KanColl: The Kansas  Historical Quarterlies




Bluemont Central College,
the Forerunner of Kansas State College

by J. T. Willard

May, 1945(Vol. 13 No. 6), pages 323 to 357.
Transcribed by lhn;
digitized with permission of the Kansas State Historical Society.

     THE establishment of Bluemont Central Collegewas accomplished through the efforts of men who came from many different places,and who united in the settlement and development of the locality at the junctionof the Big Blue and the Kansas rivers. [1] As early as June, 1854, Col. George S.Park, of Parkville, Mo., located a claim as the site of a town to be calledPolistra. This was on the north side of the Kansas river, below the mouth ofWildcat creek. [2] In the fall of the same year Samuel D. Houston of Illinois,Judge Saunders W. Johnston of Ohio, Judge J. M. Russell of Iowa, Dr. H. A. Wilcoxof Rhode Island, and E. M. Thurston, a lawyer from Maine, associated themselvesin the location of a townsite on the west side of the Blue river, between itsmouth and Bluemont hill. [3] These men were reputed to be college graduates andundoubtedly were well educated. They had named their projected town Canton.Colonel Park had spent the winter in Texas, and March 26, 1855, Prof. I. T.Goodnow pitched his tent on Colonel Park's claim. [4]

(323)

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     Professor Goodnow had left Boston March 6, oneweek in advance of a large party, in order to select a location for himself andthose associated with him. He was highly pleased by the region adjacent to theconfluence of the Kansas and the Blue rivers. [5] Others of the party alsoarrived in time to vote at the election held March 30, 1855, at Juniata, a smallsettlement on the east side of the Blue river, and four or five miles from itsmouth. [6]

     Colonel Park returned early in April, andconferences among those in interest, including other settlers in the locality,were held. "The settlers of the Big Blue and the Kanzas rivers met April 3, 1855,for consultation in reference to a townsite." [7] Several meetings at shortintervals were held. At the meeting April 13 it was voted "That Mr. Park beinvited to address the Trustees in reference to an agricultural school. Mr. Parkresponded to the invitation." [8] This is the earliest record related to theplanning which led to the establishment of Bluemont Central College. Colonel Parkhad some individual ideas concerning education, believing that academic studyshould be accompanied by practical work in agriculture and other industries.Later he made these important features of Park College, Parkville, Mo.

     Those having interests in the locality united toform "The Boston Association of Kanzas Territory," and to locate on the site atown to be named Boston. [9]The first of June, 1855, the Steamer Hartford arrived with "The Cincinnatiand Kanzas Land Company" on board. An agreement was made with the said Co. tolocate here, instead of going above Fort Riley as they had originally designed.The terms of the contract will be found on record. The name agreed on after thislast marriage was Manhattan; and we now make the report of the Trustees of theManhattan Town Association [10<]/P>

     The details of the contract between the BostonAssociation and the Cincinnati Company are not involved in this article furtherthan to state that the two organizations retained their identity, and had theirseparate interests and obligations, while having equal shares in the townsite.John Pipher and Andrew J. Mead were prominent members of the Cincinnati Company,and acted as its agents in effecting the consolidation. [11]

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 325

     In a lecture on the Manhattan Institutedelivered about 1874, the Rev. Washington Marlatt recalled that during the winterof 18561857, he and Mr. Albert Griffin used to "meet at Mr. Miller's store, runby Mr. Pipher, and, while waiting for something to turn up, to talk up theinterests of the town. My hobby was the establishment of a college. Mr. Griffin,while favoring the idea, thought the thing entirely impracticable at that time,but thought the founding of a debating club or literary association both feasibleand a thing of practical utility." [12] The Manhattan Institute was charteredFebruary 14, 1857, by the Kansas legislature, [13] and Mr. Griffin was the firstpresident, while Mr. Marlatt and others continued to "talk up" a college.

     Contemporary written or printed materialconcerning the college project is almost nonexistent. The connection of ColonelPark has been noted. The next earliest item found was in Professor Goodnow'sdiary. He wrote: "Rode to Manhattan to meeting. Preaching by Br. J. Denison. . .. On my return . . . Br. D- came along with me. Talked over the subject of anInstitution of Learning at Manhattan. . . ." [14] This entry also appears: ". . .Went to Mr. Houston's. . . . Quite a talk with Mr. H- about an M. E. College atManhattan. He is favorable. . . ." [15]

     Professor Goodnow was a loyal supporter of theMethodist Episcopal Church, and the local trustees appointed him an agent to goto the East and solicit financial aid. [16] At a trustees' meeting held at hishome "The subject of a college was discussed, & favorable action had, conditionalon the action of the Cincinnati Land Company." [17]

     Professor Goodnow also wrote:

     Went to Manhattan & consulted with the TownCompanies respecting a Methodist College, near Manhattan. To forward this theyhave pledged 50 shares of Manhattan stock & 100 building lots. Joined Mr. Houstonin buying out a claim that will furnish a good site for the C- & put it into thehands of Thomas Playford. A hard day's work, but I hope a profitable one.[18]

     In close succession, Professor Goodnow talkedwith Mr. Houston, Mr. Marlatt and Doctor Still about the college project, andarrived at the conclusion that it would be necessary to obtain localsubscriptions.

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tions in its support. A group meeting at the home of the Rev. Joseph Denison"Nominated 13 Trustees for Bluemont Central College, to be presented to theKansas & Nebraska Conference," which was to meet in Nebraska City, Neb. [19]The brief entries by Professor Goodnow in his diary are materially supplementedby accounts written at different times by the Rev. Washington Marlatt. In ahistorical introduction to the minutes proper of the Bluemont Central CollegeAssociation Mr. Marlatt wrote

At a Quarterly Meeting Conference of the M. E. Church held in the vicinity ofManhattan, Riley Co., Kansas Territory, in the spring of 1857, Abram Still, P.E., J. Denison, P. C., and Washington Marlatt, Sec., a plan was inaugurated forthe erection of a college at or near Manhattan to be under the patronage of theMethodist Episcopal Church in Kansas.
The following names were put in nomination as a board of trustees, viz. S. D.Houston, I. T. Goodnow, Joseph Denison, C. E. Blood, W. A. McCollom, WashingtonMarlatt, L. B. Dennis, C. H. Lovejoy, R. P. Duval, T. H. Webb, Newell Trafton,John Kimball, A. I. Davis, S. C. Pomeroy and G. S. Park. [20]

     Messrs. Goodnow, Denison, Marlatt and Lovejoyattended the conference held at Nebraska City, and met many of the preachers, andthe committee on education. The committee approved their college plan, andGoodnow and Denison were appointed agents for Bluemont Central College. Itdeveloped that the bishop was opposed to having the itinerant preachers act asagents for colleges. Goodnow comments: "A damper on our College plans.Our College trustees have concluded to go ahead in spite of the opposition of theBishop to a conference agent. Br. J. Denison will take agency. The Lord help usto do our duty." [21]

     The Rev. Washington Marlatt wrote as followsconcerning this episode At a session of the Annual Conference convened atNebraska City, April 16, 1857, the enterprise was strongly opposed by some of thespecial friends of Baker University, on the plea of its being gotten up as arival institution. . . . It was considered rather providential that the Bishop,whose duty it is to be present at, and preside over the deliberations of theConference, failed to get there till the fifth day of the session, when thebusiness of the Conference relating to educational matters was already finished.Bishop Ames who had grown up in the wilds of Hoosierdom, where it took fiftyyears to accomplish what we did in Kansas in less than ten, thought we weregoing

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 327

entirely too fast in these matters, and took occasion to criticize the action ofthe Conference severely. . . [22]

The action of the conference was recorded in the following minutes:

     Your Committee [on Education] would further report:
That Whereas, the Manhattan Town Association have agreed to donate fifty sharesof stock in Manhattan city, and the Cincinnati and Kansas Land Company haveagreed to donate one hundred lots in said city for the establishment of anInstitution of learning under the patronage of the M. E. Church to be calledBluemont Central College, on condition that the Kansas and Nebraska AnnualConference of the M. E. Church approve and adopt the same,
And, Whereas, A certain number of acres of land have been secured within a shortdistance of said town for the location of said College,
And, Whereas, The citizens of Manhattan and the surrounding country havemanifested a deep interest in the enterprise by subscribing a creditable amountof funds for said enterprise, therefore,
Resolved, That this Conference accept their propositions, elect a Board ofTrustees, and appoint two agents to assist in prosecuting the work. [23]

Mr. Marlatt wrote:

     The enterprise met with the approval of the AnnualConference which held itssession at Nebraska City in April, 1857. Whereupon the initiatory steps of theQuarterly Conference were confirmed by the appointment of the persons put innomination as trustees of Bluemont Central College Association with power andauthority to organize under such Constitution and By-laws as they might see fitto adopt, for the purpose of enabling them to speed the enterprise and place iton a successful basis. [24]

     After approval by the conference the board oftrustees of the Bluemont Central College Association met at the home of the Rev.Joseph Denison and organized by the election of "S. D. Houston, president, JosephDenison, vice-president, C. E. Blood, treasurer, and Washington Marlatt,secretary. . . . Joseph Denison and I. T. Goodnow were appointed general agentswith discretionary power to procure funds to erect a suitable college building,and in all proper ways to advance the enterprise." A committee was appointed tosecure a suitable site for the building.25

     On June 9, 1857, the trustees of BluemontCentral College met at the college grounds and selected a site for the collegebuilding, consulted concerning its plan, and appointed Messrs. Marlatt, McCollomand Trafton.to be a committee to have its foundation accord

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ing to the contract. Messrs. Houston, Park, Pomeroy and Mead " . wereappointed to devise ways and means to secure a grant of land from Congress toestablish an agricultural department for Bluemont Central College." [26]

     From the conference Mr. Goodnow went on to theEast in performance of his mission to collect funds for his church, andoccasionally sought to create interest in the proposed college. [27] He reachedhome November 21, 1857, and on November 27, a meeting of the trustees of thecollege was held at his home. Plans were initiated to have a tract of landpreempted as a site for the college. [28] Organization was effected previous toincorporation, and an agent was sent East to solicit funds for carrying out thecollege project. The idea did not elicit much support, and the agent did notcollect enough to pay his expenses. [29] The Rev. Joseph Denison was allowed twoshares of stock of the Manhattan Town Company, valued at $100 each, credit forhis own subscription of $300, and $50 in addition, for his services and expenseson his trip to the East to secure funds for the college building. [30]

     Messrs. Houston, Denison and Park wereconstituted a committee to memorialize the legislature of Kansas territory to useits influence to induce congress to grant land for the establishment of anagricultural department in Bluemont Central College. [31]

     "Prof. I. T. Goodnow and Washington Marlatt wereappointed a committee to have the legislative assembly grant a charter to thisAssociation." [32]

     At a meeting of the trustees of Bluemont CentralCollege it was "decided to go ahead with Bluemont Town Site & make improvementsto hold it in proper form. Resolved to memorialize the Legislature & Congress togrant Lands for Endowment of the Agricultural post. Settled with agent, J.Denison, for $400. besides expenses.

     Incidental conversation about agent anotheryear." [33] Mr. Goodnow "with C. E. Blood, W. Marlatt & J. Denison, Surveyed aplace for building 'Bluemont Central College.' 45 x 70 ft. 2 stories high with abasement to be of stone." A conversation was held with

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 327

     Mr. McCollom with reference to his deeding 40acres for college purposes. [34]After conference and tentative work by Mr. Goodnow on a charter, the trustees ofBluemont Central College "decided on a charter & a memorial to the Legislature,"and Mr. Goodnow "left home with W. Marlatt for Lawrence to get Bluemont CentralCollege incorporated &c. . . ." [35] The legislature met at Lawrence in 1858. Mr.Goodnow made the acquaintance of several members, and a charter for the collegewas drawn up which was offered to the legislature by A. J. Mead. [36]

     While action was maturing in the legislature Mr.Goodnow made a trip to Parkville, Mo., much of it on foot, to see Colonel Park onhotel and college business, returning to Lawrence February 6. [37] Mr. Marlatthad remained in Lawrence looking after legislation. [38]

     The charter for Bluemont Central College waspassed by the legislature, and Acting Gov. J. W. Denver approved it February 9,1858. Ten other organizations were incorporated by the same legislature for theestablishment of institutions of higher learning. Of these only Baker Universityand Highland University survive, the latter as Highland Junior College. [39]

     The act incorporating Bluemont Central CollegeAssociation is as follows:

     Be it enacted by the Governor and LegislativeAssembly of the Territory ofKansas:
SECTION 1. That J. Denison, S. D. Houston, C. E. Blood, W. McCullom, J. [L] T.Goodnow, Washington Marlatt, G. S. Park, S. C. Pomeroy, T. H. Webb, and theirassociates and successors, are hereby constituted a body corporate, under thename and style of the Blue Mont Central College Association, and by that nameshall have perpetual succession, and shall have a common seal, and may change andalter the same at pleasure, may sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, defendand be defended, in any court of law or equity, and shall have power to hold bygift, grant, devise, purchase or otherwise, any lands, tenements, hereditaments,moneys, rents, goods and chattels of whatever kind, that have been heretofore, ormay hereafter be given, granted or devised to, or purchased by them, for thebenefit of said association, and may sell and dispose of the same, or any partthereof, on lease or rent, or improve the same in such manner as they shall deemmost conducive to the interests of said association.

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SEC. 2. The objects of the association are, and shall be, the promotion ofeducation and science in Kansas Territory.
SEC. 3. It shall be lawful for this association to locate a college, to be calledthe Blue Mont Central College, at or near Manhattan city, Kansas Territory.
SEC. 4. That the said association shall have power and authority to establish, inaddition to the literary department of arts and sciences, an agriculturaldepartment, with separate professors, to test soils, experiment in the raising ofcrops, the cultivation of trees, and upon a farm set apart for the purpose, so asto bring out, to the utmost practical result, the agricultural advantages ofKansas, especially the capabilities of its high prairie lands.
SEC. 5. This association shall have power to make all rules, by-laws andregulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act.
SEC. 6. All property or funds, real, personal or mixed, that may be received,held or appropriated by or for said association, for the exclusive purposes ofeducation, literary, scientific and agricultural, shall be forever exempt fromtaxation; Provided, That nothing in this Act shall be so construed, in suchmanner, as to allow said corporation to hold more than five thousand acres ofland at one time.
This Act to take effect and be in force from and after its passage.
[Signed,]
Approved February 9, 1858. J. W. DENVER, Acting Governor. [40]
G. W. DEITZLER, Speaker of House of Representatives.
C. W. BABCOCK, President of the Council.

     Especial attention should be given to thepersistence of the idea of making provision for agricultural education andexperimentation. During the earliest years Bluemont was written as two words, butthese were soon united to the familiar form. Bluemont is a hill 215.75 feet inheight above the Blue river. [41] It presents a bold front toward the Kansasriver valley at the northeast corner of the townsite of Manhattan. It was awell-known landmark for early travelers in that region. It was named by John C.Fremont who camped at its base when on one of his memorable expeditions acrossthe plains. [42]

     The incorporators of Bluemont Central Collegewere prominent men in the immediate locality or elsewhere. Joseph Denison was aMethodist minister in Boston at the time of his decision to emigrate to Kansas .[43] Isaac T. Goodnow was professor of natural

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 331

science in East Greenwich Academy, East Greenwich, R. I., from 1848 to 1855,when he resigned to go to Kansas with the avowed purpose of helping to make it afree state. [44] Washington Marlatt was a graduate of Indiana Asbury University,now DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind. He came to Manhattan in 1856. He was anitinerant Methodist minister in Kansas for a considerable period. [45]

     C. E. Blood was a Congregational minister fromMason, N. H., who began service in Kansas as a home missionary by preaching inJuniata in November, 1854. [46] Mr. Blood organized the Congregational church inManhattan. Wm. A. McCollom was also a Congregational minister, and from October,1860, to April, 1863, served the Congregational church in Wabaunsee. [47] S. D.Houston, from Illinois, was one of the Canton group which, with others, formedthe Manhattan Town Association. He was the only Free-State representative in theterritorial legislature of 1855, and later filled important public positions.[48] Samuel C. Pomeroy was financial agent of the New England Emigrant AidCompany, [49] which promoted the settling of Free-State men in Kansas. He wasvery prominent in public affairs, and became one of the first two United Statessenators from Kansas. Thomas H. Webb was secretary of the New England EmigrantAid Company. [50] In preceding paragraphs the character and importance of Col.Geo. S. Park have been indicated in a measure. A biography as prepared by theRev. E. B. Sherwood was read at the funeral of Colonel Park. It presented brieflyhis colorful career. . . . [51]

     These brief notes indicate the caliber of themen who founded Bluemont Central College, and their bringing this enterprise to asuccessful issue is a tribute to their persistence, and to the character and thesincerity of those who contributed financially to the support of the undertaking.It should be noted, however, that while an imposing array of names appears, andwas maintained, in the list of trustees, Messrs. Marlatt, Denison and Goodnowwere the only ones who took financial risks beyond their individualsubscriptions. Their

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vision initiated the enterprise, their faith carried it on, and their laborbrought the successful issue. [52]

     Shortly after the chartering of Bluemont CentralCollege Association by the legislature, the trustees met and organized byelecting S. D. Houston president, Joseph Denison vice-president, I. T. Goodnowtreasurer, and Washington Marlatt, secretary. Members of the association whosenames do not appear in the charter were constituted associate members. [53] Thetrustees voted to accept the lands and funds offered by the Bluemont TownCompany, and Prof. I. T. Goodnow was appointed to receive them. Messrs. Blood,Denison and Goodnow were made a committee to wait upon A. J. Mead, and attempt toget more favorable terms for the donation of one hundred lots pledgedconditionally by the Cincinnati and Kanzas Land Company. Messrs. Wm. A. McCollomand I. T. Goodnow were appointed a committee to draft a constitution for theassociation. [54]

     The Kansas and Nebraska conference of theMethodist Episcopal church held its meeting for 1858 in Topeka, and the minutesrecorded that:

     The Trustees of Blue Mount Central College the pastyear have secured from theLegislature of Kansas a very liberal charter. They have also secured upward oftwo hundred acres of land within one mile of Manhattan City, with the prospect ofadding thereto; making one of the most beautiful sites for a college to be foundanywhere. They now have one hundred lots in the city of Manhattan, the presentvalue of which would be at least five thousand dollars. They have on thesubscription list about two thousand dollars, and contingent pledges to a largeamount more. It is the purpose of the trustees to erect a substantial stonebuilding, and to have the institution in operation at the earliest possibleperiod. Your committee recommend the renewal of the appointment of the trusteesof last year, with the additional name of Thomas Webb. The trustees respectfullypetition the Conference to authorize the appointment of Isaac T. Goodnow, A. M.,as agent for the institution for the ensuing year. [55]

     Soon after the annual conference the trustees ofBluemont Central College Association held a meeting at which "Prof. I. T. Goodnowpresented a constitution which after various corrections and amendments wasunanimously adopted." 66 The constitution is recorded in the minute book of theassociation. [57] The Rev. I. Kalloch was

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 333

"authorized to collect funds for the erection of a college building," andMessrs. Blood, Marlatt and Denison were made a committee to survey anew thetownsite of Bluemont and purchase additions to it. [58]

     The site chosen for Bluemont Central College waspart of a projected town called Bluemont and was about three miles from thevillage of Manhattan. There were no business houses there, and pioneer residencesscattered on surrounding farms afforded the only opportunities for rooms or boardfor students who might be attracted from more distant localities. The trustees ofBluemont Central College Association in order to alleviate this condition voted"that Rev. Washington Marlatt be a committee to donate lots in the town ofBluemont to such persons as will within a reasonable length of time put upsuitable buildings on the same," and he was instructed to have the townsiteresurveyed in part by having certain parallels run.

     S. D. Houston resigned the presidency of theboard of trustees of Bluemont Central College Association, and I. T. Goodnow wasappointed to succeed him, and, apparently, he retained the treasurership. Mr.Goodnow was also constituted the "regular and lawful agent with power of attorneyinvested with full authority to dispose of all property belonging to the BluemontCentral College Association, together with one-third of the lots in the town ofBluemont, Riley County, Kansas Territory, to raise the necessary funds for theerection of a college building in said town." [60]

     Professor Goodnow made a trip to the East in1858, and as agent of Bluemont Central College Association called upon many ofhis acquaintances, and others to whom he had introductions. He seems to have hada remarkable faculty for persuasion, and his diary re cords his successes andfailures. He returned to Manhattan, and at a meeting of the trustees of theassociation he reported that he had sold $3,300 worth of lots, and that $3,000worth of real estate had been donated to the college. His expenses had been about$150. He was made permanent agent for the college, and allowed a salary of $800up to April 1, 1859, and $1,000 a year for ensuing years. [61]

     During the winter of 1858-1859, Mr. Goodnowattended to the digging of a well on the site selected for the college building.This was finished January 31, and pronounced "a noble" well. [62] Although

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described with such initial enthusiasm, the well failed and was deepened, andeven then did not meet the needs of stone masons and plasterers who erected thebuilding later. [63]

     On February 15, 1859, the trustees of theassociation voted "that we proceed to erect a college building during the present[year] at a cost of not less than six thousand dollars." It was also voted "thatProfessor I. T. Goodnow be added to, and be made chairman of, the buildingcommittee." Joseph Denison and Washington Marlatt were the other members.[64]

     The conference records for 1859 contain thisinformation concerning the enterprise:

     The Trustees of Bluemont Central College haveregularly laid out the twohundred and twenty acres of land in their possession into a town, calling it"Bluemont."
They have let out the contract for the erection of a substantial stone building,sixty by forty-four feet, three stories high, to be surmounted with a cupola, allto be executed in good style, and to be ready for occupancy, in part, by thefirst of December, 1859, when they expect to open a school of a grade to meet thedemands of the times and the place. Said college building will cost, whencompleted, not less than ten thousand dollars.
They have, aside from the lands above named, reliable subscriptions to the amountof two thousand dollars, one hundred lots in the city of Manhattan, the presentvalue of which is not less than six thousand dollars, and notes bearing interest,payable on demand, to the amount of fifteen hundred dollars.
Your committee would respectfully recommend the appointment of J. J. Davis, Dr.J. W. Robison, John Pip[hler, George S. Park and Rev. John Paulson as Trustees ofsaid College, for the space of three years, from the first of April, A. D. 1859.They would furthermore beg leave to offer the following resolution for youradoption
Resolved, That as a Conference we highly approve the efforts of the Trustees ofBluemont Central College, to erect a noble College edifice the present year, andmost cordially approve the continuation of Prof. I. T. Goodnow as agent, to carryout their plans for its erection. [65]

     It was further stated:

     The Trustees of Bluemont Central College, throughtheir Agents the past year,have secured from the Legislature of Kansas a very liberal Charter. They havealso secured one hundred acres of land within a mile of Manhattan City, with theprospect of adding thereto. They have one hundred lots in the City of Manhattan,now worth five thousand dollars, and subscriptions amounting to about twothousand dollars, besides contingent pledges to a large amount. They purposeerecting a substantial stone building, and to

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 335

have the Institution in operation at the earliest possible period. The Trusteesrespectfully petition the Conference to appoint Isaac T. Goodnow, A. M., Agentfor the Institution for the present year. [66]

     Professor Goodnow spent much time on the collegeproject during the spring months. He surveyed the site, collaborated with J. H.Brous in drawing plans for the building, arranged with neighboring citizens tofurnish timber for structural use, interviewed builders and mechanics, andprepared specifications for the carpenters. [67] On April 29 he started to theEast to continue solicitation of funds for the building. On the way he stopped atLeavenworth and bought lumber for the building from L. R. Griffin. Mr. H. P.Johnson went security for him. He contracted with Captain Beasley fortransportation of $1,064.70 worth of lumber to Manhattan by the steamer GusLinn. He also bought hardware to the amount of $82.95. [68] The steamerembarked May 8, and reached Manhattan, May 15. The freight charges were $80.[69]

     The cornerstone of the college building was laidMay 10, 1859. No local account of the proceedings was published, but T. C. Wells,in a letter to his father, wrote May 14, 1859:

     They had speeches &c at the laying of the cornerstone of the "Blue MontCentral College" last Tuesday afternoon, the first ceremony of the kind that hasoccurred in Kansas. About three hundred people were present and some very goodspeeches were made. Quite a number of documents were placed in the cavity of thestone. The college building will be 40[44] ft. x 60 ft. on the ground and threestories high, all stone-underpinning corners, and window and door caps to behewn, the rest rough work. It will be in full view from our house, half a miledistant [70]

     The Kansas Express, later named ManhattanExpress, began publication soon after, probably May 21, 1859, [71] butwould not publish an account of the ceremony, alleging that it was no longernews. There was probably delay in getting in a report. [72]

     The contract for stone work on the collegebuilding was given to Clarke W. Lewis, for carpenter work, to Jasher H. Brous,and for plastering, and perhaps painting, to (H. or William?) Bloss. Many othersworked on the building. J. C. Christensen wrote that his father, NielsChristensen, acted as cook for the gang, and told him

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that the preachers of the neighborhood used to help out. Of these, only theRev. W. Marlatt worked on Saturday; the others had to prepare their sermons forthe next day, but he could preach without preparation."

     During the absence of Professor Goodnow,immediate responsibility for superintendence of the building operations fell uponMessrs. Marlatt and Denison. Mr. Marlatt wrote frequent letters to Mr. Goodnow.In one of these he stated that it took all of the time of himself or Denison toattend to the undertaking. [74] Mr. Denison was away a good deal on hisministerial duties, so the brunt of the oversight of the construction and thesupply of materials was met by Mr. Marlatt. It was a wearisome task. The greatestcause of worry was the lack of cash to meet the bills for labor and materials. Inspite of difficulties, fair progress was made, and by August 10 the masons wereworking on the walls of the third story. [75]

     With numerous other duties, also, Mr. Marlatt atone time felt so "heartily tired," that but for "the idea of shirkingresponsibilities" he would gladly have abandoned all and retired to private life.[76] Yet within a month he wrote:We wish if possible to have two rooms at least lathed and plastered this fall soas to have a school this winter. It must be done if at all possible. We can haveone of a mixed character. . . . I have no great confidence in myself as an"educator," but if duty requires I am willing to try it on a while at least. . .. [77]

     Later, Mr. Marlatt wrote to Mr. Goodnow:

     I can make arrangements to live in the College thecoming winter if need be. Igave my opinion in reference to a school, and the paper in my last. Let us have aschool by all means. Paper is inefficient. Sold out to Whiskey, Mead, Snow andCo. Let it go.

     With reference to the college building, heestimated the financial needs until the next spring at $1,000, and stated that"after so long a time we have near about all things in readiness to raise theroof." The paper referred to was The Kansas Express, published by C. F. DeVivaldi. [78]



[drawing of Bluemont Central College, Kansas, in 1867.]

BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE
     The building was erected in 1859 by the Bluemont Central College Association. When it was given to the state in 1863 first classes for Kansas State College were held here. It was razed in 1883. The cut is from a drawing made from a lithograph accompanying a map of Manhattan published in 1867. The sketch is imperfect, as it does not show the name Bluemont College, which was cut in the stone arch over the window in the gable. (This and succeeding cuts courtesy of Dr. J. T. Willard.)

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 337

     At this stage of construction the Manhattanpaper published the following paragraph:

     THE MANHATTAN COLLEGE.-This splendid, largethree-story stone edifice is fastapproaching its completion. The mason's work was finished some time since, andthe carpenters are now employing all their skill and energy to have the buildingready for schooling by the first of December. We cannot find words strong enoughto eulogise the spirit of enterprise, and the devotion to the noble causes ofChristianity and learning, which have characterized the whole conduct of theeminent men who exerted themselves with such an untired constancy in behalf ofthe complete success of the Manhattan College. This institution is to be underthe supervision of the Methodist Episcopal denomination, and will eventually bemade one of their best colleges in the West. Projects of building grandseminaries, universities and colleges are quite common in the numerous cities ofKansas; but so far as we are informed, we believe that ours of Manhattan is theonly one which has been effectually built. [79]

     At a meeting of the Bluemont Central CollegeAssociation action was taken stated as follows:

     On motion of Rev. Joseph Denison; Resolved that thetime is fully come to opena school in the college.
On motion voted that there be but two departments, viz : Primary and Preparatory.On motion voted that a committee of five be appointed to carry out the aboveresolution. Marlatt, Goodnow, Blood, Denison and McCollom were made saidcommittee.
Prof. I. T. Goodnow being called upon gave a satisfactory report on the financialconcerns of the college. [80]

     The management of the school seems to have beenentirely in the bands of the committee provided. There is no mention ofemployment of teachers by the trustees at this meeting, but the Express hadalready published a paragraph stating that the trustees had decided that thecollege "should be opened for the reception of students during the first week ofJanuary, and that, for the present, the Rev. Washington Marlatt should beentrusted with the instruction of the first pupils. . . ." The editor continuedwith a recommendation of "this new and beautiful institution of learning andmorality." [81] Mr. Goodnow spent considerable time during the first week of 1860securing students for the school, and preparing a room in the college building.The school opened January 9, 1860, with an enrollment of 29 pupils. [82]

338 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

     This advertisement was carried in the ManhattanExpress, and similar advertisements appeared for the second, third and fourthterms

BLUE MONT COLLEGE

By order of the Board of Trustees, this school will open January 9th, 1860,under the charge of Rev. Washington Marlatt, A. M., assisted by Miss Julia A.Bailey, an experienced and successful teacher.
Tuition per term of 11 weeks as follows:
Common English branches...........................$3
Higher English branches, as Philosophy,
Physiology, Algebra, etc..................................4
Languages........................................ 5

Tuition in Advance.
Necessary textbooks in the hands of the Treasurer at low rates. The Trusteesdesign furnishing facilities for a continuous and ample course of Academical andCollegiate study.
Farther information can be obtained by addressing the President or Secretary.
I. T. GOODNOW, Pres. & Treas. W. MARLATT, Sec'y [83]

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 339

W. R. Clark offering it to him. [88] No record of Mr. Clark's reply has beenfound, but evidently he did not accept the honor.

     Several matters of only current importance werehandled by the trustees at the annual meeting held March 10, 1860, in addition toa few of more permanent interest. The committee appointed to open the schoolreported that "a school opened January 9th, 1860, under the charge of Rev.Washington Marlatt as Principal and Miss Julia A. Bailey as assistant. Wholenumber of students enrolled up to the present time, fifty-three. They havevisited the school from time to time, noted the manner of conducting the same,and find it in every way satisfactory." [89]

     It was also moved "that the joint board, as perthe requirements of the constitution, proceed to elect a person to take charge ofthe `Collegiate Preparatory Department' of Bluemont Central College. Rev.Washington Marlatt was chosen to fill the station. Voted that Prof. Marlatt beallowed for the first year a salary of $600." As payment of part of his salary,Mr. Marlatt was to receive an interest in Block 34 of the town of Bluemont.[90]

     I. T. Goodnow was continued as financial agentin all matters belonging directly or indirectly to the college, and wasinstructed to use his influence toward raising means to endow the same, and C. E.Blood, W. A. McCollom, Joseph Denison, John Paulson and I. T. Goodnow were made aprudential committee with discretionary powers to act ad libitum, for the currentyear, in all matters pertaining to the school. [91]

     The board also provided "that I. T. Goodnow,John Paulson, Joseph Denison and Washington Marlatt be a committee empowered toelect a president of Bluemont Central College, if in their wisdom it be thoughtadvisable during the present collegiate year." [92]

     At the Methodist Episcopal Conference for 1860,the committee reported as follows:

     Your committee would respectfully beg leave toreport that during the past yearnearly ten thousand dollars have been expended in the erection of one of thefinest stone buildings in Kansas, to complete and furnish which five thousanddollars more is required. Half of this amount is already secured by reliablenotes, payable within eight months. To raise the balance, the trustees rely ondonations in money and town lots in the city ofManhattan.

340 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

     While on his Eastern trip, Professor Goodnowengaged Miss Julia A. Bailey of Gales Ferry, Conn., to go to Kansas to teach inthe school .84 Miss Bailey "had been liberally educated according to New Englandstandards, and the strength of her character was on a plane with her variedaccomplishments." [85] She was an experienced and successful teacher.

     During the winter of 1859-1860 Prof. I. T.Goodnow showed his interest in the school by visiting classes and exhibiting themagic lantern, and by doing many things to promote completion of the building,including tending mason in the finishing of the walls. . .

     A sermon was preached in the college on January22, 1860, by the Rev. Joseph Denison, P. E., 87 and religious exercises were heldin the building practically every Sunday following, and frequently at othertimes.

     After consulting with Messrs. Denison andMarlatt concerning the presidency of Bluemont Central College, Mr. Goodnow wroteto

340 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

     In order that the enterprise thus happily begun,may have a speedy completion,as also for the purpose of endowing the institution
1. Resolved that as a Conference, we highly approve the continuation of ProfessorI. T. Goodnow, as agent for the present year.
The first term of the school commenced January 9th, 1860, under the charge ofRev. Washington Marlatt, A. M., as Principal, and Miss Julia A. Bailey,Assistant, and already numbers 53 pupils,-and is highly appreciated for itseffectiveness in meeting the practical wants of the people: Therefore
2. Resolved, that the Presiding Officer be respectfully requested to appoint Rev.Washington Marlatt, principal of the Preparatory Department of Bluemont CentralCollege.
Your committee would further respectfully request the appointment of C. F.DeVivaldi, Abraham Barry, Esq., Wm. A. McCollom, S. C. Pomeroy and Professor I.T. Goodnow, as trustees of the said college, for the term of three years from thefirst of April, A. D. 1860. [93]

     Mr. Goodnow left for the East, March 21, 1860,to further the interests of Bluemont Central College, and he remained untilJanuary, 1861. His diaries show the assiduity with which he conducted this work,in which he sold lots and collected money and books for the college. Hisexperience as a teacher had given him an acquaintance with a large number ofpersons, and he visited many in the interest of the school. [94]

     While Mr. Goodnow was in the East, Mr. Marlattbore the burden of managing the school, and superintending the work of completingthe college building. The school was small the spring term and Miss Bailey wasrather discouraged. Incompetent workmen and defective building materials, andinconvenient conditions were constant worries to Mr. Marlatt. [95]

     It is not surprising that the magnitude of theenterprise, with the difficulties of attaining success under such primitiveconditions should have led to speculations concerning possible relief. Mr.Marlatt wrote as follows:Houston wants to know if we and all concerned won't be willing to give thecollege, with all the land etc., etc. belonging to it, to the State, provided thelegislature would locate the State University here. What say you to it? He thinkswe ought to be properly prepared, in case we were willing, when the matter comesup before the legislature, to make some definite proposition. Werter B. Davis wasfavorably impressed with the college site, building etc. [98]

     Prospects for the third term of the school werenot bright, and the

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 341

opening was deferred to September 24, 1860. Mr. Marlatt in October wrote: "Theschool is still small. I shall not be in it much this term, as the proceeds willbarely pay Miss B. a living price. Miss B. and Judge Westover's daughter occupythe south room upstairs and board with Mr. Blake." [97]

     At a meeting of the prudential committee,Professor Marlatt being called in made a statement, and the committee took actionas follows

$$The school numbers but fifteen students. The labor of teaching is great enoughfor two persons, while the income is barely sufficient to pay the board of one.Wherefore be it resolved, 1. That Miss Bailey have permission to furnish a tablefor herself and one or more students in a room in the college during the ensuingterm. 2. That Rev. J. Denison and Prof. Marlatt have the sanction of thecommittee in visiting the states for the purpose of raising funds for the supportof the college. [98]

     In November, Mr. Goodnow shipped four boxes ofbooks from the East to the college. He also, with the assistance of L. Fish,persuaded Joseph Ingalls, of Swampscott, Mass., to subscribe $250 for thepurchase of a bell for the college. [99] Miss Harriet Parkerson stated to thewriter that Mr. Ingalls was not in the habit of making contributions to publicenterprises, and that Mr. Goodnow as part of his persuasion promised Mr. Ingallsthat his name should be engraved on the bell. The name and the fact of thedonation were so engraved, and the bell now rings for the regular duties ofKansas State College. It is one of Meneely's best, and has a very fine tone. Theletters of Principal Marlatt to Professor Goodnow during the autumn of 1860, showthat the school was small, and that it was left almost entirely to the care ofMiss Bailey. He wrote:

     This is a rainy day, and I have decided to spendthe afternoon indoor, and see how the school progresses, and note the behavior ofthe boys. The school is small enough to be good. The boys miss me sadly. Theyneed a sound thrashing (some of them) every day, and Miss B. is entirely too kindof heart to do them that justice they so richly deserve. . . [100]

     Work toward completion of the building wascontinued by Messrs. Brous and Bloss. [101] Some rooms were rented to a family,much to the displeasure of Mr. Marlatt, who wrote:

     The vipers you and Bro. Denison admitted to theCollege, I opposed it, havebeen aiming a blow at the institution. I in the persons of theteachers

342 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

expect to bruise the serpents' heads in the fullness of time. Explanations whenyou arrive. [102]
The College has suffered not a little in public esteem by the admission of aprivate family within its walls. [103]

     Although Mr. Marlatt was opposed to admitting afamily to the building, his own residence there was in another category. Hewrote:

     We are having a vacation. Miss B. is in townvisiting for a week past. I havemoved into the south room on the "Ground floor," not of King Solomon's temple,'but this temple of learning prospectively. I am fixed off real cozily. MadamHuntress says there is but one thing lacking l . . . The next term will open onthe 24th and continue till conference. There will be twenty or thirty inattendance. . . [104]

     In a letter to Mrs. Goodnow, Professor Goodnowwrote: "I have packed up for Kansas 7 boxes of books, 3 boxes of apparatus, and 2clocks for the college chapel and study room. We shall have one of the finestlibraries west of the Missouri River." [105]

     The seed planted by S. D. Houston germinated,and shortly after the return of Professor Goodnow the board of trustees met andtook action recorded as follows:Trustees of Bluemont Central College Association met at the college as per callof the President of the Board to take into consideration the propriety ofoffering this institution to the State on condition that the Legislative Assemblymake it the State University. . . . A quorum being present, after matureconsideration it was voted to appoint a committee of five to put the whole matterin proper shape to be laid before the legislature, and report the same at thenext meeting of the Board. I. T. Goodnow, J. Denison, J. W. Robinson, C. E. Bloodand Washington Marlatt were the men appointed as said committee. The first namedas chairman. On motion J. W. Robinson was requested to make a drawing of theCollege Buildings and surroundings. [106]

     At a subsequent meeting, the committee offeredthe following report:

     Resolved by the Trustees of Bluemont CentralCollege Association that we donateto the State of Kansas our College Building, library and apparatus together withone hundred and twenty (120) acres, more or less, of land contiguous as a Collegesite, on condition that the legislature locate here permanently the StateUniversity. [107]

     At this point C. F. De Vivaldi, publisher, ofthe local paper, the Western Kansas Express, and a member of the board,asked for

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 343

$225 to assist him with his paper, and a committee was appointed to considerhis request. As a result, Mr. De Vivaldi was given certain lots with thecondition that if Bluemont Central College did not become the state universitythey should be deeded back to the college. It did not, but he did not return thelots or their value. [108]

     The Minutes of the Kansas Annual Conference for1861 contain some interesting data, as follows:

     Your Committee [on education] would report, thatthe College Edifice is nowcompleted at a cost of $18,000, that a library and apparatus have been securedworth $2,000. While its real estate is valued at $5,000. Total cash valuation$25,000. The outstanding claims against the College amount to $2,000.
Despite the many discouragements consequent upon a failure of crops in our midst,the school has been kept in active operation during the past Conference year. Inview of these facts and to meet the future wants of the institution, be itResolved, That the Conference renew the appointment of Prof. I. T. Goodnow asfinancial agent, with authority to appoint a substitute.
Resolved, That S. D. Houston, C. C. Blood, James Humphrey, Washington Marlatt andJoseph Denison, be appointed Trustees.
Resolved, That in accordance with the request of the Trustees, the President ofthis Conference be respectfully requested to re-appoint Rev. Washington Marlatt,A. M., Principal of the Preparatory Department of Bluemont Central College 100The town of Manhattan was interested in having Bluemont Central College becomethe state university and a meeting of the Manhattan City Council was called forMarch 23, 1861, for the purpose of taking "into consideration the propriety andexpediency of making an appropriation to defray the expense of two delegates tothe State Legislature, who shall work to secure the location of the StateUniversity at Manhattan," and "on motion of A. Griffin, an appropriation of onehundred dollars was made to defray the expenses of Lobby members at the Capital,for the purpose of securing the location of the State University at Manhattan." [110]

     The entries in the diary of Professor Goodnowduring the months of April and May, 1861, record his work with members of thelegislature in attempting to get the university located at Manhattan. In theWestern Kansas Express in a letter signed "E. X." and headed "From ourSpecial Correspondent," the following paragraph occurs:

     The bill locating the State University at Manhattanis introduced into theHouse, but meets with considerable opposition arising not so much from ade

344 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

sire to compete with the generous offers of the Trustees of Bluemont College,as from other hidden causes; an opposition too that may not be shown in the voteon the bill but which really exists. The Western members, without exception, showa hearty good will towards the measure, and Manhattan owes much to the generouscooperation of the gentlemen from Pottawatomie and Wabaunsee Counties in thismatter. [111]

     In spite of opposition, the bill accepting theoffer of the Bluemont Central College property for the state of Kansas as a sitefor the state university passed the house by a vote of 43 to 19, and the senateby a vote of 17 to 8. This was after ample discussion, and a visit to the collegeby a committee of the legislature. [112]

     The Express published a restrainedaccount of the favorable action of the legislature, but followed it by the laternews that Governor Robinson had vetoed the bill.

     
THE STATE UNIVERSITY


This important institution is located by the State Legislature at Manhattan. Thetrustees of the Bluemont College have tendered their building and groundstogether with the library and apparatus to the State for the benefit of theUniversity. To those who have seen this institution we need not say that this isa most magnificent offer, and the Legislature has acted wisely in accepting thegrant and establishing in our beautiful and growing city the State University.VETOED.-Since writing the above we have learned through the Topeka Record, thatthe bill locating the University at Manhattan has been returned to theLegislature by the Governor without his signature. The Governor assigns severalfeeble reasons for this act, which merely amount to the fact that he wants to putin a bid himself at a future time. [113]

     Professor Goodnow's diary shows that hemaintained a concrete interest in the welfare of the school to the extent ofdoing much manual labor for it, alone or assisting others in such work. On August9 he recorded having a talk with Principal Marlatt on the school, and that he wasgoing to take a circuit, and a new teacher would be necessary. [114]

     At a meeting of the trustees of Bluemont CentralCollege, action was taken as follows:

     The office of Principal being declared vacant, onmotion Prof. I. T. Goodnowchosen to fill that station till April 1st, 1862, with authority to employ anassistant. The remuneration of Principal and Assistant together with allinci

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 345

dental expenses in keeping up the school be the tuition of the pupils inattendance. [115]

     Principal Goodnow offered Mr. Marlatt ateacher's place, but he declined it, and Miss Nancy Bemis was engaged asassistant teacher in the school."' The school opened October 8 with sixteenpupils, and at least twelve enrolled later. Professor Goodnow taught classes, andmade benches and a desk for the school. He had a class in algebra, and one inastronomy. He fitted up a separate recitation room for himself. The college bellarrived December 10, and was hung on the 14th. The school term closed December21, 1861. [117]

     Principal Goodnow opened the winter term of theschool with 40 pupils. Miss Nancy L. Bemis and the Rev. Robert L. Harford werehis assistants. Mr. Goodnow was the member of the house from his legislativedistrict, and went to Topeka soon after the beginning of the winter term of theschool, and renewed his efforts to get the university located at Manhattan. WithDavies Wilson he drew up a university bill which was introduced in the houseJanuary 20, 1862. [118]

     Representative Goodnow carried on an activecampaign in behalf of the bill to locate the university at Manhattan, but washandicapped by a party contest concerning the eligibility of certain men to serveas senators. After a debate in committee of the whole, the committee recommendedthat the university be located at Manhattan. Lawrence, Emporia and Tecumseh werealso considered. The bill was passed by the house the next day, February 18,1862, by a vote of 45 to 16. [119] The trouble was in the senate, where the billwas finally defeated by a vote of 11 to 12. [120]

     The Methodist conference minutes for 1862include the following important details of information:

     Your Committee [on education] beg leave to reportBluemont Central College in aprosperous condition. During the past Conference year, a school of such grade asthe wants of the country required, has been in successful) operation.Now that a commodious edifice has been erected, and a choice library andphilosophical apparatus procured, the Joint-Board hope to be able, soon toinaugurate a regular collegiate department, and thus make the Institution aCol

346 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

lege in fact, in which the youth of our land may receive that mental and moraltraining, necessary to fit them for the practical duties of life.-Therefore,Resolved,
First, That, as a Conference, we give to Bluemont Central College our cordialsupport.
Second, That James Lawrence and Robert L. Harford be appointed as a VisitingCommittee and Members of the Joint-Board.
Third, That John Pipher, Welcome Wells, Davies Wilson, T. H. Mudge, and B. F.Fullington, be appointed Trustees for three years, from the 1st of April, A. D.,1862. [121]

     At the end of the winter term of the school,Principal Goodnow noted: "Miss B.-well tried, & tired." She had been carrying theburden alone most of the time, as Mr. Goodnow was in the legislature. Of theclosing exercises, March 20, the local paper reported:

     BLUE MONT COLLEGE: The close of the winter term ofthis Institution, whichoccurred last Thursday, was attended with literary exercises by the students. Weare informed that the numerous exercises, which were participated in by most ofthe students, disclosed a degree of progress and diligent study, eminentlygratifying to the friends and visitors of the school. The spring term commenceson the 10th of April. Prof. Goodnow, under whose superintendence ,the college hasbeen so signally successful, will continue to watch over its interests.[122]

     On March 29, 1862, the trustees of BluemontCentral College met for the annual meeting, but a quorum was not present, and anadjournment was taken to June 26, 1862. The resident trustees resolved themselvesinto a prudential committee, under the provision of section 10 of theconstitution. The committee voted that the college remain in charge of I. T.Goodnow with the title of acting president. Duplicate volumes in the library weresold to Professor Good now for $140. The Rev. Washington Marlatt was permitted toretain certain land within the Bluemont townsite, "in consideration of sacrificesmade by him in behalf of the college." Messrs. Denison, Goodnow, Humphrey andMarlatt were appointed to report a courseof study at the next meeting of the board. Mr. Humphrey was appointed to auditthe treasurer's account and to report at the next meeting. However, the adjournedmeeting was not held June 26. [123]

     The spring term of 1862 opened April 10 with 25pupils. Miss Mary Hubbard was to commence teaching April 14, and presumably didso, as this is the only reference to the term's work found in the Goodnow diary.[124]

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 347

     At the first meeting of District No. 7, Rileycounty, a committee was appointed to report in one week "the best course topursue to have a school commenced in the district as soon as possible, what willbe the probable cost of a schoolhouse, and whether it will be advisable to selecta site and build immediately." [125] The committee reported adversely in respectto building a schoolhouse, and submitted a proposition from "the College Company"to teach the district school for the first term of three months. The propositionwas accepted. It provided that the college should teach the district pupils for aterm from September 3 to December 17, 1862, and receive as payment a tax ofone-fourth of one percent on the taxable property of the district, and any statemoney that might be apportioned to the district. If nothing should be receivedfrom the state, the pupils were to be assessed equitably to make up thedeficiency. The contract was signed September 1, 1862, by "Ambrose Todd, DistrictClerk," and "Isaac T. Goodnow, President Bluemont College." [126]

     In the summer of 1862, it was announced in thecollege advertisement that "By applying soon a half dozen young ladies can beaccommodated in the College Building in the family of Mr. Ells [Eells?]." [127]Mr. Goodnow noted that "Mr. Brous moved into the college." [128]

     From these two items it appears that at leasttwo families were residing in the college building at that time.

     Albert Todd, a student in 1862, recalled:

     In the southwest room on the ground floor of thatold stone building on thehill, a district school was conducted by Miss Bemis, a sister of . . . Mrs.Thomas C. Wells. Miss Bemis was my teacher for but one term. I was then out ofschool for nearly a year, when I again attended a district school in the sameroom, the teacher now being Miss Belle Haines. . . [129]

     This second experience was after the buildinghad been transferred to the state for use by the Kansas State AgriculturalCollege. In the catalogue of that institution for 1863-1864, Miss Belle M. Hainesis listed in the faculty as "Assistant Teacher in the Preparatory Department." Ata meeting of the school district a contract was authorized to have the pupils ofthe district taught by the college

348 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

for a winter term of three months for $130. This contract was confirmed by theboard of regents of the college. [130]

     It is remarkable that the records of theBluemont Central College Association contain no reference to the proceedingsincident to offering the Bluemont building and land to the state to become thesite of the State Agricultural College. Professor Goodnow was elected to theoffice of State Superintendent of Public Instruction November 7, 1862, and tookoffice in January, 1863. He was therefore in Topeka and in position to keep aneye on legislation concerning education. The Morrill act of congress providinggrants of land for the endowment of agricultural colleges was signed by AbrahamLincoln, July 2, 1862. This fact did not escape the notice of the Bluemontcollege group.

     Professor Goodnow's diary shows that during thefall of 1862 he continued to do various mechanical jobs to better the conditionof the college building and its surroundings. Later, during the session of thelegislature, he made many cryptic entries which indicate that a conflict wasgoing on involving Lawrence, Manhattan and Em poria. At first he seemed still toharbor the hope that the university could be obtained for Manhattan, but laterwas satisfied by getting the agricultural college. The bill locating it atManhattan passed both houses by unanimous votes. "One of the 7 wonders of Kansaslegislation!" [131]

     Superintendent Goodnow at once turned hisattention to drawing up a bill for the government of the agricultural college.This was Sassed "triumphantly." 132The minutes of the Bluemont Central College Association include nothing after thedate March 29, 1862, until March 5, 1863, when a meeting of the prudentialcommittee was held. At this meeting: On motion it was recommended that Rev.Joseph Denison be put in nomination as President of Bluemont Central College.On motion it was requested of the Presiding Bishop of the Kansas M. E.Conference, to be held in Lawrence March the 11th, 1863, be requested to appointthe Rev. J. Denison to the Presidency of Bluemont Central College 133As the building, library, and apparatus of Bluemont Central College had beenpromised to the state of Kansas, this action was probably intended to give Mr.Denison some prestige as a candidate

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 349

for the presidency of the Kansas State Agricultural College. The record of theconference held March 11-16, 1863, includes the following item among theappointments for the Manhattan district: "J. Denison, President of BluemontCollege, member of Manhattan Quarterly Conference." [134]

     At this conference the committee on educationtook no cognizance of the forthcoming transfer of the Bluemont Central College tothe state of Kansas, but reported as follows:

     Your committee would report Bluemont CentralCollege as having been insuccessful operation during the past Conference year, under the superintendenceof Professor R. L. Harford, assisted by Miss Mary Hubbard and Miss V[N.] L.Bemis. The school has continued to increase in numbers and influence, fullymeeting the present wants of the community, in affording the youth a means ofmental and moral development.
The whole number of students for the year has been seventy-five.Your committee recommend the appointment of the following as a Visiting Committeefor the present year: Revs. J. Lawrence, L. B. Dennis, J. A. Woodburn.
Trustees, for three years from the 1st of April, A. D., 1863: I. T. Goodnow, S.C. Pomeroy, Wm. A. McCollom, A. Barry, Wm. J. Kermott.
For two years: R. L. Harford. For one year: S. V. Lee. [135]

     The trustees of Bluemont Central CollegeAssociation met April 16, 1863, and concurred in the actions of the prudentialcommittee, March 29, 1862, and March 5, 1863. The following motions are amongthose passed:

     On motion the President of the College be requestedto have the collegebuilding vacated of families within one week, and put in as good repair aspossible, preparatory to its being delivered over to the State as an AgriculturalSchool, etc.
On motion the President and Secretary be authorized to make a deed of one hundredacres of land, the college building, etc., etc., to the State of Kansas as peract of her legislature at its last session and that it be signed by at least amajority of the present Board of Trustees of the B. C. C. Association.On motion Prof. I. T. Goodnow was continued as agent with discretionary power todispose of any part of the property, or real estate of the association necessaryto meet pressing demands as they may arise from time totime.

     The auditing committee gave the followingreport, viz.: "This certifies that I have this day examined the accounts of IsaacT. Goodnow agent of the Trustees of Bluemont Central College Association and findthem to be correct. (Signed) WM. A. MCCOLLOM." [136]

     A list of the members of the board of trusteeswas appended.

350 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

     I. T. Goodnow was president and WashingtonMarlatt secretary of the board.Professor Goodnow's diary contains the following entries: "Miss Bemis at tea,settled her account." 137 (This may indicate that her connection with the schoolwas terminated.) "Judge Woodworth & Prof. Schnebley with us last night." [138]"School opened. 28 scholars." [139] This is the last direct reference to theschool extant. Was Professor Schnebly the teacher? Was Mr. Harford also ateacher? After an absence from Manhattan of three weeks on official visits,Superintendent Goodnow notes on his return that he had a "call from Schnebley &Harford" and the next day he "visited with Schnebley." [140] If ProfessorSchnebly was the teacher that term he constituted an instructional link betweenBluemont Central College and Kansas State Agricultural College, as he was amember of the first faculty of the latter institution, which opened September 2,1863. [141]

     There are no records extant showing with anycompleteness the names of those who attended Bluemont Central College nor isthere any record of the subjects taught. Most of the teaching was elementary workwith the children of the vicinity, but a few received instruction in algebra andLatin. There was no academic connection between Bluemont Central College and theKansas State Agricultural College to which the Bluemont building and one-hundredacres of land were given.

     The transfer of the Bluemont Central Collegebuilding with the 100 acres of land was by a deed dated June 10, 1863, but theformal delivery was made July 2, when the deed was acknowledged, and the eventmade a feature of the celebration of Independence day. There was a largeattendance and everybody had a good time. A dinner was served in the chapel onthe third floor of the college building, at which 20 toasts were offered.Speeches were made in response to 12 of these .142 Superintendent Goodnow wrote:"Regents' Dinner at College. Multitudinous speeches, made two short ones myself.McCullom, Capt. Rust & Gilchrist stopped with me leer night. Held a session ofRegents, discussed important points." 143

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 351

     This explains why the first recorded minutes ofthe regents of Kansas State Agricultural College refer to the meeting as an"adjourned" one. [144]

     As not all the property of the Bluemont CentralCollege Association was conveyed to the state, annual meetings were held at thecall of the president in 1864 and 1865, at which action was taken in respect toproperty, and trustees were elected. J. Denison was made secretary of the boardin 1864 instead of W. Marlatt, and in 1865 Mr. Goodnow resigned as president andJohn Pipher was elected. [145]

     Reports of the business of the association weremade to the Methodist Episcopal Conferences held in 1864 and 1865. The one for1864 follows:

     The Trustees of the "Bluemont Central CollegeAssociation," empowered by an actof the State Legislature of Kansas, have given to the State the College building,library, apparatus, and one hundred (100) acres of land, on consideration of theinstitution being endowed with 90,000 acres of land donated to the State, by actof Congress, approved July 2d, A. D., 1862.
The institution, as the "Kansas State Agricultural College," is already on itscareer of usefulness.
The above named Board of Trustees are still a chartered Board, possessingproperty as such, with liabilities and unfinished business. They hold theirrelations to Conference, awaiting opportunity for further usefulness in the causeof education. We would recommend the appointment of the following named personsTrustees for the term of three years, from 1st of April, 1864: T. D. Huston [S.D. Houston], J. Denison, W. Marlatt, J. Kuntroll [Kimball], S. V. Lee.[146]

     The minutes of the conference of 1865 repeat theminutes of 1864 concerning Bluemont Central College, but correct errors in thenames of the trustees, and add the following:

     Your committee would recommend the appointment ofRev. J. Denison to thePresidency of the Kansas State Agricultural College, as the regents of saidinstitution have elected him to said Presidency. [As a member of the conference,Mr. Denison's activities were subject to the designation or approval of theconference.]
Your committee would also recommend the adoption of the following resolutionResolved, That while as a Conference we will give our sympathy and patronage tothe building up of institutions of learning, in the bounds of our Conference, wewill in no case become financially responsible for any of them.[147]

352 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

     No reports of the association were made to laterconferences, and the records of the conferences show that no reports of theKansas State Agricultural College were made to them, though statements to thecontrary have been published .148 The conferences have never attempted to controlKansas State College. The founders of Bluemont Central College were scarcelyrepresented on the board of regents of the agricultural college. The onlyconnection of consequence was the appointment of Joseph Denison to be president,and this was not dictated or suggested by the conference. [149]

     In securing the location at Manhattan of theagricultural college, the founders of Bluemont Central College must have had asense of success in respect to having a college at Manhattan, that was far beyondtheir original expectations. The labor and sacrifices made had received a richreward. The endowment to be derived from the sale of 90,000 acres of land seemedsufficient to meet the needs of the college for all time. They never suspectedthat the college would so develop that, within the lifetime of persons thenliving, the income from that endowment would be a comparatively trivial part ofits total requirements.

     The first years of the use of the Bluemontbuilding by the agricultural college demonstrated that a boarding hall was anecessity, because of the fact that the location of the college was three milesfrom Manhattan, and farm homes in the vicinity could accommodate only a fewstudents. Furthermore, the land connected with the building was poorly adapted tothe agricultural needs of the college. A boarding hall was built which in ameasure met the first difficulty, and Manhattan township provided, by a bondissue in 1871, means for the purchase of 160 acres of better farm land adjacentto the townsite of Manhattan. Upon this farm, one wing of an elaborately plannedbarn was erected in 1872-1873. The Bluemont structure was poorly built, althoughit received high contemporaneous praise.

     The Rev. John A. Anderson succeeded the Rev.Joseph Denison as president of the agricultural college in September, 1873, andsoon became convinced that the cattle had better quarters than the students. Hetherefore obtained authority and funds from the legislature of 1875 to transformthe barn into a classroom building. At the same time a building was provided forinstruction in industrial arts. In the summer of 1875, the college work wastransferred to the new



[Pictures of the founders of Bluemont College.]

Founders of Bluemont Central College

[Clockwise, starting from top left: Isaac T. Goodnow, 1814-1894;
Washington Marlatt, 1829-1909; Joseph Denison, 1815-1906;
Samuel D. Houston, 1818-1910.]


WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE 353

site. [150] Such use as was feasible was made of the old college farm and thebuildings on it, but that does not belong to this account. The regents of thecollege "ordered that Professor Shelton should hereafter assume entire charge ofthe Bluemont College property . . . ," and "that the best policy to pursue withthe land under cultivation is to rent out as much as possible, and care for thebalance with as little expense as is practicable." [151] E. M. Shelton was theprofessor of agriculture.

     Shortly after college teaching was transferredto the new campus, rooms in the Bluemont building were offered for rent. "A fewStudents can rent rooms in the old College building at low rates. Apply to MajorN. A. Adams, Secretary." [152] "Those desiring to board themselves can obtainrooms in the old College building." [153] The board of regents voted "ThatProfessor Ward be authorized to fit up rooms in the old Bluemont College buildingas needed for students." [154]

     That the regents of Kansas State AgriculturalCollege were thinking of selling the property is shown by certain minutes."Regent Redden was requested to inquire into the rights of the K. S. A. Collegeto the Bluemont College property, and present a report at the next meeting of theregents." 155 "Regent Redden reports that he has examined the question of thetitle to the Bluemont College property, and is of the opinion that said propertycan only be used for purposes connected with the College, and that we have noright to sell or dispose of said property, which report was accepted andadopted." [156]

     The income of the agricultural college was lowat that period, and the old site was uncared-for to a certain extent, especiallythe area not actually in cultivation. On July 7, 1880, the prudential committeeof Bluemont Central College Association met at the home of I. T. Goodnow. Thosepresent were John Pipher, Washington Marlatt, Isaac T. Goodnow, Joseph Denisonand James Humphrey.

     The following statement and resolution wereadopted:

     The situation of the old college building &premises having been freelydiscussed, and it being manifest that the buildings are going to waste, andthat

354 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

the land is seeded down with cuckle & sand burrs, Mexican thistles & othernoxious weeds, & has become a nuisance in disseminating the same over neighboringfarms, & that the whole property is really a disadvantage to the practicalworking of the Agricultural College, and furthermore believing that by theremoval of the College proper, to a new location, the old college building &lands are forfeited. Therefore, Resolved that a committee consisting of JamesHumphrey, John Pipher, Washington Marlatt & Isaac T. Goodnow be appointed to waiton the Board of Regents at their August meeting, to suggest to them the proprietyof using their influence with the Legislature to deed the original 100 acres backto the "Bluemont College Association." [157]

     A meeting of the board of trustees was calledfor January 18, 1881, but a quorum not being present, an adjournment was taken toJanuary 27, 1881.15$ The board met in accordance with adjournment; a quorum waspresent, and business was transacted, a part of which was recorded asfollows:

     Mr. Humphrey, chairman, reported verbally aninterview held with the Regents ofthe Agricultural College without results.
After discussion it was moved by Washington Marlatt & seconded by I. T. Goodnowthat James Humphrey be authorized by this Board to institute proper andappropriate proceedings in the court having jurisdiction to recover to theassociation the possession of the property & real estate heretofore conveyed tothe State of Kansas for the Agricultural College and which premises & propertywere conveyed to the State by deed of June 10, 1863 & which property has revertedto the Bluemont Central College Association, the Grantor, the said property notbeing used for the purpose and uses named in the deed of conveyance. Theresolution was passed. [159]

     This is from the final minutes of the trusteesof the Bluemont Central College Association. Legal action was instituted, theonly records of which available to the writer are those published in TheIndustrialist, and the Third Biennial Report of the college, as follows:

     Suit in ejectment was brought in the district courtin Riley county against theBoard by former members of the Bluemont Central College Association, for therecovery of the property deeded to the State in 1863, on the location of theCollege at Manhattan. Counsel was employed to represent the Board in this suit,and also in a case in quo warranto in the Supreme Court, incidental to defense inthe ejectment suit. [160]

     In the quo warranto case of the College againstthe "Bluemont College Association," the Supreme Court decided in favor of theCollege. The court holds that the "Bluemont College Association" has no legalexistence. [161]That long-pending case regarding the title to the old College property, which hasbeen in court nearly two years, was, on Thursday, decided by Judge

WILLARD: BLUEMONT CENTRAL COLLEGE

Martin in favor of the College. This ought, and probably will, settle thematter. We hope, now that the property is beyond dispute, to be able to chroniclemany useful improvements in this valuable property. [162]

     It is not possible at this date to determinewhat judgment, feelings or motives may have actuated the members of the board ofregents of Kansas State Agricultural College, but at the June meeting, 1883,"Regent Krohn moved that the old college building be sold to the highest bidder,all material and rubbish to be removed within six months of the time of sale,which motion prevailed." 163The fate of the Old College building is sealed. It is to be torn down, and fromits walls a humbler, but withal useful structure, no less, in fact, than a stonewall on two sides of the eastern twenty acres of the Old College farm, is to beconstructed. The contract has been let to Mr. Howard, and the work will go on atonce. We sympathize, heartily, with that large number of people who associatewith this old building many pleasant, almost sacred, memories, but these friendsmust bear in mind that the College and community have outgrown this venerablestructure which has so long outlived its usefulness, that it has become aneyesore, and a nuisance which cannot be tolerated longer.164

     The building committee of the board of regentsof the college reportedAt the August meeting an arrangement was made for the disposal of the old Collegebuilding by sale according to the terms fixed by the Board.

     The sale of the old College building to C. G.Howard for $221.00 was approved, and arrangements were made for the constructionof a stone wall on two sides of the twenty-acre field just east of the oldCollege building. [165]

     Mr. Howard razed the old college building socompletely that it is not possible now to locate the exact spot which itsfoundation occupied. It was somewhat northeast of the old well which is stillgiving excellent service. Mr. Howard sold some of the material from the building,and used some himself. He used the cut stone cornerstones in constructing anaddition to his home, and much of the lumber in a barn. As the city of Manhattanhas developed, these have disappeared. As noted previously the ordinary stone wasused by the college in erecting a wall on two sides of the twenty-acre tractacross the highway east of the site of the building. [166]

     In the disposition of the material from the oldcollege building, the Rev. Washington Marlatt obtained stone which he used inthe

356 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

erection of a farm barn. The old building had in its front gable, an archcarrying the name Bluemont College, a stone for each letter. Mr. Marlatt obtainedthis arch, and placed it over the driveway at the front of the barn. The Marlattfarm was adjacent to the college farm, and in 1918, when additional land waspurchased for the college, the Marlatt farm was part of that obtained. Some yearslater, it was represented to the president that it was hardly fitting for thecollege to use this historic arch in such a capacity. The college librarybuilding was under construction at that time, and it was decided to build thearch into the wall of that structure. It was placed in one of the interior wallsof the top story, which as planned is an exhibition room. The arch thusconstitutes a permanent historical exhibit. Some other pieces of cut stone fromthe old building are also parts of the installation. They had been placed by Mr.Howard in his residence. That was in process of removal at about the same time,and friends of the college saved them from destruction. Prominent among thesewere Professors R. R. Price and G. H. Failyer.

     When the cornerstone of the Bluemont Collegebuilding was laid, a number of documents were placed in a cavity in it. [167]When the building was to be wrecked, Judge F. G. Adams, secretary of the StateHistorical Society, requested "that the contents of the cornerstone be depositedwith said Society," but the articles "were pronounced worthless from exposure towater as they lay in the stone." [161]

     The Riley County Historical Society and thePolly Ogden chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution erected amonument near the site of the Bluemont building. This consists of a graniteglacial drift boulder from Pottawatomie county weighing more than two tons, towhich a bronze tablet is attached bearing the following inscription: "Site ofBluemont College, Established February 3, 1858, by Bluemont Central CollegeAssociation. Founded by Joseph Denison, Isaac Goodnow, S. D. Houston, JohnKimball, G. S. Park, Washington Marlatt. Building Erected 1859. Farm and BuildingDonated to State of Kansas, February 3, 1863. Site of Kansas State AgriculturalCollege 1863-1875. Erected by Polly Ogden chapter D. A. R., Riley CountyHistorical Society."

     The monument, was unveiled November 27, 1926,with suitable dedicatory ceremonies. Several grandchildren of the founders werepresent. The principal address was given by Prof. G. H. Failyer. Shorter speecheswere made by Judge C. A. Kimball, Mrs. Burr Ozment and Pres. F. D.Farrell.169

     To the lover of monuments that mark the progressof mankind, especially when this is made by surmounting serious obstacles, itmust always be a source of regret that the old Bluemont building was notmaintained in decent repair as a memorial to the ideals, vision, courage andpersistence of the pioneers of Kansas, and as concrete evidence of the smallnessof the beginning of Kansas State College.

Notes

I. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.-The late Miss Harriet Parkerson preserved for many years thediaries of Prof. 1. T. Goodnow, letters to him, the official record of theBluemont Central College Association, and other valuable material. She gave therecord book to Kansas State College some years ago. Mrs. Mary C. Payne becamemuch interested in local history, and had copies made of Professor Goodnow'sdiaries, and also had a series of letters of the Rev. Washington Marlatt to Mr.Goodnow copied. Professor Goodnow's diaries have been given to the Kansas StateHistorical Society, and one of the carbon copies of the transcript was given tothe Riley County Historical Society, and has been used in preparing this paper.Some valuable points have been obtained from the letters of Mr. Marlatt to DoctorGoodnow.
Professor Goodnow made two scrapbooks which contain some articles concerningBluemont Central College and Kansas State College. These scrapbooks were given toKansas State College through the kind offices of Mrs. Payne, and the presentauthor here testifies to the debt of gratitude which he and the public owe toMrs. Payne because of her interest in bringing these various materials to light.For copies of paragraphs referring to Bluemont Central College printed in theMinutes of the Kansas-Nebraska, and the Kansas conferences of the MethodistEpiscopal Church, the author is indebted to Miss Helen M. McFarland, librarian ofthe Kansas State Historical Society, and Mrs. Marcella Vincent, secretary to thepresident of Baker University.
Dr. Charles L. Marlatt of Washington, D. C., a son of the Rev. WashingtonMarlatt, assembled a considerable body of the writings of his father, and ofmaterials concerning enterprises with which he was identified. Doctor Marlattgave a copy of his compilation to Kansas State College, and in references made toit in this paper it is designated as the "Marlatt Collection."Miss Harriet Parkerson had possession of the earliest minutes of the ManhattanTown Association, and kindly permitted this author to copy them. Mrs. AbbieBrowning Whitney has possession of the earliest minutes of School District No. 7of Riley county, and through her courtesy the author was permitted to copy them.Mrs. Ella Child Carroll, one of our oldest citizens, has assisted in givinginformation and confirmation of several points involved in this article.The author gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to each of these and to otherfriends. Without the information which they Supplied the preparation of thispaper in its complete form would have been impossible.
2. "Records of the Manhattan Town Association," p. 62.
3. Ibid., p. 62.
4. Kansas Historical Collections, v. IV, pp. 247, 245.
5. Ibid., p. 247. 6. Ibid., p. 248.
7. "Minutes," Manhattan Town Association, p. 9.
8. Ibid., p. 17.
9. Ibid., pp. 1, 63.
10. Ibid., p. 63.
11. Ibid., pp. 28-31.
12. "History of Manhattan Institute," a lecture by W. Marlatt.-MarlattCollection.
13. Laws of the Territory of Kansas, 1857, p. 121.
14. Goodnow diary, Sunday, February 8, 1857.
15. Ibid., February 14, 1857.
16. Ibid., March 24, 1857.
17. Ibid., March 31, 1857.
18. Ibid., April 1, 1857.
19. Ibid., April 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 1857.
20. "Minutes of Bluemont Central College Association," p. 10.
21. Goodnow diary, April 15, 17, 18, 20, 1857.
22. "Kansas Reminiscences," by W. Marlatt, May 2, 1874.-Marlatt Collection.
23. Minutes of the Kansas & Nebraska Annual Conference of the Methodist EpiscopalChurch, Held at Nebraska City, N. T., April 16th, 1857, p. 14.
24. Introduction to "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, p. 10.
25. "Minutes," ibid., April 27, 1857, p. 11.
26. Notations made by W. Marlatt but not put into the official record.-MarlattCollection.
27. Goodnow diary, April 21, October 27, 31, 1857.
28. Ibid., November 21, 27, 28, 30, 1857.
29. "Reminiscences of the 'Beginnings,' " address by W. Marlatt in TheIndustrialist, Manhattan, January 12, 1895, p. 71.
30. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, December 21, 1857, p.12.
31. Ibid.
32. Ibid.
33. Goodnow diary, December 21, 1857.
34. Ibid., December 25, 1857.
35. Ibid., January 6, 12, 23, 26, 28, 29, 1858.
36. Ibid., February 1, 1858.
37. Ibid., February 4-6, 1858.
38. Marlatt address, Industrialist, January 12, 1895, p. 71.
39. Private Laws of the Territory of Kansas, 1858, pp. 71-91.
40. Ibid., pp. 75, 76.
41. G. H. Failyer and William Ulrich, The Nationalist, Manhattan, April16, 1875.
42. Manhattan Nationalist, July 17, 1874, quoting a correspondent of theHollidaysburg (Pa.) Standard.
43. Harriet Parkerson in Log Cabin Days (Riley County Historical Society, 1929),p. 22.
44. Kansas and Kansans (Chicago, 1918), by W. E. Connelley, p. 1853, and Dr. C.L. Marlatt.
45. Kansas and Kansans, p. 2445.
46. Kansas Historical Collections, v. XII, p. 427.
47. Semi-Centennial, Wabaunsee Congregational Church (June 27-28, 1907), p.43.
48. Kansas Historical Collections, v. V, p. 198.
49. Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. XII, p. 126.
50. Ibid., p. 128.
51. Unidentified clipping in °Goodnow Scrapbook. No. I," pp. 35, 41, 42.
52. Marlatt's "Reminiscences of the 'Beginnings,' " The Industrialist,January 12, 1895, p. 71.
53. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, February 26, 1858, p.13.
54. Ibid.
55. Minutes of the Kansas and Nebraska Conference of the Methodist EpiscopalChurch Held at Topeka, Kansas Territory, April 15-19, 1858, p. 9.
56. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, May 19, 1858, p. 14.
57. Ibid., p. 6.
58. Ibid., p. 14.
59. Ibid., May 81, 1858, p. 15.
60. Ibid.
61. Ibid., October 20, 1858, p. 17, and Goodnow diary, October 20,1858.
62. Goodnow diary, November 30, 1858, to January 31, 1869.
63. Ibid., April 28, 1859, and letter of W. Marlatt to I. T. Goodnow,April 20, 1860.
64. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, May 81, 1858, p. 15, andFebruary 15, 1859, p. 18.
65. Minutes of the Fourth Session of the Kansas and Nebraska Annual Conference,of the Methodist E. Church, Held at Omaha, Nebraska, April 14-18, 1859, p.15.
66. Ibid., p. 17.
67. Goodnow diary, March 2, 8, 15, 16, 18, 19, 24, 25, 27, 28, 30, 31, April 5,9, 11, 12, 23, 26, 28, 1859.
68. Ibid., May 3-7, 1859.
69. Letter of W. Marlatt to I. T. Goodnow, May 16, 1859.
70. Wells, T. C., "Letters of a Kansas Pioneer," Kansas Historical Quarterly, v.V, p. 399.
71. Gaeddert, G. R., "First Newspapers in Kansas Counties," in ibid., v.V, p. 27.
72. Letter of W. Marlatt to I. T. Goodnow, August 6, 1859.
73. Letter of J. C. Christensen to J. T. Willard, February 17, 1938.
74. Letter of W. Marlatt to I. T. Goodnow, August 6, 1859.
75. Ibid., August 10, 1859. 76. Ibid., August 6, 1859.
77. Ibid., September 1, 1859.
78. Ibid., September 29, 1859.
79. Manhattan Express, October 1, 1859.
80. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, December 28, 1859, p.19.
81. Manhattan resscember 24, 1859.
82. Goodnow diary, January 4, 6-9, 1860.
83. Express, January 7, 1860 et seq., April 7 et seq., September 22 etseq., December 22 et seq.
84. Goodnow diary, October 6, 1859.
85. Kansas and Kansans, v. V, p, 2445.
86. Goodnow diary, January 18, 20, 26, 30, February 1, 3, 4-15, 20, 23, 26, 27,March 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 10, 1860.
87. Ibid., January 22, 1860, and later dates.
88. Ibid., January 27, 1860.
89. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, March 10, 1860, p. 20.
90. Ibid., p. 21.
91. Ibid.
92. Ibid., p. 22.
93. Minutes of the Kansas and Nebraska Conference of the Methodist EpiscopalChurch, Held at Leavenworth, K. T., March, 1860, pp. 12, 13.
94. Goodnow diaries, March 21, 1860, to January 31, 1861.
95. Letters of Washington Marlatt to I. T. Goodnow, April 20, 28, May 21, 28,June 6, 18, and later ones.
96. Ibid., July 18, 1860.
97. Ibid., August 5, September 6, October 3, 1860.
98. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, October 24, 1860, p. 28.
99. Goodnow diary, November 6, 17, 1860.
100. Marlatt to Goodnow, November 8, 1860.
101. Ibid., November 17, December 17, 1860.
102. Ibid., November 28, 1860.
103. Ibid., December 17, 1860.
104. Ibid.
105. Letter of I. T. Goodnow to Mrs. Goodnow, December 16, 1860.
106. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, February 15, 1861, p.24.
107. Ibid., February 28, 1861, p. 25.
108. Ibid., and appended note, February 28, March 2, 1861, pp. 25 and27.
109. Minutes of the Kansas Annual Conference, of the Methodist Episcopal Church,Sixth Session, Held in Atchison, Kansas, March 21st, 1861, pp. 12, 13.
110. Western Kansas Express, March 30, 1861.
111. Ibid., May 4, 1861; Goodnow diary, April 6, 10-13, 15-20, 24, May 7,9, 14, 15, 18, 23, 30, 1861.
112. Ibid., April 23, 24, May 9, 23, 1861; House Journal, 1861, p.855; Senate Journal, 1861, p. 292.
113. Western Kansas Express, June 1, 1861.
114. Goodnow diary, July 17, 19, 20, 22-26, August 3, 6, 8, 9, September 12,October 5, 15-18, 24, 26, 30, 31, December 16, 27, 1861.
115. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, September 11, 1861, p.27.
116. Goodnow diary, September 28, October 2, 1861.
117. Ibid., October 8, 15-18, 24, 26, 28, December 11, 14, 21, 1861.
118. Ibid., January 2, 15, 20, 1862; House Journal, 1862, p. 86.
119. Goodnow diary, January 15, 20, 24, 25, 27, 28, 31, February 5, 6, 18, 15,17, 18, 1862; House Journal, 1862, p. 276.
120. Goodnow diary, February 20, 21, 24, 25, 27, March 3, 1862; SenateJournal, 1862, p. 192.
121. Minutes of the Kansas Annual Conference, of the Methodist EpiscopalChurch, Seventh Session, Held in Wyandott, Kansas, March 12th, 1862, p.20.
122. Goodnow diary, March 17, 1862; Manhattan Express, March 22, 1862.
123. "Minutes," trustees, Bluemont Central College Association, March 29, 1862,p. 28.
124. Goodnow diary; April 10, 1862.
125. "Record of School District No. 7, County of Riley," July 19, 1862.
126. Ibid., July 26, 1862.
127. Manhattan Express, June 28, 1862.
128. Goodnow diary, July 80, 1862.
129. Col. Albert Todd, '72, in The Alumnus, Manhattan, February-March,1908, p. 152.
130. "Record of School District No. 7," November 21, 1863; "Minutes," board ofregents, Kansas State Agricultural College, December 2, 1863, p. 7.
131. Goodnow diary, February 7, 13, 1863; General Laws of the State of Kansas,1863, p. 11, 12; House Journal, 1863, pp. 216, 217; Senate Journal,1863, pp. 170-172.
132. Goodnow diary, March 2, 1863,
133. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, March 5, 1863, p. 29.
134. Minutes of the Kansas Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal ChurchI March 11-16, 1863, p. 11.
135. Ibid.. p. 23.
136. "Minutes," trustees, Bluemont Central College Association, April 16,1863.
137. Goodnow diary, March 23, 1863.
138. Ibid., March 31, 1863.
139. Ibid., April 1, 1863.
140. Ibid., June 18, 19, 1863.
141. The First Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the Kansas StateAgricultural College, 1865-4 (Manhattan, 1864), p. 5.
142. Leavenworth Daily Conservative, July 12, 1863; The Kansas Farmer,Topeka, September 1, 1863, p. 117.
143. Goodnow diary, July 2, 1863.
144. "Minutes," board of regents, Kansas State Agricultural College, July 23,1863.
145. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, December 14, 1864, April25, 1865.
146. Minutes of the Ninth Session of the Kansas Annual Conference, of theMethodist Episcopal Church, Held in Leavenworth, Kansas, March, 1864, p. 26.
147. Minutes of the Tenth Session of the Kansas Annual Conference, of theMethodist Episcopal Church, Held in Topeka, Kansas, March 15th, 1865
, pp. 25,26.
148. "History of Kansas State Agricultural College," by J. D. Walters, in CollegeSymposium, p. 20; History of the Kansas State Agricultural College(Manhattan, 1909), by J. D: Walters, p. 19.
149. "Minutes," board of regents, Kansas State Agricultural College, July 23,1883, p. 8.
150. The Industrialist, Manhattan, August 21, 1875; Report of the KansasState Agricultural College, 1875, p. 2.
151. "Minutes," April 9, 1879, p. 276.
152. Industrialist, January 8, 1876.
153. Ibid., June 28, 1879.
154. "Minutes," August 8, 1879, p. 281.
155. Ibid., April 9, 1879. p. 276.
156. Ibid., August 6, 1879, p. 279.
157. "Minutes," Bluemont Central College Association, July 7, 1880, p. 34.
158. Ibid., January 18, 1881, p. 35.
159. Ibid., January 27, 1881, p. 36.
160. Third Biennial Report, K. S. A. C., 1881-1882, p. 5.
161. Industrialist, June 10, 1882.
162. Ibid., March 31, 1883.
163. "Minutes," June 12, 1883, p. 403.
164. Industrialist, September 1, 1883.
165. "Minutes," October 10, 1883, p. 415.
166. Industrialist, September 1, December 8, 1888.
169. Industrialist, December 1, 1926; History of Bluemont College, Motherof Kansas State College, by C. A. Kimball.
167. Letter of T. C. Wells dated May 14, 1859, in Kansas HistoricalQuarterly, v. V, 1936, p. 399.
168. "Minutes," February 27, April 2, 1884, pp. 423, 425.

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