of Kennerly, Hood, andBell. A few pertinent letters appear in footnotes.
taken lodgings with their Indians at the house where I put up. and the secondmeal they ate began to find fault so foolishly that they and the land lordquarrelled, and they by consent of both parties had left and returned and takenlodgings on board the Steam Boat again.
I soon learnt that there had not been agreement among them on the road. Theybothhad said before and after their arrival that unless they could have the handlingof some money they wo'd go back home. They sent for me, pretended they did notcare about money themselves, but said the Indians were dissatisfied. I went tosee their Indians, told them the nature of the case and they appeared satisfied.Some hours afterwards, Duncan brot me a letter sig[ned] by four of the Indiansrequesting me to place in the hands of Duncan $1000. Duncan hurried me for ananswer. I replied I could not answer until I further arranged our monied matters.I endeavored with Genl Clark and Cap. Kennerly  to devise some method ofevading a direct denial. I determined not to advance the money. I becamedisgusted with the conduct of the men. We had no doubt that the Indians wereprompted to the demand by the white men. All our party Indians & whites dinedat Genl Clark's Wednesday I wrote them a letter, previous to sending it to themOct. 15. showed to the white men, and Genl Clark & Cap. Kennerly all concurrdwith me. I hoped I had the men entangled, I made them to say they were satisfied,and they would explain it to the Indians. I offered them $250. and more whenevertheir necessities required. But Duncan was too mean to be relied on. The Indianssent for me & said nothing would satisfy but for me to give Duncan $500. ThisI determined not to do, knowing that it was virtually the demand of Duncan andnot of the Indians. But Genl. Clarke at length advised me to give them the money,and upon his advice I did so.
It may be supposed that having left my family the 2d July last with the hopeof returning to them about this time, I feel not a little anxiety on theiraccount---instead of returning to them, I am just now setting out on another tourin the woods. But submission becomes such a creature as I.
stopped with Harper Lovett the Creek interpreter, who had become too sick totravel and had been left day before yesterday. He had had the measles, and theexposure of travelling & some imprudencies, had rendered him very ill. Wefound him in a sad ho[MS. illegible] and under the prescriptions of a wretchedDoctor.
We paid their enormous bills, put him in our carriage, and rode his horse, andconveyed him 7 miles.  Cap. Kennerly took the stage and proceeded. The Doctorand I remained with the sick man. He had been very anxious to accompany us. Buthe now declared himself unable to proceed. The Doctor and I concurring in thisopinion. We agreed with a Mr. Isaac Vanbibber  to take care of him as thoughhe had been my own son, and should he sufficiently recover, to send him in thestage to care of Genl. Clark St. Louis.
At same time I wrote to Genl. Clark informing of all done, and requesting himto pay charges, & send him on to the Creek nation, &c.
Gave commendatory letter to Lovett, instructions to family, and left him. Itwas dark when we reached lodgings at McMurtry's.  I much regret the necessityof leaving this young man behind, but it was unavoidable, I greatly doubt hisrecovery. 
I have been busy today writing-chiefly to members of Congress, on the subjectof the expedition.
go on for us to the line of the state. I kept with me three of the Chickasaws& one of the Choctaws that I might enjoy a favourable opportunity ofconversation with them. I had also, for similar reason taken Colbert  intothe carriage with me for one or two days.
Hon. Peter B. Porter
now in that country, and the amount of unappropriated lands. Document No. 6.Furnishes a brief history of the expedition a description of the country, and myviews relative to the settlement of the Indian tribes therein-and the subjectsconnected therewith which claim the immediate attention of our government.
With my great respect Sir,
your most Obdet Servt
I have the honour herewith to submit to you my Report of expenditures, &c.ofthe Indian exploring expedition west of the Mississippi authorized by act ofCongress passed March 1828.
It so happened, (the causes for which are explained in Document No. 6) thatmostof the costs of conducting the northern Indians occurred seperately from those inrelation to the southern. The former were six in number including theinterpreter, who was part Potawatomie. The distance they travelled was aboutequal to the average distance travelled by the southern Indians, and on accountof the delay of the latter, the Potawatomies and Ottawas were longer from theirhomes than was requisite for those of the south. Expenditures on account of theformer occurred under my own control. They are distinctly stated in theaccounts.
I was instructed to report myself to Genl. William Clark and in-
formed that from him the party would receive "the necessary detailedinstructionsfor the government of their route and movements."  The duties of myappointment not having been particularly pointed out in my instructions, Icheerfully acquiesced in the arrangements of Genl. Clark that Cap. Kennerly, whomhe had appointed leader of the party, should control all expendituressubsequently to those occasioned by the northern Indians. Those expenditures arealso distinctly stated in the account My business was to pay debts as theyoccurred, or to purchase by order of Cap. Kennerly. Hence I am accountable onlyfor the disbursement of those funds. 
The out-fit for the expedition, amounting on one bill to $7,695.47, embracingalso sundry smaller accounts, was furnished under directions of Genl. Clark andapproved by him, the amount for which was handed me by Cap. KennerlyThe season was so far advanced before we left St. Louis that it was desireable toleave the state as soon as possible. The Chickasaw delegation was started first,and secondly, as they could be made ready, the Choctaws, and Creeks. Fundstherefore were placed in the hands of the several leaders of the parties todefray
their expenses thro. the white settlements. Cap. Kennerly and myself overtookthem when a little more than half way through the state, after which time I paidmuch of the expense of the whole company. Those advances being greater than thenature of the cases would appear to require, merit an explanation.
Your Obt. servt Isaac McCoy
Hon. Peter B. Porter
It is in obedience to instructions connectedwith my appointment to accompany an exploring party of Indians west of theMississippi, agreeably to act of Congress passed March 1828, that I ask leaverespectfully to submit the following report. 
the appropriation of Congress for purposes of the expedition, is reported onin documents accompanying this.
Having with us 12 horses. We travelled on the south side of Missouri,inclining to south of West, and passed out of the state where its western linecrosses Osage river. Near that place we took in a half-breed Osage as aninterpreter to Osages and Kanzas.  The Osages at the village we passed herewere altogether friendly.
I halted, and sent him forward to inform themain village that I would presently be with them for the purpose of smoking. Iwas much gratified to hear from him that 16 Pawnees were at the village incounsel with the Kanza. Greatly to my disappointment, however when I came intothe assembly of the Kanzas, I ascertained that all the Pawnees except three hadhastily left on our approach. These three who, I suppose, had been left toascertain the object of our visit were in haste to be gone and could only bedetained long enough for me to give them a brief talk, and a liberal present oftobacco, to which they replied in the usual complimentary way. Our interview withthe Kanzas was also indicative of much friendly feeling.
versally limestone. The soil on those rivers, which is exceedingly fertile,possesses the mellowness peculiar to limestone lands. Most of the creeks andsmaller water courses pass over limestone, and along the larger streams aresometimes seen steep and high cliffs of limestone rocks. The Hill sides arefrequently washed until the stone is quite uncovered, in those places it isgenerally thin flag stone. Bottom land is in width somewhat proportioned to thesize of the stream passing thro. it. That of the Osage 40 miles west of the stateof Missouri is about a mile in width. In addition to this we usually find on oneor both sides of the water courses, and proportioned somewhat to their size, agentle ascent of land, extending in the case above mentioned of Osage from threeto five miles back, and terminating at the base of hills which may rise 100, or150 feet, their sides sometimes abrupt, but oftener more gentle. There are seenmany hills detached from their kindred, conical, oblong, and of many a differentshape, so regular in their structure that the ob server can scarcely forbidconviction that they are artificial. These isolated hills are little else thanheaps of limestone.
Here it is quite the reverse, scarcely aquagmire is to be found. The season for two or three months has been remarkablydry, yet we found no scarcity of water. Water courses of suitable size for millsand other water works, are numerous. But, as it happens generally in the state ofMissouri, most of these streams so far fail in the dry seasons, that mills andother machines would stand still. In this respect the country resembles the stateof Missouri and the middle & upper counties of Kentucky.
This country, which is of peculiar character,often practices another deception upon the traveller. Streaks of timber seen at adistance and even at no great distance, amidst the vast prospect which theopenness of the country affords, appear much narrower than they really are.
over the bodies of the deceased among the Indians of these regions. But theheaps of which we speak appear to be the result of amusement of the traveller,who invited to the elevation by its gaity or grandeur, leaves a monument of a fewstones thrown together to advertise a subsequent visitant that a human being hadbeen there. To this heap each successive visitant, invited thither by curiositycontributes a stone or two. It was amusing to see our Indians in good humour,contributing their portion to the increase of the social heap.
attending him. Before leaving St. Louis he had been attacked with measles fromwhich he had not sufficiently recovered to endure the journey. Cap. Kennerly tookthe stage and followed the company, while Dr. Todson and myself remained with thesick man. He was exceedingly anxious to make the tour & begged us not toleave him behind. We conveyed him in a carriage seven miles, when he became fullyconvinced as well as ourselves, that he was unable to proceed further. He diedfive days afterwards and was decently buried. We overtook the foremost of our company on the 26th 180 miles from St. Louis. Thecompany proceeded on the 28th and reached  the western line of the state ofMissouri the 2d Nov. For the purpose of obtaining an interpreter we remained hereone week. In which time our Indians & the Shawanoes had several friendlytalks. While here, the Agent for Indian affairs at Fort Leavenworth communicated to us information that 1500 Pawnees, it was reported, had gone on awar expedition, intending to watch the Santa Fe road or if unsuccessful there toproceed farther southeast. He warned us to be on our guard, and, should we comein contact with Pawnees apparently friendly, not to permit them to mingle with usin camp, or at any other time. We resumed our march on the 8th. Our company beingnow complete consisted of Cap. G. H. Kennerly, leader, Lieut. Hood Topographist,Mr. John Bell assistant topographist, and G. P. Todson surgeon.  To me hadbeen intrusted the monied matters. The Chickasaws Delegation consisted of 12Indians, and an interpreter, accompanied by three white men chosen by themselves,in all 16, with Mr. John B. Duncan Sub. Agent, as their leader. The Choctawdelegation was composed of six Indians, and lead by Mr. D. W. Haley. The Creekdelegation consisted of three, and was lead by Mr. Luther Blake.  We had oneinterpreter to Osages and Kanzas, seven hired men, and a black servant belonging[to] a Chickasaw Chief.  In all 42. We had with us upwardsofsixty horses.
We proceeded a little west of south, crossed Osage river  about 20 miles west of the state of Missouri  andfell on to the Neosho about 14 miles farther west  We then proceeded downNeosho to the Osage Agency,  in the neighbourhood of the upper Osagevillages, about 33 miles west of the western limits of the state of Missouri, atwhich place we arrived the 17th November.  Here we re-
mained four days, and afforded Indians of our party and the Osages anopportunity to reciprocate expressions of friendship.  The Osages andChoctaws were once enemies. Within two years past pipes of peace had beenexchanged and each tribe considered peace restored. This having been done thro.the mediation of others, it was gratifying that a personal interview at this timeafforded an opportunity of confirming the peace. 
From the Osage villages  we took the road tothe Creek agency on the Verdigris river, within four miles of its junction withthe Arkansaw.  Here and near Fort Gibson we remained five days.  Leavingthe Creek delegation with their countrymen on Verdigris  we again took up theline of march the 2d of December.  We crossed Arkansaw and continued ourcommon course, a little west of south, crossed the north fork of Canadian river,and six miles farther crossed the main Canadian, and encamped a mile above at themouth of the south fork. This was the most westwardly point that we made on thistour, which was about 48 miles west of the Territory of Arkansaw, and 260 milessouth of the mouth of Kanzas river, 255 from where we went out of the state ofMissouri. In coming to this point after leaving the state we travelled about asdirect, with slight exceptions, as is usual in making a journey of the same
length The first 40 miles was across the lands assigned the Shawanoes, andPiankeshaws, the next 48 miles was thro. unappropriated lands. Then 50 milesacross Osage lands, then 77 miles thro lands assigned the Creeks and Cherokees.Thence 40 miles thro. Cherokee lands, and at this point viz the mouth of thesouth fork of Canadian river, we entered the Choctaw lands.
Cap. Kennerly Lieut. Hood, Mr. Bell, Dr. Todson,& myself made the best of our way back passed Fort Gibson, and reached 4s St.Louis the 24th Decr. The pack horses and men were a little in the rear and wouldarrive the 25th or 27th. It was the 10th December when on our return we passedthe Creek agency. There we again saw the Creek delegation. On that day they setoff for their homes. They had not explored much of their country, but hadcontented themselves with spending the time in the neighbourhood of theirrelations. The Creeks now in this country are chiefly or all of the McIntoshparty. The delegation was from the opposite party. This interview of the partieswas characterized by expressions of friendship from both, and an agreement thatall former grudges should be forgotten. The emigrants invited the others to cometo their country, and spoke greatly in its praise. This was seconded by a writtencommunication from Chilly McIn-
tosh to his countrymen in the south. The feelings with which the delegationset off for their places justify the hope of a favourable result.  In everyarrangement in relation to the removal of the Creeks, I would respectfullysuggest the propriety of placing out of sight as far as possible everything ofparty character.
stone, also some flint. The hills are more stony and poor, yet abundance ofgood prairie lies among them.
own valuable salt springs on Neosho, and farther south, some of which I saw,and one of which they were profitably working.
it sent down more water than the Canadian, tho. it is to be reckoned a riverof considerably less magnitude.
I think that when they left their homes they didnot expect to be pleased. It was unfortunate that there was a necessity forpressing on them to make the tour the present season. They were induced to feelthemselves on the occasion more independent, and to take
greater liberty in dictating the route, than was to the advantage of theexpedition. Nevertheless their conduct was at all times marked with civility anddecorum greatly to their credit as gentlemen, and such, I am confident as wouldnot suffer by comparison with american citizens on any similar expedition.They were utterly averse to going north of the state of Missouri, and withavidity seized upon every pretext for shortening the route. I am not prepared torecommend at this time a repetition of the expedition for the benefit of thesepeople, yet I am confident the present has been made under so many disadvantages,that it ought not to be considered a fair trial in the case. I would hererespectfully suggest that should another exploring expedition be ordered forsimilar purposes in relation to any of the tribes, the fewer the number ofpersons, so it be sufficient for their security and convenience in travelling,and the more simple and unostentatious, that every movement connected therewithcan be, the better. In confirmation of this idea I need only refer to theexpenditures incurred on the late expedition, in relation to the Potawatomies andOttawas, and which might have been less had they been less associated with thewhole, and to the favorable impression made on the minds of those Indians. These,remarks imply not the smallest censure of men. They relate only to measures,which, though the result of the best of motives, may be dictated too remotelyfrom the scene of action for the most honorable wisdom to secure them defects,and which the servants of government must obey even under a full conviction oftheir inutility.
better than sterile plains while lands of inferior quality were often remarkedas the richest in the country. There was nothing mysterious in this beyond whatoften happens in relation to those of our own citizens when required to form anopinion of lands in a country where they are ignorant of the characteristics ofits good and bad land. There is perhaps no subject agitated among men, apparentlyso obvious upon persons equally tenacious of truth which so widely differ.Liability to mistake in this respect becomes the greater where one whosepossessions have been found in a timbered country, is required to judge of whatmay be termed a prairie country. Pardon me for suggesting that in ordering allsimilar exploring expeditions in future this fact ought to be borne in mind. Theseason had so far advanced before we could leave St. Louis, added to the littleinclination of the Indians to make the tour before next spring, that I almostdespaired of a favourable issue of the expedition. My discouragements wereaugmented on passing out of the state of Missouri. That country in September hadbeen the most delightful to the eye, of any that I had ever seen. From thesplendid elevation, the unbounded prospect of high rolling prairies, clothed withgrass of Autumnal gray, spotted, and streaked with woodlands in cheerful green,describing the course of every stream, was beautiful beyond description. But nowthe woods were in winter dress. The grass of the prairies burnt, or burning, thedust rising from the recently burnt prairies, agitated by our horses' feet,exceedingly troublesome. The atmosphere so smoky that sight was limited to alittle sphere. The prairies black, and every thing apparently clad in mourning,the whole agravated by winds which sometimes blew incessantly in our faces for awhole day's journey. Autumn gives to a timbered country, especially if it befertile an air of pleasantness delightful to him who explores, for the purpose ofbecoming acquainted with it. Precisely the reverse is the case with a prairiecountry. In autumn the traveller does not feel the cold of winter, the wet ofspring, the annoyance of insects and the heat of summer. He travels on firm land,and finds food plentifully, nevertheless in no season of the year does a prairiecountry appear so little inviting to one who likes it, or so forbidding to onewho is inclined to dislike like, as in the fall about the time of the burningof
more perplexing on the tour, that almost all the country of Arkansaw and itswaters had been previously assigned to other tribes so that there remained, in amanner, none vacant for the examination of the Chickasaws. The Choctaws own agreat deal of excellent country. The better parts are severed by the chain ofmountainous land mentioned above, at the sources of the south fork of Canadian,and the Kiamisha. A valuable tract lying east and west along Red river, andanother extending in the same direction along Arkansaw and Canadian. Very few ofthe tribe are located in that country, and these mostly on Red river. They couldspare country fully sufficient for the use of the Chickasaws on Arkansaw &Canadian rivers, north of the broken poor regions that divide the better parts oftheir country. They would still retain in the southern parts as much as would benecessary for them of excellent quality, while that given to the Chickasaws wouldperhaps not be inferiour. Such is the obvious excellence of that country that theChickasaws could not possibly plead its defects as an objection to their removal.The countries now owned by the Choctaws, Creeks and Cherokees, are sufficientlyextensive to accommodate the Chickasaws also-& even more. Those tribes areaccustomed to neighbourhood relations, & the climate is such as they haveever enjoyed. In these remarks I include the whole of those tribes, wherever theymay at present exist.
It is one of the local causes which will secure the Indians in the possessionof that country:
From where the western line of the state ofMissouri crosses the Missouri river, the general direction of the latter as weascend is northwest for the distance, on a direct line, of 260 miles. It thenturns to the west 100 miles. Then it again bears to north west, and north leavingthe smaller streams of Runningwater and Puncah rivers, to mark the westwardlydirection towards the Rocky moun tains. I hope, sir, that a glance at some of thelater maps will procure an apology for my supposing that Running water &Puncah rivers and the Missouri should form the northern boundary of the IndianTerritory, the latter river the north eastern. The state of Missouri &territory of Arkansaw, the eastern, Red river (which is here our southernboundary) the southern, and the uninhabitable regions stretching nearly north andsouth on this side of the rocky mountains, should form the western limits of theterritory.
ern boundaries of the Kanzas reservation, is a distanceof 395 miles on a direct line. All these lands have been given away except astrip along Osage and the upper branches of Neosho, which in its narrowest partat the east is about 40 miles wide, and in its broadest about 75, and a stripextending north and south between the line of Missouri & the Osagereservation, &c. 25 miles wide, and about 80 miles long.
than settlement in the territory requires concert and harmony in theoperations of all the parts. The superintendency in St. Louis is 300 miles fromthe nearest point of the Indian territory, and consequently too remote to manageall to advantage.
metes and bounds be fixed to those hunting lands trespasses will inevitably befrequent, and may lead to unpleasant consequences.
of things as will render it possible to make a fair distribution of it amongitsinhabitants in view of their numbers and circumstances, and which will secure tothem the possibility of future prosperity.Please to indulge me in expressing an opinion on another [point] deeply affectingthe interests of this territory, and which I am confident claims the earliestattention of our government.
The first company had two men killed, and lostabout 700 mules and horses. Thesecond had one man killed, lost scarcely a less number of animals-were forced toabandon their wagons & baggage-carry about $6,000 in specie on their backsand hide it in the earth, and come home on foot, exposed to great distress.The late successes of those marauders, it may be expected, will embolden them intheir robberies-and invite a greater number to engage in them, and our Indiansettlements in that country, as well as the trade to Santa Fe, are destined soonto feel the effects of them more seriously than heretofore, unless efficientmeasures to check them be speedily adopted by our government. What measures wouldbe most eligible is not easily determined.  The villages of many of thoseIndians who are known to be engaged in these acts of hostility, are within theMexican territories. They wander on the sources of Arkansaw along the mountains,and make excursions south and east --send an armed force into the country wherethey wander. They could fly faster than troops could pursue. It would beimpossible to come upon them unawares, for they are ever on the alert in thisrespect, and those woodless plains forbid the concealment of the traveller. Iftroops by strategem were to come in contact with a company of Indians, it wouldbe almost, or quite impossible to decide whether they were offendors, or aninoffensive hunting party, for every hunting party is prepared for war, onaccount of their continual dread of their enemies. Buffalos and other game areabundant in every place. They would therefore feel no inconvenience in flyingfrom one place to another, and so soon as our troops would return, they would beready to resume their mal-conduct.
To station troops farther west than any are atpresent located would be betterthan the plan above referred to but it could not obviate the difficulty. They hadthe hardihood last summer to attack and kill our citizens almost within sight ofFort Towson. For this they were in return scourged, but not reformed. I hope Ishall not be deemed uncharitable for conjecturing that others, beside Indianshave a hand in these depredations upon our citizens. No company, I believe, hasyet been attacked on it's way to Santa Fe; attacks are invariably made on thosewho are returning. The times of their
leaving Santa Fe are there known, and opportunity afforded for making timelypreparations for mischief. They are watched from their outsetting until afavourable opportunity offers for the attack.
mountains, already lucrative, could be carried on without molestation. The plan has not been disclosed to the Osages, butwhile I was in their countrysuch enquiries were made and such answers returned by some Osages of influence,that I have no doubt that the nation could readily be brought into themeasure.
February 4, 1829.
SIR: As leader of the exploring expedition,composed of deputations from theChoctaws, Chickasaws, and Creeks, and which was specially authorized by Congress,I have the honor to submit the following remarks, together with the notes,&c., taken on the route.
In compliance with the instructions I received fromGeneral William Clark,Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis, we proceeded directly from St.Louis to the western boundary of the State of Missouri, near the mouth of theKansas river, and on the south
side of the Missouri. Finding that the deputations were averse to going as farnorth as the instructions required, I was induced in some measure to change thecontemplated route, and bear to the south. For our course, I would beg leave torefer you to the topographical sketch, herewith, taken by Lieutenant Hood and Mr.Bell; for a description of the general appearance and face of the country,together with the character of soil, &c., I would also refer you to the notestaken on the route, herewith enclosed.
I have the honor to be,
Your obedient servant,
G. H. KENNERLY.
Hon. P. B. PORTER,
In compliance with orders received from theHonorable Secretary of War, theexploring expedition, composed of deputations from the Chickasaw, Choctaw, andCreek tribes of Indians, under the command of Capt. George H. Kennerly, left St.Louis on the 21st of October, 1828, for the purpose of examining the land to thewest of the State of Missouri, together with that situated between the Canadianforks of the Arkansas River.
distance of from seven to nine miles from the junction of the main Canadianwiththe Arkansas, it is in many places quite hilly; between these hills, however, weoften meet with very handsome valleys of considerable extent, well timbered. Thelatter is applicable to the hills also.
point where we first struck the river; the taste of the water is slightlybrackish; the banks are composed of a reddish clay, mixed with sand. This streamhas a milky appearance, corresponding in some degree with the color of its banks;it flows over a bed consisting of lime and sandstone, the latter predominating.The shores are a mixture of sand and gravel; the former of which, when the windis high, presents at a distance the appearance of a storm. This river is easilyforded in the vicinity of Cantonment Gibson, on the Neosho, at this season of theyear.
proportion. In a number of places on the Arkansas and Illinois rivers, itgrows so close as to impede, in a great measure, the progress of any onetravelling through them.
made; from its taste, however, we would suppose that, if worked, it wouldprovevery productive.
We have the honor to be,
Lt. U. S. Army.
ST. Louis, Mo.
13th Jan. 1829.
© DEAR SIR: Enclosed you will find the notes whichare to accompany the maps.  Theshort period allowed to finish them, in order to meet you at Washington City,would not permit a revision of them; as they are, we believe them to be correct,although not so full as we would wish them.
If it is possible, we would like to get a supply ofthe map and notes, together with the general report.
We have the honor to be,
Very respectfully, Your obedient servants,
Lt. U. S. A.
CAPT. GEO. H. KENNERLY,
Course: From line to < No. 1, S. 45 W.
The face of the country moderately rolling, soilvery rich, well timbered, black and white oak, red and slippery elm, walnut,hickory, hackberry, black and honey locust, ash, lynn, some cherry-treeunderwood, red bud, pawpaw and hazel; six or eight hundred yards from line,crossed near the head of a small branch running to left,  winding its way tothe Big Blue river.
Course: No. 1 to 2,
No. 1 entered prairie at a projecting point,woods on right and left for half a mile, where the timber on left disappeared;that on the right continued to No. 2, at a distance varying from 100 yards tohalf a mile from course, which was over the points of ridges making down to theBlue river, tributary to Missouri, which runs here parallel with course betweenone and two; face of country gently rolling, soil rich.
Course: No. 2 to 3, S. 20 W.
Country generally rolling, soil rich, course alittle to left; Perry and Comstalk's (Shawnee) village to right, on an eminence,at the foot of which winds the waters of a branch of the Blue river.  Thegeneral course of this creek, a little beyond this point, west. At No. 3 crossedthe Santa Fe road; timber at this point just in sight on right; none in view onleft of course.
Course: No. 3 to B.C.S.
Half a mile, passed over a moderately elevatedridge, which divides the waters of the Little and Big Blue;  from its summitno timber in sight, nothing in fact but an extensive rolling prairie; half a milefrom point B, a small rivulet, on which is a handsome grove of timber; this headsabout two and a half miles above where we crossed it; its general course fromwest to east, joining the Big Blue a short distance below; proceeding half a mileover level and well timbered land to point B, we struck the waters of the BigBlue; the timber on this stream, at point B, is near a mile in width, of the samekind as that which is found at the line; this however decreases as you approachits source, which is distant 10 or 12 miles, a little south of west; it is hereabout ten yards in width, banks 10 or 12 feet high, water clear, of a bluishgreen appearance where it is deep; its taste corresponds with that which is foundpassing over (as this stream does) a bed of limestone; soil from No. 3 to thispoint generally good.
Course: B. to No. 1, C.S.
Nov. 10.-After passing this river and continuinghalf a mile through oak, walnut, and hickory timber, ascending a longgentle slope from the stream, entered prairie; from the top of this rise we had acom manding view of the surrounding country; a continued rolling prairie onright; on left, the appearance was beautiful; numerous small streams, theirmargins timbered, were seen winding their courses in the valleys of this rollingcountry generally to E. and N. E.; continuing on for two miles, crossed a smallbranch running nearly at right angles with course; its banks are timbered, thewidth of the timber about 300 yards; after leaving it, we touched upon a prairieto the right; shortly after crossed another branch running from southwest tonortheast, which intersects the former a short distance below our crossing place;the water of both is clear, and corresponds with the waters of the Big Blue, asit respects color and taste; both are tributaries of this stream. From this weascended a gently rising hill; on reaching its summit we had another view of thecountry around; this elevation is at < No. 1; groves of timber were seen to thesoutheast, at some distance from course; country, as usual, rolling, soil good.
Course: No. 1 to C, 4 18#189; C. S. 45 W.
Half a mile from this crossed the Main Santa Feroad; two miles further, crossed a small creek, three miles from its head,containing clear running water, its course from northwest to southeast; masses oflimestone are found on the summits and sides of the small ridges leading to thisbrook; near its margin there are a few scattering trees, which are low andscrubby; country rather hilly near this creek. Continuing one and a half mile,came to another creek, at point C; the course of this is from southwest tonortheast; it forked just below point G [C?]; the left branch winds off in asoutherly direction; its banks are of limestone, in some places perpendicular,the limestone in horizontal layers. The face of the country in this vicinity isgenerally rolling, but, as an approach is made to the creeks, it becomes brokenand hilly, sometimes (as it is at this point) with steep and rocky cliffs. Verylittle timber on this creek; soil generally good.Course: From C to No. 1, S. 50 W.
Nov. 11: Crossed the left fork of this creek,with banks of limestone, as before;from this we ascended for two and a half miles, until we arrived at the dividingridge between the waters of the Blue and Grand rivers, the latter a branch of theOsage; from the top of this ridge no timber was seen in any direction; the courseof this ridge from northwest to southeast; half a mile, crossed what is generallycalled in this part of the country, "a dry creek," leading to the Grand river,its course S. 40 W.; at the distance of 7 or 8 miles, it increases; as itapproaches Grand river, its margins in some places timbered slightly; we passeddown the northern side of this stream, crossing numerous drains from the prairie,which is rolling; these drains from the prairie render the land near the streamquite broken; at No. 1, the timber on the creek to the left, which continues for3 or 4 miles back, disappears; a little after, we met with a small grove oftimber on right. The soil of this part of the country has been washed from itsoriginal situation in many. places, showing a part of the extensive bed oflimestone on which it rests; soil very good.Course>/B>: No. l to 2, S. 30 W.
Distance from one point to another: 1
Total distance from qr. line: 29½
Course for a short time changed to left, windinground some steep rockyhollows; timber to the west and northwest, down the hollows; country very rollingto south of course; soil, when uninterrupted, good.
Course: No. 2 to D, 60 W.
A few hundred yardsfrom < No. 2, entered timber, which continued to a creek, another branch of theGrand river; country gently declining from the edge of the timber to creek; thesoil mixed with nu-
Course: D to No. 1, S.
Nov. 12.-Proceeded three or four hundred yards;entered prairie; country nearlylevel; a moderately elevated ridge to right; continued 3 miles, and crossed themain branch of Grand river; its course appeared to be from northwest tosoutheast, and joined the one last mentioned about half a mile below; it is 15 or20 yards in width, banks varying, 10 or 12 feet general height; beautiful groveof timber upon it, width 5 or 600 yards; the country is more rolling on the souththan on the north side; this stream, like all we passed, is at present very low;the water corresponds in appearance, &c. with that of the Blue; continuing afew hundred yards, enter prairie, nearly level about one mile; then ascend aridge which divides the creek just passed and that in front; country on thisridge and S. S. E. and S. W., rather hilly and broken; limestone exposed in manyplaces on the summits and sides of hills, and also in the prairie; passed fromthe ridge into an extensive valley, running from west to east, in which is alittle timber, which is on a small dry creek; at the distance of one mile,crossed another creek, running from southwest to northeast; country rolling, soilgood; in a number of places, however, the soil contains the mixture of fragmentsof lime stone; after leaving this, in a short time we crossed the dividing ridgebetween the Grand and the Osage rivers. The country from the summit of this ridgeto the east and west appears hilly and broken, but to the south rolling, withsome extensive valleys; passed half < No. 1, in a valley.
Course: No. l to 2, S.25 W.
Between Nos. 1 and 2 the country is gentlyrolling; no timber, but good soil;about half way between the two points is a detached hill of a conical form, tothe right of course; between 6 and 800 yards circumference of base, and altitude90 or 100 feet.
Course: No. 2 to E, S. 45 W.
At point E there is a small ridge, the ends ofwhich are rounded off; rollingprairie to the Osage river at point E, a few small streams or branches, with afew scattering trees on them, wind their courses toward this river in sight fromcourse; before arriving at the bank of the Osage, we crossed a small branch atthe edge of the timber; the wood is on the northern margin of the Osage, at thispoint in width half a mile,
the river 60 or 70 yards wide, water clear, banks 25 or 30 feet in height, andcomposed of the rich alluvial soil of the country to irregular depths, thensucceeds a bed of sand and gravel, of a reddish brown color to the water's edge;over a bed of this the Osage winds its course, which course, in general, appearsto be from W. N. W. to E. S. E. The width of timber varies on this stream from ahalf to two miles; the soil near and in the vicinity of the river is of the bestquality.
Course: E to No. 1, S. 30 E.
November 13th.-Crossed the Osage,  which isat this time easily forded, being quite low; a few hundred yards from thepoint, at which we struck the opposite bank, enter prairie in the valley runningto the river; small hills to left of course, which divide the waters of the mainOsage from another branch three or four miles south; its junction with the mainstream is four or five miles from the place where we forded the river; continuingthree miles, again strike the Osage; a high craggy bluff at this point; sometimber on the ridges, and also on the bluff, which is near 200 feet in height,the country very rolling south, between this and the last creek spoken of.Limestone still predominates, making its appearance in horizontal strata in thebluff, and sides and summits of the hills.
Course: No. 1 to F, S.
Continued one mile; passed into a valley inwhich ran a dry creek with a few scattering trees; its course is from E. to W.;somehills on the south side of this creek; kept down the creek some distance, andcrossed at a point of hills on the east; about a mile S. W. of this point westruck the creek, and passed up it about half a mile; on the north side of thisstream there are some high hills, the summits of which are bold; large masses oflimestone in layers, projecting a short distance in some places over the sides ofthe hills; at this point there is another beautiful grove of timber; the courseof creek appears to be from W. S. W. to E.N.E. to the Osage; the soil generallygood. The creek just mentioned is 25 or 30 yards wide, and banks 15 or 20 feethigh; at present this stream is very low.
Course: F to G, S. 30 W.
November 14, 1828. Passed up a valley and bottomofthis branch; there is a range of hills to left during the whole distance, pointsof which frequently come within a short distance of the creek, but sometimesrecede to such distances as to form extensive valleys and bottoms.
These bottoms and valleys are generally welltimbered, particularly the former;the summits and sides of the hills are generally capped with large uncoveredbeds, or rather masses of limestone, the layers of which are horizontal; they arein height from 50 to 150 feet; the sides are mostly covered with the usual kindsof upland timber, such as post-oak, black jack, &c.; the country at somedistance from the creek is prairie, hilly, and broken; rendered so by thenumerous ravines or drains which serve to carry off the water from the prairie tothe creek mentioned above, which we ascended. About three miles below G crossedthe creek to the west side, and proceeded about 300 yards to prairie; this isrolling, which continues for a great distance; in fact, as far as the eye candistinguish any object, the horizon bounding the view; the soil of this valley isof the first quality; it is also very good in all the prairie country in thisvicinity, except where the land has been laid bare by the rains.
Course: G to No. 1, S. 50 W.
November 15, 1828. Proceeded up the valley ofthe creek on the west side; face of the country almost level on course to < No.1; prairie on right gently ascending for one or two miles, then became rolling;crossed a branch, on which is a few scattering trees' about half way betweenthese two points; branch courses from W. to E., soil varying, near the branchgood, but a little removed; stony.
Course: No. 1 to 2, S.
Creek here approaches course; very little timberon thewest side of it at this point; the east side is hilly and broken, with sometimber on points of ridges, as well as on the numerous tributaries of thisbranch; the creek here takes an easterly direction; little or no timber on thebranches leading to it from west, continuing seven or eight miles, and pass thedividing ridge between the waters of the Osage and Neosho; country rolling; thesoil mixed with numerous small and large fragments of limestone, flint, andgravel, &c.; from the descending point the country becomes less rolling;continued to < No. 2, at which we crossed a drain, which we descended to another,winding its course from east; these branches met just below where we crossed; alittle timber in the fork; soil across the dividing ridge poor and stony.
Course: No. 2 to H, S. 50 W.
The country to H is gently rolling in our courseboth toright and left; some sandstone of a reddish cast was found here, mixed in beds oflimestone; soil generally good; crossed the creek to west side again, where thereis a handsome grove of timber.
Course: H. to No. 1, S. 50 W.
November 16, 1828: Continued 300 yards; enteredprairie, rolling in alldirections to No. 1, except in the valley of the creek which we passed; this runsto the left nearly parallel with course. The soil here, as well as for somedistance back, in many places, is mixed, as has been before stated, withlimestone in small fragments; here is also fragments of sandstone, flint,&c.; where this is not the case, the soil is good; timber of the Neosho tothe west in sight.Course: No. 1 to 1, S.10 W.
Distance from one point to another: 10
Total distance from qr. line: 95
Crossed the creek again at this point; here is aconical hill north side of thecreek; half a mile below the crossing place it wound around with course, runningparallel with it; face of the country nearly level to the S. and E. side of thiswater course for a mile or two, then changes to rolling three miles; crossed acreek running east, joining the former on right, a short distance below;tributary of the Neosho; half a mile further, continuing one mile from thiscreek, we struck the Neosho river; coming in from the N. W., rolling prairie toleft, on east of river; to point I the soil very rocky in some places near themargin; with this exception, the soil is good.
Course: I, to Osage Agency. S. 40 E.
November 17, 1828.-The appearance of thecountry, from this as far on as theOsage Agency, is rolling; a few miles east of the river, between these twopoints, there are several small creeks tributaries of the Neosho; two miles fromI, there is one running general direction N. N. E. to S. S. W., on which is agrove of timber nearly half a mile in breadth; at present no running water;another branch is eight or ten miles below this, with timber; its course from N.N. E. to S. S. W.;  about half a mile this side of the Agency there isanother,running from N. E. to S. W.  This is not so large as the former, nor does it,after a distance of one mile and a half from river, afford as handsome groves oftimber; the face of the country between these creeks varies from level pieces ofland to rolling prairie, and especially in the bend of the Neosho at the Agency;the timber of the river is generally confined to the east side of the followingkinds, viz : black and white oak, overcup oak, walnut, hickory, hackberry, redand slippery elm, black and honey locust, lynn, ash, a little cotton wood, andnear the margin, birch, willow, and sycamore; soil between the two pointsmentioned generally good; the Osage Agency is on the west side of the river, on amoder-
ately elevated rise, which extends near the Neosho, and forms here a bluffbank. 
The Neosho river at the agency is between 50 and60 yards in width; the height ofthe bank varies from 15 to 25 feet on the east side; the bluff bank is of muchgreater height, and is composed of sandstone of various colors, generally of alight grey cast, often red. The bed of the river is gravel, the water clear; thedepth at this season 3#189; to 4 feet at the point mentioned above. In thebluff, on the western side of the river, there is a formation of stone coal; itcontains a great deal of bitumen; when burnt, gives out a dark smoke; burns witha reddish brown flame; in fact, it appears to possess the properties of the coalwhich is found in such abundance in the vicinity of Pittsburg, Pa. The specimenobtained was from near the surface; of course not so good as that which is moredeeply imbedded. The extent of this formation is not known, but it is probablethat it extends to a great distance in this country, as it will be seen, as weadvance, that this is not the only place it is to [be] met with. The sandstonehere appears to predominate, and doubtless from this as far as the expeditionproceeded may be considered a sand stone country.Course: Agency to the village of White Hair. S. 45 E.
Distance from one point to another: 6
Total distance from qr. line: 120
From the agency to White Hair's village is arolling prairie country.  About three miles from the former there is a creekrunning to the Neosho on left, with a few scattering trees; east, half a milethis side, or north of the village, there is another; both, however, small.Sandstone is found in the sides, or rather composing the sides of the drainsleading down to the river; soil good. Timber on Neosho from #189; mile to 2 inwidth.W. H. Vil. to J. S.Course:
Distance from one point to another: 24#189;
Total distance from qr. line: 144#189;
From this village for 3 miles the course was S.30 E., change to S. 20 E. for 3 miles; crossed a small dry creek, which forksjust above this point; half a mile below it joins the Neosho; a few scatteringtrees on it; on the points of the ridges which make to it above the forks, thereis some post oak and black jack; continuing 3 miles crossed another creek withsome scrubby timber on it; its course from W. by N. to E. by S. Course from this,for 8 or 10 miles, nearly due S., crossing the heads or near the heads of severalhollows or drains which lead to the Neosho on left; from this, S. W. for 5 or 6miles, to a creek called the
River of Reptiles at K [J.?].  The general course of this creek appears tobefrom N. W. to S. E., and heads opposite the Osage Agency; it is about 20 yardswide, banks of clay 15 or 20 feet high. Throughout the season there is alwayssome water in this creek; but at this time, at the point we passed it, it was notrunning. There is a handsome grove of timber on this creek, from 100 yards tohalf a mile in width. The general face of the country between the two last pointsis rolling; but as it approaches the river it becomes somewhat hilly and broken,many ravines running from the prairie to river having this effect, andconsequently producing this difference in appearance. Sand and limestone arefrequently met with in these ravines, and often exposed in the prairie; soilgenerally good. The distance of point J. from the Neosho river is 5 miles; thecountry between these streams is nearly level at this point.
Course: J. to K. S.
Three miles quite level, soil not good; crossedthe"Riviere du Bate," or River of Reptiles. The bed of this river at this point, forabout 300 yards, is com posed wholly of stone coal, of the same quality andappearance as that which is found at the Osage Agency; probably a continuation ofthe same formation; about 4 miles from the point at which we struck and crossedthe river of Reptiles to the Neosho; from this proceeded over a very levelprairie of 3 miles, and crossed a small dry creek. The soil of this prairie isnot of the best quality; the creek has a few scattering trees; ranges from S. W.to N. E. into the Riviere du Bate; from the branch, the country is rolling in alldirections, for 7 or 8 miles. Met with a grove of timber on a ridge composed, asusual, of post oak and black jack; continuing 2 miles, crossed the head waters ofthe Planche Cabin, or Plank Cabin creek; course of it on right a little W. of S.;its general course is nearly due S. to its junction with the Neosho. Thence overa gently rolling prairie as before; passed a number of conical hills on left ofcourse. From this our direction was S. W. to the creek at point L.; which creek,at this point, is narrowly skirted with timber of the usual kind; found on theNeosho river, at this part of the creek, stone coal was again met with, whichwarrants the conclusion that although there is a great scarcity of timber inS.
this country, yet nature has provided an abundance of fuel of another kind, asdoubtless, from the appearances presented, this part of the country is wellsupplied with coal. 
From point L. to the Neosho is about 12 miles,rolling prairie; soil this dayvery variable; west of creek, country also rolling. It is not far from this tothe dividing ridge between the waters of the Neosho, or Grand river, and theVerdigris.
Course: From K. to Cheauteaus Trading House. S. 5 W.
November 24, 1828. From K, course S. E. for 2miles, at which place there are some hills, with timber; before arriving at thetimber the course changed to S., leaving the timber to left; country gentlyrolling in our course, and to the creek on our right, about one mile distant; onthe left it is variable, rolling and hilly. Three miles from point K, crossed abranch running to the right; 1 mile further crossed a deep hollow, at the head ofwhich there are large rocks of sandstone; its course is to the right. Continuing3 or 4 miles, we meet with timbered hills, the timber of the usual kind found offfrom the margins of the streams of this country, viz: post oak and black jack;from course to creek on right, 1 mile; an extensive valley between this and theNeosho to the E. and S. E., for 7 or 8 miles. For 5 or 6 miles the country ismoderately rolling to the point at which we crossed the "Plank cabin Creek" tothe west side; the creek at this point is about 20 yards wide, water low; thetimber is half a mile in width. At this place we met with the first cane brakesince our departure from the line; it is in small quantities, however; and indimensions, as to height, &c., it will scarcely bear comparison with thatfound more to the south. Three miles from the Plank Cabin crossed a small creek,with but little timber, running from W. to E. into the former; about 1 mile toleft, red sandstone is found in the banks and bed of this creek. The countrybetween the 2 last creeks varies; proceeding from the first, on the west side,for 1 or 2 miles, it is gently rolling, then becomes rolling; afterward, as youapproach the second, hilly and broken. Between the last branch and the point atwhich we struck the Neosho, at the mouth of Slippery Rock creek,  a distanceof10 or 12 miles in our course, country gently rolling. To the left, at variabledistances, from half to 2 miles, there was timber on the summit and sides of theridges, which make down to
the Cabin de Planche, which discharges itself into the Neosho, 2 or 3 milesabovethe mouth of Slippery Rock; to the right, for some distance, gently rolling, thenhilly and broken; to the west, 7 or 8 miles, is seen a ridge of well timberedhills; soil since point K not so rich as that which lies higher up the country.Slippery Rock creek, near its mouth, is 15 or 20 yards in width; the valley upwhich it runs is very narrow, so that the hills making down to the water's edgeare steep; its course is over a smooth rocky bottom. There are seen in the banksof some creeks in this vicinity alternate layers of sand and limestone, of depthsfrom 2 to 3 feet; the layer over which Slippery Rock creek flows is of limestone.Mr. Cheauteau's trading house stands 10 miles from this creek, on the east sideof the Neosho river.  During our course from the last point mentioned to thetrading establishment, the hills of the Neosho were continually in sight,containing, for short distances back from the stream, timber on the right ofcourse; until we arrived at Cheauteau's, a number of isolated conical hillspresented themselves near the course, the sides of which were barren, the richsoil being washed from them; still further beyond these hills there is a range oftimbered hills, forming a ridge, extending from N. W. to S. E. About 1#189;milesbefore arriving at the latter point, crossed in a valley a small creek making tothe Neosho; towards the head waters of this, the country is hilly and broken.About 1 mile S. E. of Mr. Cheauteau's, on the E. side of the Neosho, there is asalt spring, rising from a limestone rock, covering from 1 to 2 acres; severalopenings are made in this rock by the water, which has a strong saline taste;this water is highly impregnated with sulph. hyd. gas, which rises and isperceptible to any one on approaching the spring. The quantity of salt which thiswater would yield is not known, as no experiment of that kind has been made; butit is probable that it would produce abundantly. 
Course: Cheauteau's to point L. S. 5 W.
November 25, 1828. Advancing seven miles,crossed Pond creek;  the face ofthe country between these points, after ascending the hills from the Neosho, isnearly level; the timber on these hills, along on our course, is seen, and becomemore bold and prominent than they are further up the river; about half way be
tween Cheauteau's and point L, there are two detached hills, one on each sideofcourse a few hundred yards distant; the one on left of a conical, and that onright an oblong figure, both from 70 to 100 feet in height; on the right ofcourse, for some distance, is seen a number of hills of different forms-a rangeof timbered hills on right, which are in the vicinity of Pond creek, on its westside, dividing the waters of the Neosho and Verdigris; the general course ofcreek appears to be from N. W. to S. E. Frequent beds of lime and sandstoneabound at this place, as seen on the summit and sides of the hills; the formerappears here to predominate; soil good; this creek is about 10 yards in width;rocky bank on east; the western bank is of clay, mixed with the soil of thecountry; this passes over a bed of limestone; from this creek we passed over alevel prairie for one and a half miles, and crossed a point of the ridge, onwhich is some post oak and black jack, extending towards the Neosho on the east,dividing the waters of the latter and the creek at L; this ridge is of sandstone,probably in layers, with limestone. To a great distance on right of course, theface of the country is very rolling, rather inclining to hilly; some small grovesof timber are met with in many places. From the summit of the west ridge, wedescended into the valley of the Neosho; continuing one and a half miles, passeda creek at L, flowing over a bed of compact limestone of a blueish color; banksvery low; on them there is a beautiful grove of timber, more abundant, and of abetter quality than is here generally met with; its general course is from W. N.W. to E. S. E.; soil, from Pond creek, variable; on the east side of the Neosho,from the Trading House, the face of the country, near the river, hilly andbroken.
Course: L. to the Creek Agency. S. 5 W.
November 26, 1828. Continuing course for a fewhundred yards, there is a highridge of sandstone, large masses of which are detached. One mile from L, crosseda small creek, its general course being from N. W. by W. to S. E. by E.; soil of a middling quality-generally rolling and hilly further up the creek; fromcreek to the Union Missionary Establishment, distance four miles, a rolling andrather hilly country; timber, in some places, increasing as it approaches nearerthe river. The mission is situated at the head of the valley to the Neosho, ina S. S. E. direction,
about a half mile; before arriving at the station, we crossed a small ravinewithclear running water, wound its way from right to left from the hills on right;the hills in this vicinity are covered with sandstone in variable quantities;these are higher than any we have met with on our course from the State line ofMissouri; after leaving this valley, and advancing to the Creek Agency on theVerdigris, there is a rolling prairie country, with the exception of a creekcalled Round Bottom creek, on which is a small quantity of timber; during thecourse, however, the timber on the Neosho was always in sight, and generally fromhalf to three miles distant on left; the right is all rolling prairie; at thedistance of eight or ten miles from the agency, we were able to perceive thetimber on the Verdigris R.; before arriving at the agency, however, we met withtimber composed principally of post oak and black jack; at the edge of the timberthere is a small creek, which we crossed. The agency is situated immediately onthe eastern bank of the Verdigris, three or four miles from its mouth; there is ahigh sandstone bluff or hill just below, and on the same side with the agency.
The river is here between 60 and 70 yards inwidth; the water not so clear asthat of the Neosho; the western bank appears to be a mixture of sand, clay, andgravel; this is the highest point to which steam or keel boats ascend, thenavigation being interrupted by a fall in the river 6 or 700 yards above thispoint; the fall is from five to six feet; it is said that large quantities ofstone coal are found near this place. Verdigris tributary of Arkansas.
Course: Creek Agency to Cant. Gibson. S. 25 E.
November 30, 1828. From the Creek Agency toCantonment Gibson, the country, towithin one or two miles of the latter, is gently rolling, when it becomes nearlylevel, being the margin or bottom land of the Neosho; on this land, as well as onthe Arkansas, there are numerous cane brakes; at this place it grows very thick,the soil of this bottom being very rich; there are one or two small prairies onthe course between these two points; they extend but a short distance to theright, but continue out to the left into the extensive prairie between the watersof the Neosho and Verdigris; the bottom spoken of above is well timbered; abouttwo miles from the agency, there is a small brook of clear water running to theright, which heads in the hills of the Neosho. Cantonment Gib-
son is situated immediately on the east bank of the Neosho, three or fourmilesabove its mouth; the river, at this point, as usual, runs over a bed of gravel;the water is perfectly clear, so that the bottom is easily and distinctly seenwhen the river is deepest; it is at this point, at this time, from six to eightfeet in depth; the river here is 170 or 180 yards in width; the soil betweenthese points is generally very good; that of the bottom is rendered, in somedegree, useless, on account of the annual Spring freshets, which at that seasonrise, and, for some time, inundate the whole of it.
Course: Cant. Gibson to M. S. 20 W.
December 2, 1828. Forded the Arkansas river oneand half miles below the mouth ofthe Neosho; an extensive rich bottom between Cantonment Gibson and the Arkansas;for the distance of two or three miles in our course, is a continued cane brake,the height being from 10 to 12 feet, sometimes a little greater.
The Arkansas river, at the point where we struckand forded the river, is aboutfive hundred yards in width; the banks 25 or 30 feet in height, and composed of areddish brown colored sand and clay; on the south side, just below the point atwhich we left the stream, there is a bluff, composed of alternate layers of slateand clay; the layers are very thin; the latter is mixed with coal; both banks ofthe Arkansas are timbered; the northern bank, however, has the greatest quantity;the kind of timber is the same as that which is found on the Neosho; soil of thebottom on the south side is very rich, of a reddish cast near the river; theprairie on this side approaches near the Arkansas; continuing half mile, somehills on right; at the distance of two and a half miles from the river, crossed acreek running from S. W. by S. to N. E., by N.;  some low and scrubbly timberis found on this creek; the country is rather hilly on the north side of thebranch-some of them timberedthe summits and sides of many having sandstone rocksupon them; this may be considered exclusively a sandstone country; after passingon seven or eight miles, we crossed two or three branches running to left, on themargin of which, there is some timber; these branches are all tributaries to theArkansas. South of this, there is a range of rocky hills, extending from N. W. toS. E.; we ascended these, and from their summit the descent was gentle to what iscalled
"Darden's creek,"  a distance of two and a half miles; soil very rich,loose, and mellow, of a reddish cast; there is, on the south side of this creek,a range of timbered hills; at the point where we struck this creek; a branchenters from the north, passed up the creek one mile, and crossed it at M; hereanother fork makes in just below the last point mentioned from the south side, up the course of which there is a valley, there being high rocky hills oneach side, to the distance of three miles; these hills are from 150 to 200 feetin height; there is more timber at and near here than at any place between thisand the Arkansas bottom; the course of creek, at this place, from W. by N. to E.by S., 10 or 12 yards wide; banks high, and composed of sand and clay; the soil,since we crossed the Arkansas, is mixed with a considerable portion of sand.
Course: M. to N. S. 20 W.
December 3, 1828. On leaving point M. onDarden's creek, we passed up the valleynearly due S. for 3 miles; high hills of sandstone on each side, and at the headof the valley, distant apart about half a mile, and joining to the north. About 1mile after ascending from the valley, we entered prairie again; the soil betweenpoint N. on this not good; the principal timber on ridges post oak and blackjack. Proceeded three miles over a gently rolling prairie, and recrossed Darden'screek, which runs here from N. E. to S. W.; here there is but little timber;rather hilly towards its head, 2 or 3 miles above; passed over the same kind ofprairie as was just mentioned, having on right, for 4 or 5 miles, about 1 milefrom course, a ridge of timber; soil variable; course changed S. W.; enteredtimber, post oak and black jack; crossed several branches running towards the S.,and at 2 miles distance entered another small prairie. From this point we had aview of the hills beyond the north fork of the Canadian; valley from this pointto river generally timbered; soil, since entering the wood, very poor, mixed withgreat quantities of sand. Two and a half miles from this to the N. fork ofCanadian. On the north side of this fork the country falls off gently to theriver, but on the S. side it is hilly and broken in some degree; the hills on theN. side, or rather the high ground, contain the usual kind of timber, viz. postoak and black jack; but near the river, and on its margin, there is black andwhite oak,
overcupped white oak, black walnut, hickory, hackberry, mulberry, persimmon,cherry tree, red and slippery elm, black and honey locust, ash, sassafras, cottonwood, and, near the margin, birch, willow, and sycamore, Underwood, red haw,pawpaw, dogwood, red beed, &c. This fork, at the point where we struck it,which is a little below the mouth of Deep or Little North Fork, is from 60 to 70yards in width; the bank on the N. 45 or 50 feet high, of sand and clay; thewater of a greyish or muddy appearance; the opposite bank is not so high; soil,near the river, very loose and mellow, mixed with a considerable portion of sand,of a dark reddish brown color, almost approaching to a purple. "(At the pointwhere we forded the N. Fork, at this season there is a fall over sandstone rockof from three to four feet perpendicular; an island containing timber is on ourright, about 10 yards from N. bank.)"
Course: N. to 0. at the mouth of the S. fork of the Canadian. S. 10W.
December 4, 1828. Course, on setting out frompoint N., S. 70 E. half a mile;struck the fork again. There is a great bend between this and point N.; countrynearly level, soil rich. Course from here S. 10 E.; passed down the bank 1#189;miles and forded the river; at this point the river is 100 yards wide; the N.bank at this place is 10 or 12 feet high; that on the S. side 25 or 30 feet, ofclay, sand, &c. About 100 yards from this bank we passed a deep creek, whichis very bad, on account of the clay of which its banks are composed being verythin, comes from the S. E. and proceeded over a rich and gently rolling country,well timbered, with the exception of a small prairie, 300 or 400 yards. Aftercrossing the creek last mentioned, at the distance of 2#189; miles recrossedthis creek, which had wound its way round, and was running here from W. to E.; onits north side there is a high rocky hill approaches near the creek, from 100 to125 feet in height; on ascending this hill the country in our course was rolling,hilly to right and left; crossed several dry branches at the distance of 5 milesfrom the N. fork; arrived in view of the main Canadian, on a high commanding hillor bluff, which overlooks this stream; it is situated about three-quarters of amile from the river, and is near 200 feet perpendicular, containing large massesof red sandstone, in horizontal layers. Course W. for half a mile, at which pointwe forded the main branch of the Canadian; its direction here is from W.; it isabout 210 yards in width, the color of its water corresponding with that on theN. fork; the banks are very low
generally at and near the point where we struck it, composed of fine sand andclay, of a reddish cast. This river, like the Missouri, appears to be wearingaway its banks continually, so that the color of the water is affected by it,partaking of the color of the banks of the stream. At this season it is only from2#189; to 3 feet in depth; soil in valley about this point very rich, loose, andmellow, and, similar to that on the N. fork, is of a dark reddish brownappearance. The mouth of the S. fork of the Canadian was about 1 mile above thepoint where we forded the main stream; at its mouth it is about 60 yards wide;color of water, &c. same. 
Course: C. to P. S. 75 E.
December 5, 1828. The valley of the Canadian, or rather the bottom land, is from 1#189; to 2 milesin width. There is a range of hills, probably 150 or 200 feet in height,containing large masses of sandstone. We ascended the ridge, which approachesnear the river at this point; it continues to the S. fork, and forms a bluff onits eastern side. On this ridge we continued for 1 mile; this ridge is mostlycovered with post oak; from this we descended into a valley, the direction ofwhich is W. from the S. fork; it is surrounded with high, craggy hills; in thisvalley there is an extensive marsh, probably three-quarters of a mile indiameter, completely covered with a kind of flag; there was a range of hills onthe right and left of course; about 1#189; miles from this marsh, another valleywas crossed, in which ran a creek from the E. winding round some hills, andpassing it in front; passed up the S. side of this creek, leaving the hills onour right, with but little timber upon them, and at 1#189; miles from the pointwhere we struck it, crossed over to the oppositeside, (N.) high hills to the left; passed between the ridge and a fork of thecreek just mentioned, the S. fork running towards the S. E. This latter rangecontinued on left for many miles, but at 2 miles' distance from the last point wepassed over a ridge not so much elevated, and is prairie, and which extends to P.on a branch of a creek we last crossed; from this point the country is hilly inall directions; on the summits and sides of all these hills there is a largequantity of sandstone rocks; the soil to-day variable, in the valleys generallygood, mixed with sand; the timber, both on the high and low grounds, is the sameas has been mentioned.
Course: P. to Q. N.E. by E.
December 6, 1828. Proceeded up to the headwaters of the small creek mentioned; passed alternately through timber andprairie, the latter of small extent. Soil middling, in some places pretty good; arange of hills 1 mile to the left; the whole distance on the right the hills wereat a greater distance; they are not so high as those passed over on the 5th; fromthe head waters of this creek, which is distant from P 5 miles, descended into avalley 1#189; miles in width, mostly prairie; near the head, and for 3 or 4miles down it, high sandstone hills on each side, timbered; 200 feet in height;thevalley, at the distance of 5 or 6 miles from its head, becomes timbered, itscourse being E. N. E.; mostly post oak, black oak, and some hickory, though veryscarce for some distance. A creek puts down this valley, which increases aftercontinuing 5 or 6 miles of its course. Some pine was met with on the sides of thehills, descending to the valley on the N. side; the hills on the left, 6 or 7miles from the head of the valley, break off to the main Canadian; crossed,during our course, the creek in the valley three times at different points, thelast 8 miles from (head of the valley) it. About 1#189; miles from this pointcrossed a branch running S. by E. to N. by W., joining the former before enteringthe Canadian. Country rolling, soil variable, not good; 3 miles from last branchenter prairie; hills without timber, on right of course, half a mile distant; 3miles to another branch, course from S. to N.; about this creek the soil is rich,country rather broken; crossed and proceeded over a rolling country; soilgenerally good, mixed, as usual, with a great portion of sand; timbered with postoak, until it approaches the river, then black oak, &c.; about 1 mile belowwhere we struck the Canadian is a creek from the N., at point Q; just below this,on the river, there is a large cane brake; from this down, and on the Arkansasand Neosho, for some distance N., is common; soil of an excellent quality.
Course: Q. to R.
Dec. 7, 1828.Ascended a rocky hill from point QN. E. on the E. side of creek; on arriving at its summit, continued in aneasterly direction for 1 mile; at this point, course changed to N. E.; descendedthe hill and crossed a ravine for 2 miles; the course then E, for 1#189; miles,then N. for the same distance, N. E. for 1#189; miles; crossed several ravines,the whole of country for same distance on course being hilly and rocky; these arethe hills of the main Canadian; lands poor; on passing into a valley we perceivedthe Arkansas to the E. and S. E.; an extensive valley and prairie to S.
for 2 miles; it is on course a rolling timbered country; touched upon a. smallcreek running to E.; at the distance of 3 miles from the top of hill struck theArkansas river, course of it at this point S. E.; we passed up the banks of theriver 3 miles, through cane brake, &c. for 3 miles, in order to find afording place, as the shore at the first point at which we struck the stream wasquicksand; the bottom land not of any great width; the whole distance from Q to Ris over high rocky hills of sandstone, which border on the Canadian river on theN., and the Arkansas on the E.; the S. margin of the former river is of muchgreater width than that on the western side of the former, near the mouth of theCanadian; lands on the bottom of both streams very rich; the Arkansas at thispoint is 600 yards wide, but at this season the greatest part of the channel issand bar, owing to the low state of the water; there are some high hills betweenthe Canadian and Arkansas rivers, doubtless the dividing ridge between thosewaters.
Course: R. to S. at Salt Works on the Illinois. N. 50 E.
Dec. 8, 1828. Continued from point R. along thesides of hills in a N. W.direction for 3 miles; these run close to the river; from thence into a bottom 3or 400 yards in width, of cane generally, and timber common to the margins of theArkansas; crossed this river 1#189; miles below the mouth of the Canadian;coursechanged N. through cane brake for 3 miles, heavy timbered, and rich lands, onrising to the high lands back; course N. E. for #189; mile, crossed a creek fromE. by N. to W. by S.; there are some hills bordering on this branch; where wecrossed, it forked. From this the country was rolling, the soil is good; at 21/smiles from creek crossed the Illinois, which is about 50 or 60 yards wide; acreek empties into it at this point from the S. E.; the water of this river isclear, its course from N. to S. over a beautiful bed of gravel; course N. 75 E.;rich bottom for 2#189; miles, well timbered; on leaving this we entered aprairie, a ridge of hills on right and left, approaching and receding fromcourse, untilwe arrived at the Salt Works on the Illinois;  these hills encompass thevalleyof the Illinois on the N., and are from 150 to 200 feet in height, very rocky(sandstone) and timbered; there is a range of hills also on the S. side of theriver. At the Salt Works there is a creek running to the waters of the Illinoisfrom the hills in a N. W. course; these works are, or are said to have been, veryproductive; the water has a very saline taste.
Course: on. N. 42 W.
Passed up the creek 1 mile, and ascended a hillof sandstone in large and smallfragments; from the summit our course was nearly level for 5 or 6 miles, buthilly to left near the Arkansas, which is distant 5 or 6 miles; timber heremostly of post oak and black jack, lands poor, distant 6 or 7 miles from the Saltworks; descended and crossed a creek running to left.  This is a beautifulrunning stream, passing over a smooth bed of sandstone which is in an inclinedposition, wanting 7 or 8°; to its being perpendicular to the surface; thisrock isabout 30 yards in width; crossing over it, we entered prairie on the N. side ofcreek; from this we ascended a long but gradual rise through poor post oak androcky lands, until we arrived within 3 miles of Cantonment Gibson. Here wedescended from a high rocky hill into a valley down which runs another creek fromthe N., which is distant from Gibson 2 miles;  small prairie between the footof the hill and the creek on the S. side; lands very rich, near the creek timber;after crossing there is prairie from this point to the Cantonment on course.From this point, viz. Cantonment Gibson, the course pursued on our return was thesame as that passed over on the route of the party to the Canadian, until wearrived at the Osage Agency, where we crossed the Neosho, and took the directroute to Harmony Mission on the Osage, 70 miles from the Agency. The courses wereas follows:
Course: the State line of Missouri. N. 80 E.
From the Agency  to Harmony Mission, afterleaving the margin of the Neosho,passed through a nearly level country (prairie) except where interrupted by thetimber of the small tributaries of the Neosho and Osage; good soil for 8 or 10miles, when we crossed a small creek with a little timber on its banks, runningfrom N. to S. into another about 1 mile below to the right, which turned withoutcourse, and which has also on its banks a little timber; from this we continuedover the same kind of prairie as before, and at the distance of 12 miles from theAgency crossed "Walnut creek," running from N. to S., and joining a branch onright, about 1 mile distant, continuing 4 miles to another over a prairie similarto the foregoing, 2 miles to a creek running from N. to S. like the former; theseenter one over the head waters of which we passed, its course being appar-
ently from N. E. to S. W., high up on these streams, near the head waters,verylittle timber is met with, the country being mostly prairie, soil varying; thisprairie has been either level or gently rolling; to the left, at some distanceoff, the country appeared to be more rolling than at any point of course, but notimber; on our right, to creek, quite level; beyond, or on the S. side of thecreek, wherever we had a view of the country, it presented the same appearance asthat to the north. After passing the head waters mentioned, the course changed N.E. 3 or 4 miles, rising a very gentle ascent to the dividing ridge between theNeosho and Osage rivers; at highest point of this ridge but little timber is insight, and that at great distance from course, distance 3 or 4 miles to the headwaters of the "Manitau,"  the course of which is from S. W. to N. E. at thispoint; some timber below where we crossed it; country here rather rolling; fromthis we continued on to the State line, over a rolling prairie, meeting on ourroute with considerable quantities of limestone, of an earthy appearancegenerally, on the rise from little brooks and drains of the country; the creekwhich we crossed changes its direction with the course pursued for some distance,then changed once more to the S. E.