KanColl: The Kansas  
Historical Quarterlies

The Emigrant Aid Company Parties of 1854

by Louise Barry

May, 1943 (Vol. 12, No. 2), pages 115 to 155.
Transcribed by lhn;
digitized with permission of the Kansas State Historical Society.


     THE Kansas-Nebraska Act of May 30, 1854, providing for the settlement of Kansas territory on the "squatter-sovereignty" principle, was a triumph for Proslaveryism. In an effort to compete with the south in populating the new territory, Eli Thayer and other New England men founded the Emigrant Aid Company-an organization designed to promote Free-State emigration and make money for its incorporators. During the critical territorial years it was the most active and influential of the many societies, both Northern and Southern, which directed emigration to Kansas.

     Numerous articles have been published on the history of the Emigrant Aid Company and its various activities. [1] But not much attention has been paid to the parties who came from New England and other Northern states under its auspices. The purpose of this article is to publish, insofar as possible, the names of the individuals in the six Emigrant Aid Company parties of 1854. Accompanying each roster is a sketch giving a summary of the available information relating to each party. Much of this material consists of excerpts from the emigrants, own statements. [2]

     A brief statement of the aims and method of operation of the Emigrant Aid Company is a necessary preface to the rosters which follow. The company was neither a charitable nor a subsidizing organization. Though its officers were interested in making Kansas a free state they were also concerned in making profitable investments. In transporting emigrants to the West the company operated as a sort of travel agency. Parties were formed by advertising trips in Eastern newspapers. Blocks of tickets were purchased from railroad and steamboat lines at reduced rates and sold to the emigrants at cost. The company hired a conductor for each party except the first. Local agents were established in Kansas



to meet the groups of pioneers and advise them of the best lands available for settlement. Testifying, before the special committee appointed to investigate troubles in the territory in 1856, Eli Thayer stated:

     The company, in no instance, paid the passage of any emigrant. It made no conditions about the political opinion of the emigrants; no questions were asked of them, and persons from every state, and of every political opinion, would have enjoyed, and did enjoy, the same facilities. . . . The company furnished these emigrants with no articles of personal property, and never, directly or indirectly, furnished them with any arms or munitions of war of any kind, and never invested a dollar for any such purpose. [3]

     The Company claimed that some 750 individuals traveled to Kansas in its parties of 1854. [4] The highest estimates in contemporaneous accounts total about 670, which is perhaps more nearly accurate. The names of 579 individuals appear on the rosters published here. It will be noted from the lists that Massachusetts emigrants were the most numerous in each company. Vermont was well represented in each group, and so was New Hampshire in all except the first two. There were a good many from Maine in the Third and Fourth companies; some from Connecticut in the Third; and a large number of New York state residents in the second, Third and Fourth Parties. A few emigrants from Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Wisconsin and Michigan also appear on some of the lists. There is no way of estimating the number who left the companies before arriving in Kansas, or who, after a brief stay in the territory, returned East or went elsewhere to settle. Numerous descendants of the Emigrant Aid Company pioneers are present-day residents of Kansas, and many others could probably be located in the New England states and in New York. It is regrettable that more information about these early-day pioneers is not available. The Historical Society will welcome additional information.

     This brief outline is intended only as background for the Emigrant Aid Company of 1854. In February, 1855, the Emigrant Aid Company of Massachusetts was chartered as the New England


Emigrant Aid Company. Manuscript lists of most of the parties which came to Kansas under its auspices in 1855 are also among the records of the Kansas State Historical Society. These will appear in the August issue of the Quarterly.


(Departed from Boston, July 17, 1854; arrived at Kansas City, July 29, 1854.)
Anthony, Daniel Read.BankerRochester, N. Y.Left Kansas in August, 1854, beturned, settling in Leaven­worth in 1857; published Leavenworth Times; died in 1904.
*tArchibald,John C.CarpenterMassachusettsSettled in Lawrence.
*tCameron, HughfarmerWashington, D. C.Died in Douglas county in 1908; was much publicized as "The Kansas Hermit."
tConant, Ezra.MechanicMassachusetts*****
tDavenport, EdwinLawyer Boston, Mass*****
*tDoy, John.Physician Roochester, N. Y.In 1856, Doy was imprisoned by Missourians for helping slaves escape; he was rescued by Free-State men. Day and family left Kansas in 1859 or 1860, returning to Rochester, N. Y.; they later settled in Battle Greek, Mich., where John Doy died in 1870.
tFowler, A.Farmer.Vermont*****
*Fuller, FerdinandArchitectWorcester, Mass.Went East late in 1854; returned with his family in 1855; designed first University of Kansas building, and other Lawrence structures.
Goes, George W.FarmerW. Randolph, Vt.Settled in Douglas county.
tGunther, Arthur.ClerkWisconsin.Settled in Douglas county; native of Germany and emigrated from Massachusetts according to 1855 census; was captain, Co. H, Second Kansas cavalry, 1862-1865.
Harlow, OscarMerchantW. Randolph, Vt.Died in Lawrence, March 24, 1856.
*tHarrington, Samuel C.Physician Massachusetts Settled in Douglas county; served in a Kansas regiment as surgeon, 1863-1864. Mrs. Harrington's name on list of the Fourth Party.
Hewes, George W .[Haverhill?] Mass.Left Kansas in 1855, according to Doy.
tHewes, William H.Merchant.Haverhill, Mass.A letter by Hewes was published in the Herald of Freedom, Lawrence, December 1, 1855.
Hilpert, AugustusLaborerNew YorkLeft Kansas in 1854 or 1855.
Holman, A.MechanicE. Brookfield, Mass.Died in Lawrence, December 3, 1854.


tHutchinson, George W. SpeculatorW. Randolph, Vt.Settled in clergyman. Lawrence; First Kansas chaplain colored infantry, 1863-1864; lived in Kansas City, Mo., in 1879.
tJones, Ira M.FarmerW. Randolph, Vt.On some lists he appears erroneously as J. M. Jones.
tKnapp, B. R.Massachusetts*****
*tMailey, JohnMechanicLynn, Mass.Probably left Kansas in 1855.
*tMallory, Anson H.SpeculatorWorcester, Mass.Moved from Lawrence to Denver in 1860; later lived in Leadville, Colo.
tMerriam, BenjaminMechanicRoxbury, Mass.May have settled in Minnesota where he went after Kansas leaving territory.
*Morgan, Jonathan F.FarmerS. Framingham, Mass.Settled in Douglas county; died in Texas in 1873. (See Mrs. Morgan and children in list of Fourth Party.)
tPhilbrick, NewellMechanicWorcester, Mass.Returned East in August, 1854.
*Russell, Joseph W.Mechanic.Massachusetts.Journalist; wrote for Missouri Democrat; left Kansas in 1855, according to Doy.
*tStevens, James [D.]MechanicWorcester, Mass.Settled in Lawrence. This name appears on other lists as" J. S. Stephens," also as "James L. Stevens."
*tTappan, Samuel F.Reporter.Boston, Mass.Active in Kansas affairs, 1854. 1860; moved to Colorado where he had a notable military career, 1861-1865; removed to New York City.
IThacher, JoshuaSportsmanMassachusettsThis name appears on one list as George Thacher.
ttWhite, EdwinMechanicMassachusetts*****

Chief sources used in compiling this list: Andreas, A. T., and W. G. Cutler, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883), p. 13; Lawrence Old Settlers' Association, "Minute Book, 1870-1879" (report of committee on historical matters at the 1876 annual meeting), in Mss. division, Kansas State Historical society; Cordley, Richard, History of Lawrence (Lawrence, 1895), p. 6; Doy, John, Thrilling Narrative of Dr. John Day, of Kansas (Boston, 1860), pp. 8, 9; Emigrant Aid Collection in Mss. division, Kansas state Historical society; "Webb scrapbooks." in Library, Kansas State Historical society.
*Voted in the first election in Kansas territory, November 29, 1854. Lists of the voters are in the Archives division, Kansas state Historical Society.
f Listed in the first census of Kansas territory, taken in January and February, 1855. The Society has the original records, which have been indexed.
$ Remained in Kansas territory only a short time, probably less than a month.

     The pioneer party was much smaller than expected. It finally numbered twenty-nine men. Adverse factors were the incomplete organization of the Emigrant Aid Company, the extreme summer heat and news of cholera in the Mississippi Valley. On July 15 Amos A. Lawrence wrote the Rev. Edward E. Hale:


     I have known of the severity of the cholera for some days & have had much anxiety & many misgivings. But Mr Thayer has fixed the time & has promised to go with the party, & we are pledged to it. They should know how the matter stands & decide each one for himself. [5]

     Two days later, as scheduled, the First Party left Boston. In the Commonwealth this comment appeared:

     The pioneer party of emigrants from this, city to Kansas,started from the Worcester depot yesterday afternoon. A large number of persons were present to witness their departure, and as the train was leaving, all joined in three hearty cheers. The party consisted of 16 persons, mostly highly intelligent and enterprising young men. Three of the number were from Roxbury, two from Lynn, four robust, intrepid Vermonters, and three from this city. From the large amount of business which has occupied the time of the company, they have been unable to secure a large party from this city and vicinity, but it is confidently believed they will secure a large number about the last of August, when another party will go out. The present party was started for the accommodation of Worcester and the Western cities, and it is believed that before they arrive at St. Louis the accessions will amount to upwards of four hundred. Eli Thayer Esq., of Worcester, and one of the Trustees of the company joins the party at that place and will accompany as far as Buffalo. [6]

     Eleven men joined the party from Worcester and Worcester county, Mass., where an auxiliary organization, the Worcester County Kansas League, was already in operation. [7] The two final recruits were Daniel Read Anthony and Dr. John Doy, both of Rochester, N. Y.

     Arriving at Buffalo, N. Y., the emigrants boarded the steamboat Plymouth Rock and crossed Lake Erie to Detroit, Mich. Writing a few days later from St. Louis, Mo., Daniel R. Anthony described the party's progress from Michigan to Missouri:

     The Kansas Pioneer Party left Detroit at 8 P. M. on the 19th, by the Michigan Central Railroad, W. H. Hopper, Conductor. . . . Owing to the detention of the Chicago train we did not get here [Chicago] till the St. Louis train had left, consequently, we were detained till night. Stopped at the Sherman House-saw nothing of cholera, though no doubt, many have died and many have been frightened and left the city. . . . We arrived in this city [St. Louis] on Friday night, about an hour too ]ate for the Kansas boat. Have engaged passage on the first class boat Polar Star, which leaves at 4 P. M. on the 25th. In this city we have stopped at the City Hotel, Mr. Merrit proprietor-to the mutual satisfaction of both parties. We commence board


on boat on Sunday morning; fare up to Kansas $12, including board, which is higher than usual, owing to low water, many of the boats having to be hauled off. [8]

     Another member of the party, writing under the pen name "Charlestown," was pleasantly surprised by the friendliness of the city's people:

     No where has the party been more kindly received than in St. Louis. We are visited daily by intelligent citizens, who express a warm interest in the movement. We are assured that throughout the state the great bulk of the honest inhabitants desire just such a neighbor state as an encouraged emigration from the respectable inhabitants of the North would make of Kansas. [9]

     At St. Louis, Dr. Charles Robinson of Fitchburg, Mass., acting for the Emigrant Aid Company, met the group and gave them advice and information. [10] A meeting was held on July 22, at which resolutions of confidence and thanks for the services of the Aid Company were passed. Hugh Cameron was chairman of the meeting, and Edwin Davenport, secretary. [11]

     On the afternoon of July 25 the party began the steamboat trip to Kansas City. Dr. John Doy wrote of the journey:

     What a volume might be written concerning our noble boat and its mixed cargo! We had four Potawatomies going to the Kickapoo Indians, from Milwaukee. We have six slaves with their masters going to work hemp in Lexington, Missouri. Some of them appear happy in their midnight ignorance. The master of one said he paid $1,400 for him. One poor fellow has left a wife and five children in Kentucky, but his master was compelled to sell him to save himself from ruin. We had many slave-owners on board, some of whom talked loud about tar and feathers on our arrival. [12]

     The Polar Star reached Kansas City on the evening of July 28; the passengers disembarked the next morning. Charles H. Branscomb, agent of the Emigrant Aid Company, and James Blood, agent for Amos A. Lawrence,-met the pioneers. [13] They held a meeting on the bank of the Missouri river and voted to proceed into Kansas to the vicinity of Wakarusa river where a site for settlement had

[Photograph of Charles Robinson (1818-1894), Conductor of the First Party, first governor of Kansas, and husband of the admirable Sarah Robinson.]


     The Emigrant Aid Company employed Robinson in 1854 as a resident agent in Kansas. He helped establish Lawrence and Topeka and was first governor of the state, 1861-1863. He died at Lawrence on August 17, 1894.


already been tentatively chosen by Branscomb. Daniel Read Anthony wrote home of the party's reception at Kansas City:

     In St. Louis, and on the boat, a certain class of political hacks, who manifested a great interest in our welfare, told us that we would not be permitted to land at Kansas; that the people of Missouri were determined at all hazards to prevent the settling of Kansas Territory by the emigrants from the Northern states. . . . But how different the result on landing! Many of the best citizens met us, extending to us a hearty welcome, expressing a wish that the thousands yet to come from the free states, would come immediately. Even E. M. McGee, a slave-holder . . . hearing that the party wished to purchase oxen, horses, wagons, &c., called at the hotel with his span of bays and carriage, and took two of our party to his home, and sold them property to the amount of $300 [14]

     No time was wasted in starting for Kansas. The group left on the evening of the same day, accompanied by Charles H. Branscomb and James Blood. Wrote one of the party:

     Our preparations for departure from Kansas [City] into the territory were multiform, and we realized from their comprehensiveness that we were to penetrate into the wilderness. First, twenty tents were arranged for disposal in the capacious 0x team. Then an incredible quantity of blankets, axes, tools of all sorts, provisions according to the tastes of our seven messes, cooking utensils, and our personal baggage. At 8 o'clock in the evening of July 29, the train started, guarded by the pioneers, and passing through pugnacious and fire-eating Westport, without the slightest disturbance, we halted for the night. The howling of some inoffensive prairie wolves aroused us early, and we found ourselves within the boundaries of the "promised land."
Leaving the ox team to plod its slow way, most of the party, impatient to arrive, chartered wagons and ponies for the balance of the journey, to the site near the Wakarusa, which had been selected for our encampment. [15]

     B. R. Knapp described the journey:

     We travelled as much as possible during the night as the weather was very hot in the middle of the day, the mercury nearly 120, or thereabouts. We saw occasional[I]y a log house, as we passed along, inhabited by farmers from whom we obtained milk, &c., &c. On the evening of Sunday we encamped on the lands of the Shawnee Indians. This tribe of Indians are friendly, and are in possession of some of the finest lands in the country. . . . On Monday morning [July I] we started early, and made good progress during the day, and in the evening arrived at the Wakarasa River, within 10 miles of our place of destination; here we encamped, and the next day reached our new home. Here we established our camps, and pitched our 25 tents, which made a fine appearance, although a little soiled. [16]


     The encampment was made on present Mount Oread on August 1-a day when "the sun was pouring down its beams with terrific fierceness, and all nature shrank under the infliction. A high wind swept over the prairies, but it resembled the blast of a furnace. . . ." [17] In spite of the heat the emigrants held a meeting and the following decision was made:

     After full discussion by the members present, . . . it was voted, without a dissenting voice, to stop here; to proceed to make claims upon the land, it being understood that the Emigrant Company at home will make this spot the base of their future operations, and will forthwith, or as soon as possible, send men and money to carry effectually forward their grand enterprise. . . [18]

     They named the new settlement Wakarusa. On the next day, wrote "Charlestown":

     Although the weather continued intensely warm, parties went out to secure claims in the neighborhood, and within three days each individual had contented himself with his prescribed 160 acres, whether of upland or lowland, timber or prairie. Little difficulty was found in selecting on the open prairie, but a great deal of the water frontage, comprising the wood land, had been already staked into claims. Where our new city was to be we found the log habitations of some four or five settlers of from four to six months standing. They were of that class which exists in the west, who are pioneers by profession, and who seek to be always in the advance guard of the army which invades the wilderness. [19]

     Difficulties arose over the staking out of claims. According to B. R. Knapp: One of our party had his camp utensils, tent, and all his fixings removed into the California road, a day or two since, because he had squatted on the claims of Nancy Miller. Nancy and another Hoosier woman made quick work with the intruders moveables. I had rather have a Prairee wolf after me than one of these Hoosier women. [20]

     Although the pioneers were for the most part enthusiastic about their new settlement, yet, by the middle of August less than half of the Emigrant Aid party of twenty-nine remained at Wakarusa. Unaccustomed pioneer hardships, homesickness, the heat-all played a part in discouraging the faint-hearted. Others of the group had returned East to settle business affairs and to bring out their families. Those who remained settled down to homestead their claims and to await developments from the Emigrant Aid Company.


     No formal government was yet in operation in the territory, but prior to the arrival of the Emigrant Aid party, opposing factions had organized, each with the intention of setting up ordinances for temporary government. One group was the Actual Settlers' Association of Kansas Territory, which generally favored the abolition of slavery, and was composed of men living in the territory. Another was the Wakarusa Association. Its members were Proslavery Missourians who were determined to participate in the territorial government of Kansas, although most of them had not even made land claims in the territory. [21]

     On August 12, a meeting called by the Actual Settlers' Association was held at the house of a Mr. Miller, on the California road, about a mile from the Emigrant Aid Company settlement. Many Missourians of the Wakarusa Association arrived on the appointed day and maintained their right to take part in the proceedings. A member of the Emigrant Aid party described the scene:

     In the morning the settlers were seen coming in, in all directions, on mules, jackasses, horses, and in all sorts of vehicles. Some of them coming 40 and 50 miles, and such a looking set of beings you never saw in your life; ragged and dirty, all bringing their provisions with them; it was a singular sight to see them at dinner. Camp fires were built in every direction, whiskey was as plenty as water, and as free as the Missouri, people bringing in large quantities. [22]

     On this occasion-the first clash in Kansas territory between Proslavery and Antislavery groups, an amicable settlement was reached, after much heated discussion. Wrote John Mailey:

     I thought I had heard politics discussed by all kinds of men, and in every possible style; but for bombast, rant, and an almighty patriotic devotion to the great principles of the star-spangled banner and revolutionary blood, it beat everything I ever listened to in my life. Well, we managed to get through, amalgamated the two parties into one, called it the "Mutual Settlers, Association," passed laws and regulations which are to be binding upon all, and extending the protection of the association to each and every member thereof.The meeting broke up with the best feeling possible, and all went their several ways satisfied that they had gained a glorious victory. . . . [23]

     Members of the Emigrant Aid party were not represented among the officers of the new association. The men elected were: John A. Wakefield, chief justice; J. W. Hayes, register of lands; William H. R. Lykins, marshal, and William Lyon, treasurer.


     On November 29, 1854, when the first formal election was held in Kansas territory, the eleven men of the pioneer party whose names appeared on the list of voters were: John C. Archibald, Hugh Cameron, John Doy, Ferdinand Fuller, Samuel C. Harrington, John Mailey, Anson H. Mallory, Jonathan F. Morgan, Joseph W. Russell, James D. Stevens and Samuel F. Tappan.

     Others of the pioneer party who settled in Kansas were: Daniel R. Anthony, George W. Goss, Oscar Harlow and George W. Hutchinson.


*Ackley, Ira W.*** New York***
Atwood, S. F*********
tAyer, John F.*** MassachusettsLived in Lawrence in February, 1855.
tBailey, Francis A.CarpenterFramingham, Mass.Settled in Lawrence.
Bascom, Lewis H.[Worcester, Mass.?]See, also, Second Spring Party of 1855.
tBassett, Owen T.MerchantMassachusetts***
tBassett, Mrs. Susan.***Massachusetts.Mother of Owen T.Bassett.
*tBent, Horatio N.Blacksmith.New York Settled first at Lawrence; later lived in Burlington.
tBond, Edwin P.MachinistMassachusettsSettled in Lawrence.
tBond, Mrs. Susan A***Massachusetts***
Bruce, John, Jr.*********
Bruce, William.***Worcester, Mass.Returned to Massachusetts before the end of 1854.
Bruce, Mrs. William***Worcester, Mass.***
*tBuffum, David ChaseShoemaker.Lynn, Mass.Murdered by Charles Hays in September, 1856.
*tBuffum.RobertFarmer.Lynn, Mass.Cousin of David C.Buffum.
*tCarter, JaredFarmer.Syracuse, N.YThe Carters' son Lawrence, was born in Lawrence, October 25, 1854.
tCarter, Mrs. Lucy A***Syracuse, N.Y.***
tColburn, Willard.***MassachusettsSettled in Douglas county.Name
tColburn, Mrs. Jane W***Massachusetts.spelled "Coulbern" in 1855 census.
tColburn, Mary S.***Massachusetts***
tColburn, Martha J.***Massachusetts***
tColburn, Albert W.***Massachusetts***
tColburn, Ellen F.***Massachusetts***
[Cracklin, Joseph] [24].***Boston, Mass.Settled in Lawrence organised militia company "The Stubbs"; served in Civil War in Second Kansas infantry and Second Kansas cavalry.
*tDennett, Ephraim H***Massachusetts Listed as" Ephram H.Bennett" in 1855.


The Second Party -- Continued

tEarl, George F.LawyerFitchburg, Mass.Settled in Lawrence; later lived in El Dorado; captain Co. A, Ninth Kansas cavalry, 1861-1864.
tEmery, James Stanley.***New York. Settled in Douglas county; U.S. district attorney for Kansas, 1863-1867.
tFick, Henry W.Farmer.New YorkLived in, or near Emporia in 1860.Captain, 1864-1865, by the President's commission.
tGates, Levi***Worcester, Mass.Killed in Quantrill's raid on Lawrence, August 21, 1863;
tGates, Mrs. Louise W.***Worcester, Mass.***
Mrs. tGates, Frances L. Worcester, Mass.Gates remarried and died in Lawrence, August 9, 1915.
tGilberk GeorgeFarmer.Cayuga county, N.YSettled in Douglas county.Born in England; came to the U.S.in 1850.
tGrout, MilonFarmer.Massachusetts***
tGrout, Mrs. Emily A.***Massachusetts.
tGrover, Joel.Farmer.Richmond, N.YSettled in Douglas county; active in Free-State affairs; member of legislature in 1869; died July 28, 1879.
tHancock, Horace A.FarmerMassachusettsSettled in Douglas county.
tHanscom, Oliver A.Merchant. Boston, Mass. Settled at Lawrence; later lived in Decatur, Kan.
tHaskell, Franklin.FarmerN.Brooklield, Mass.Died at Lawrence, January 26, 1856.
*Hazen, Azro.***Hartford, VtBrothers, or cousins.
Hazen, N. Hartford, VtBrothers, or cousins.
Hobert, C.*********
Hood, W. A.*********
*t[Hooton], Robert J.MarinerMassachusettsLived in Lawrence in February, 1855.This name appears as Robert Hotan in the 1855 census.
*Hovey, William Henry*********
tHowell, Lewis******Lived in Pleasant Valley, in 1879.
*tJohnson, Nathaniel D.Farmer.Ohio.***
tJones, Alfonso D.PainterMassachusettsSettled in Douglas county.
tJones, Mrs. Carrie S.***Massachusetts***
tJones, Mary C.***Massachusetts***
tJones, Carrie M.***Massachusetts***
tJones, William.***Massachusetts***
*tKnight, Wilder***Farmer Massachusetts Settled in Douglas county.
tKnight, Mrs. Sarah C.***Massachusetts***
tKnight, Edward F.***Massachusetts***
tKaight, G. Washington.***Massachusetts***
tKnight, Alex.***Massachusetts***
tKnight, Sarah L.***Massachusetts***
*tLadd, Erastus D.***Milwaukee, Wis.Settled in Lawrence; postmaster in 1855; died in 1872.
*Ladd, John A.******Son-in-law of John L.Mott.
*tLamb Otis H.FarmerMassachusetts Settled in Lawrence.


tLincoln, Luke P.***Newton, Mass.Returned East in 1854; came back with an emigrant party early in 1855, settling at Manhattan; did not remain long in Kansas.
tLitchfield, Lewis L.***Cambridge, Mass.Died at Lawrence February 11, 1855.
tLitchfield, Mrs. Harriet S.***Cambridge, Mass.Died at Lawrence April 7, 1855.
tLitchfield, Lewis T.***Cambridge, Mass.Lived in Douglas county in 1860; served in Civil War.
tLitchfield, Harriet A.***Cambridge, Mass.***
Lockwood, Rev.***New York***
tMace, Joseph N..EngineerMassachusettsSettled in Douglas county.
tMace, Mrs. Fidelia C.*********
tMack, JohnFarmer.MassachusettsDied in Lawrence October 9,1870.
tMerrill, SamuelMachinistFitchburg, Mass.Settled in Lawrence.
tMott, John L.Farmer.Michigan.***
Muzzy, J. H.*********
tPayne, Alfred J.Ship carpenterOhio.***
Pomeroy, Moses***MassachusettsYoung relative of Samuel C.Pomeroy; died October 1, 1854, in Lawrence.
tPomeroy, Samuel ClarksLawyer.Southampton, mug.Financial agent of the Emigrant Aid Company; settled at Atchison; U.S.senator from Kansas, 1861-1873; died in Massachusetts in 1891.
*tPratt, Caleb S.MerchantBoston, Mass.Settled in Lawrence; killed in 1861 in the battle of Wilson's creek.
Pratt, Stafford J.CarpenterBoston, Mass.***
*Reed, Josiah M.***E. Boston, Mass.. Read" on some lists.
tReyndlds, Thomas F.Farmer.Williamsburg, N.YSettled in Lawrence.
tRobinson, CharlesPhysicianFitchburg, Mass.Agent of the Emigrant Aid Company; first state governor of Kansas.
tRopes, Edward E.Farmer. Massachusetts Left Lawrence for Pike's Peak gold fields in 1859; later settled in Florida.Son of Mrs. Hannah A.Ropes, author of Six Months in Kansas.
Savage, Forrest***Hartford, VtDied in Lawrence August 17, 1915.
*Savage, Joseph.***Hartford, VtBrother of Forrest.Settled in Douglas county.
Sawyer, James.***Hartford, Vt.Left Kansas in July, 1855; removed to Wisconsin; died at Vineland.N.J., February 4, 1881.
tSearl, Albert DwightCivil engineer.Brookfield, Mass.Settled in Lawrence; made first city survey; served in Ninth Kansas cavalry in Civil War.
Smith, Charles Wolcott.Cabinetmaker. Lowell, Mass. Settled in Lawrence; died there July 30, 1907.


tSpittle, Matthew HFarmer.New York.Settled in Douglas county.
-Strout, Jacob E.************
Strout Mix Jacob E.*********
*tTaft, Jerome B.FarmerBoston, Mass..Reporter for the Second Party; returned to Boston and conducted the Fifth Party of 1854 Kansas.
tTaylor, OwenFarmer.Boston, Mass.***
tTaylor, Mrs. Eunice S.***Boston, Mass.***
*tTolles Francis O.Farmer.Perkinsville, Vt.
*Track, Brainard B.*********
tWaite, John W.Farmer.MassachusettsSettled in Lawrence.
*tWayne, Silas B.Bootmaker, MassachusettsSettled in Lawrence.
tWayne, Mrs. Maryetta.***Massachusetts***
*tWildes, Solomon.***Boston, Mass.***
*tWilles, Stephen J. Farmer. New York. Settled in Douglas county; served in Ninth Kansas cavalry and Tenth Kansas infantry, 1861 1863; moved to Skiddy, Ken., where Mr.Willes died November 24, 1873.
tWilles, Mrs. Anna.******New York.***
tWilles, John E.***New York.***
tWilles, Mary L.***New York.***
tWilles, William A.***New York.***
*tWilliams, HarrisonShipwright.Boston, Mass.Settled in Douglas county.
*tWinslow, Edward W.***Barnard, Vt.Settled in Douglas county.
Younglove, Ira W.***Fitchburg, Mass.***

Chief sources used in compiling this list: Andreas and Cutler, op. cit., p. 13; Lawrence Old Settlers' Association, "Minute Book, 1870-1879," loc. cit.; Cordley, op. cit., p. 8; New England Emigrant Aid Company Collection, loc. cit.; "Webb Scrapbooks," loc. cit.; savage, Joseph, "Recollections of 1854," in Western Home Journal, Lawrence, June 23-September 29, 1870.
* Voted in the first election held in Kansas territory, November 29, 1854.
t Listed in the first census of Kansas territory, 1855.

     Reports on Kansas territory from members of the pioneer party were for the most part enthusiastic. Their letters were widely published in Eastern papers and the trend of newspaper publicity was encouraging for the Emigrant Aid Company's venture. The National Aegis, on August 16, commented:

     The interest in the Kansas Emigration enterprise is constantly increasing, and the intelligence from the first company from New England is calculated to awaken new interest in those who have hitherto been indifferent on the subject, as well as to strengthen and encourage those who were before convinced of the practicability and advantages of the plan. [25]

     On August 12, at a meeting of the Emigrant Aid Company trustees, the date August 29 was decided upon for the departure


of a Second party for Kansas. The following notice published in Eastern papers advertised the event:

     The Second Party for Kansas, under the auspices of the Emigrant Aid Company, will leave Boston on TUESDAY, 29th inst., at 2¼ o'clock P. M. It will go by the way of Albany, Buffalo, Lake Erie, Detroit, Chicago, Alton and St. Louis. Fare to Kansas City, $25; meals extra; 100 pounds of baggage allowed each passenger.

Sec. Em. Aid Co., Boston. [26]

     The Boston Journal described the group which assembled at the Boston depot on August 29:

     The second party of emigrants from New England for Kansas, started from the Boston & Worcester depot yesterday at quarter past two. The party numbered sixty-seven in all-eight or ten of whom were females and about a dozen children from the age of infancy to that of fifteen or sixteen years. The larger part of the adults of the party we should judge, were under thirty-five years of age, and taken together they were a company of which New Englanders need not feel ashamed. The party embraced individuals from various parts of New England. Among them were a party of three or four from Hartford, Vt., who are musicians, and had their instruments with them 27several had their rifles with them. The emigrants assembled in the ladies, room of the Lincoln street depot at half past one, and there sung the beautiful song written by Whittier, commencing

"We cross the prairies, as of old
The Pilgrims crossed the sea,
To make the West,
as they the East,
The homestead of the Free."

After a few moments pause the . . . ["Song of the Kanzas Emigrants"] written for the occasion was also sung, to the music of the Missionary Hymn. The party then proceeded to the Albany street depot and embarked on board the train. . . [28]

     The conductor of this group was Charles H. Branscomb. Two other agents of the Emigrant Aid Company, Dr. Charles Robinson and Samuel C. Pomeroy, were also in the party. At stations along the way additional emigrants boarded the train until the total number was twice the original sixty-seven. [29]

[Photograph of Samuel Charles Pomeroy (1816-1891).]

     Pomeroy represented the Emigrant Aid Company as its Kansas financial agent for several years. In 1861, he and James H. Lane became the first United States senators from Kansas. Pomeroy remaining in office until 1873. He died in Whitesville, Mass., August 27, 1891.


     One of the passengers wrote from Chicago to the Boston Traveller:

     Our party left Boston on Tuesday, P. M., in high spirits, and have thus far had a most delightful journey, nothing occurring to mar our pleasure.
About 70 started from the Boston depot, 21 from Worcester, a party of 12 or 15 joined us at Albany,30 and others have joined us at different points,so that we number thus far 135. At Albany we were received at the Delavan House by a representation of Albanians; speeches were made by several gentlemen on the part of the Albanians, and on our part by Messrs. Branscom[b], Pomer[o]y and Lockwood, and the meeting was closed with a song.
We had a meeting in the cabin of the May Flower on Lake Erie, of which Mr. C. H. Branscom[b] was chosen President; E. P. Lincoln Vice-President; Jerome B. Taft of Massachusetts, and Rev. Mr. Lockwood of New York,secretaries; Messrs. Mace, Lincoln, Buffum and Richards of Mass., Mr. Spittle of New York, and Mr. Hanscom of New Hampshire, were chosen to act as a business committee. . . .

S. P. C. [31]

     The Second Party made rapid progress and reached Kansas City, Mo., on September 6. A letter written on that date by Jerome B. Taft records events of the journey:

     After a week and one day, we find ourselves "dwellers in tents" on the banks of the Missouri, with health and spirits fine. We arrived in this place at 8 o'clock this morning, and our company being numerous, we pitched our tents just out of the town, twenty-five in number. We shall tarry here a day or two, or until we have perfected our organization, and made such arrangements as are necessary for our journey of thirty-five miles up the Kansas river, where we expect to establish our claims in due form. We have had a most prosperous journey thus far. We arrived inst. Louis on Saturday, at 4 P. M., and took passage immediately on board the steamer New Lucy, for Kansas City. Fortunately for us, she was the fastest and most desirable steamer running on the Missouri, and after a voyage of three days and a half, (an unusually short one) we find ourselves, without harm or accident, at this place. . . [32]

     Some of the party stayed over inst. Louis and arrived a little later. According to Caleb Pratt, one of the latter group:

     Most of the party went up the Missouri immediately in the New Lucy; a number of us remained over a few days and went up in the Clara to Kansas City, Mo., a distance of 450 miles. We found that the part that had gone before had remained at Kansas City, and had been taking their first lesson in camp life, much to their discomfort. Our party immediately started for the Quaker Mission (some 12 miles from Kansas City) near which place we camped for several days. . . [33]


     The Emigrant Aid Company's agents, Robinson and Pomeroy, proceeded to the Wakarusa settlement in advance of the Second Party to negotiate for a union of the first and second emigrant companies. They arrived on September 11, and accomplished their mission on the following day 34 Erastus D. Ladd described the terms agreed upon:

     An arrangement was finally effected, whereby both parties were to come in on equal terms, the first party being paid for their time and expenditures up to the arrival of the second party. The claims which had been made were to be surrendered, including a large number in fictitious names for the benefit of those who should follow, and the choice of them was to be sold at public auction, the proceeds to go into the city treasury. The members of the united party are to share equally in the city lots. The city extends for two miles along the Kansas river, and a mile and a half back south from the river, including three square miles of territory. This is to be divided equally among all the members at cost, in addition to their farm lots. . . [35]

     In the same letter, dated September 19, he wrote:

     Yesterday and today have witnessed important results in reference to our magnificent enterprise-the settlement of Kansas Territory, by the free people of the North. Yesterday we adopted a Constitution for the government of the "Lawrence Association of Kansas Territory." It provides for the usual form of city government, the determining and registry of claims upon the public lands in the absence of laws of the U. S., granting and securing to certain persons the aid and protection of the Association as against its own members, in the possession and enjoyment of claims, as, for instance, minors of 18 years and over, &c.
Today we proceeded to the election of officers under our new Constitution, with the following result:
For President, D[r]. Charles]. Robinson, of Rochester, New York [36]
For Vice-President, F. Fuller, Worcester, Mass.
For Secretary, C. S. Pratt, Boston, Mass.
For Treasurer, L. Gates, Worcester.
For Register of Deeds and Claims, and Clerk of Court, E. D. Ladd, Milwaukee, Wis.
For Surveyor, [A. D.] Searles, [37] of Brookfield, Mass.
For Marshal, Joel Grover, Richmond, New York.
For Arbitrators, (any one of whom to hold Court) J. Mailey, Lynn, Mass., [Owen] Taylor, Boston, - - Bruce, Worcester.
For Council, Mallory, Lincoln, Willis, Emery, Tappan, Morgan, Haskell, Harrington, Johnson and Cracklin.

     Ladd also described the sale of claims:

     After the election of officers, the Association proceeded to sell the choice of farm claims, payment to be made by note due in one year, without in


with a lien upon the city property of the purchaser as security for the payment on the note, he remaining individually responsible for the balance if the security should not prove to be sufficient. Fifty-six claims, or the choice of them, were sold for the aggregate sum of $5043. The bidding was very spirited and increased in the amounts obtained as the choices decreased, for instance the eleventh choice brought $327.00, the highest sold, where as the first sold for $252.50, and the second for $180; the seventeenth brought $165, after which they rapidly declined, and for the 57th there was no bid and the sale was adjourned. . . [38]

     A fairly large proportion of the Second Party decided to remain in Kansas. The company had arrived in the late summer when the weather was fine for "camping out." Everyone was in good health and good spirits. [39] Under these ideal conditions they settled down to make homes for themselves. Erastus D. Ladd in his letter of September 19 wrote

     All here are still living in tents, and it would please you to see us men at the hour of meals, gathered around our camp fires with our frying pans, teakettles, bake-kettles and other appliances, providing our food, some to their wrists in dough, preparing bread, and others washing dishes. Well, this will be obviated when we get places to live, and our wives and families (those who have them, the rest of us can board or keep bachelor's hall,) come on.
We have just finished a large house which will be opened on Monday next as a boarding house; [40] board for members is $2.50 per week. It is constructed of poles, the roof thatched with prairie grass, and the sides and ends covered with cotton cloth. We are constructing another similar to it for the occupation of the pioneer party, as they must surrender their tents on the arrival of the large party which is to leave Boston on the 26th inst. [41]

     Rev. Samuel V. Lum, his wife and children and Anna Tappan arrived at Wakarusa about the same time as the Second Party and were considered part of the group, insofar as sharing in the "Lawrence Association." [42]


Abbott, Hubbard
*tAbbott, James Burnett
†Abbott, Mrs Elisabeth
†Abbott, Nellie Maria
†Adair, Samuel Lyle
Adair, Mrs Florella
†Adair, Charles S
Adams, Richard
Adams, Silas
Adams, Mrs Silas
Adams, John Wesley
Adams, Lorenzo B
Aldrich, S T W
Ames, Nathaniel
Andrews, Q E
†Andrews, Stillman
†Andrews, Mrs Alice
†Andrews, Elisabeth Frances
†Andrews, Lemuel L
†Andrews, Orin
†Andrew, Juliett
Axtell, S T
Ayers, Barrington
Baker, Stillman D
†Banks, Robert
Barnes, George M
Barton, Stephen K
Blodgett, Simeon
Brown, James
*tBurleigh, Jonathan M
†Burleigh, Mrs Harriet W
†Burleigh, Ellen Frances
†Burleigh, Joseph Frank
fBurroughs, Oscar
†Carlton, John W
†Carnes, Henry
Cary, A B
Chapin, A P
Clarrage, William
Ceale, Albert
Cleveland, William P
Colby, Thomas
Colby, Mrs Thomas
Colby, Sarah E
Colby, Elizabeth H
Colby, Thomas W
Colby, George A
Colby, Charles H
*tCondit, David
*tCrane, John L
Croak, Ambrose
Darling, Alexander C
Davis, Marcus
Dickson, Charles
Emerson, James D
†Farnsworth, Charles Peyton
Felton, Silas A
*tFitch, Edward P
Foot, John W
†Furguson, Janette
†Furgason, William
Gleason, Augustus H
Goodrich, Washington
Grindall, Charles I
Grindall, Ralph D
*tHadley, Daniel P
†Hall, Horace
Hall, John
Hall, Mathew
Hammond, Charles H
Hammond, Joshua
Hanlin, Thomas 0
*tHiggins, Leonard G
*tHill, Forester
Holland, John
†Holt, George E
†Holt, Mrs Lora H
Hubbard, Chester
Hubbard, Mrs Chester
and child
Hunt, A C Hunt,
George Washington
Jacques, Josiah [5]
James, D M
Johnson, Peter F
†Johnson, Theodosius
Jones, Samuel
†Jordan, Charles, Jr
†Kimball, Frederick
†Kimball, Samuel
*tKitchingman, William
†Lehiman, Wendelin
Loomer, Charles
Loomer, Mrs Charles
Loomer, Harriet
Loomer, Charles
Loomer, Mary C
*tLowe, Daniel
Masuch, Edward
Mitchell, Granville P
Morey, A W
Morey, Robert
Morey, Mrs -
Morgan, James W
Morton, S J
Murray, Charles M
Murray, Mrs Charles M
Nason, Sidney
Nason, William H
Neusser, Henry
Neusser, Jacob
*t[Ogden, Stephen] [43]
*tOverfield, Thomas
†Overfield, Mrs Margaret
†Overfield, W N
Owen, Dr D T
Owen, DeWitt
Parsons, L E
Pike, H S
fPike, Joshua A
Pike Mrs Mary E
†Pillebury,Josiah H
†Pillsbury, Mrs Alnora F
†Pillsbury, Arthur J
Rice, L D
Rice, Valorus
*Ricker, William
Roberts, Edwin
Roberts, John
Rose, John
*Russell, John L
Rust, Pulaski
†Saunders, Henry F
Saunders, Joshua
Sawyer, Albert
Sawyer, John S
Seaman, M W
Shattuck, P R
*tSmith, Joshua
†Stone, Thomas J
†eason, Peter
†eason, Mrs Peter
†eason, Rebecca
†eason, Henry
†eason, Louisa
†Thaxter, Joshua
†Thaxter, Mrs Merial
†Thaxter, George R W
†ucker, Isaac L
†Walling, William B
Waters, Joseph G
Wells, Thomas
Wells, Thomas
†Wells, William D
Wheeler, James B
Whit, Charles
Wilder, Abraham
*tWilder, John H
Wiltse, William B
Winslow, Orin F
Woodbury, William H








Farmer; minister





Painter; cabinetmaker


Leather manufacturer


Carpenter; surveyor

Farmer; mason
Farmer; teacher


Charlestown, Mass
Bolton, Mass
Clinton Mass
North Oxford, Mass
Springfield, Mass
Springfield, Mass
Springfield, Mass
Salem, Mass
Worcester, Mass
Worcester, Mass
Worcester, Mass
Worcester, Mass
Newton, Mass
Marshfield, Mass
Seneca Falls, N Y
Suffield, Conn
Sutton, N H
Sutton, N H
Sutton, N H
Sutton, N H
Sutton, N H
Sutton, N H
New Vernon, Pa
Lynn, Mass
Marlborough, Mass
Lynn, Mass :
New York
Philmont, N Y
S Deerfield, Mass
Marcellus, N Y
Londonderry, N H
Londonderry, N H
Londonderry, N H
Bridgeport, Conn
Salem, Mass
Boston, Mass
Seneca Falls, N Y
Granby, Mass
Lynn, Mass
Holliston, Mass
Topsfield, Mass
Haverhill, Mass
Haverhill, Mass
Haverhill, Mass
Haverhill, Mass
Haverhill, Mass
Haverhill, Mass
Haverhill, Mass
New Vernon, Pa
Miami county, Ind

Groton, Mass
Uxbridge, Mass
Fitchburg, Mass
Marlborough, Mass
Hopkinton, Mass

Native of Scotland
Native of Scotland
Unionville, Conn
Middleburg, N Y
Bangor, Maine
Bangor, Maine
Claremont, N H
Vienna, N Y
Vienna, N Y
Vienna, N Y
Eastford, Conn
Eastford, Conn
New York
W Boylston, Mass
Spencer, Mass
Lynn, Mass
Springfield, Mass
Springfield, Maw
Worcester, Mass
Worcester, Mass

Northfield, N H
Fitchburg, Mass
N Chelmsford, Mass
St Albans, Vt
Charlestown, Mass ,
Honeoye Falls, N Y
Salem, Mass
Boston, Mass
Fitchburg, Mass
Fitchburg, Mass
Parma, N Y
Webster, Mass
Lynn, Mass
Lynn, Mass
Lynn, Mass
Lynn, Mass
Lynn, Mass
Fitchburg, Mass
Boston, Mass
Boston, Mass
Murray, N Y
Murray, N Y
Murray, N Y
Glenn's Falls, N Y
Fitchburg, Mass
Worcester, Mass
Worcester, Mass
Portland, Maine
Portland, Maine
Boston, Mass
Boston, Mass
Chelsea, Mass
Chelsea, Mass
Danvers, Mass
Danvers, Mass
Danvers, Mass
Granby, Mass
Worthington, Mass
Worthington, Mass
Worcester, Mass
Worcester, Mass
Londonderry, N H
Londonderry, N H
Londonderry, N H
Sodus, N Y
Sodus, N Y :
Poland, Maine
Woodbury, Conn
Woodbury, Conn
Waterbury, Conn
Marcellus, N Y
Middleburg, N Y
Salem, Mass
Somerville, Mass
Cumberland, Maine
Cumberland, Maine
Glenn's Falls, N Y
Stockton, N Y
Trenton, N Y
Somerville, Mass
Charlestown, Mass
Charlestown, Mass
Charlestown, Mass
Charlestown, Mass
Charlestown, Mass
Portland, Maine
Portland, Maine
Portland, Maine
W Boylston, Mass
Millbury, Mass
Remsen, N Y
Bridgeport, Conn
Bridgeport, Conn
Fitchburg, Mass
Osborn's Bridge, N Y
Fall River, Mass
Sutton, Mass

Lived near Lawrence, 1854-1861; removed to Johnson county; prominent in territorial affairs; U S agent for Shawnee Indians, 1861-1866
Died August 20, 1858, at Coal creek, K T
Came to Kansas under auspices of the American Missionary Association Mr Adair
died at Osawatomie in 1898

12 years old
5 years old

Joined party at Buffalo, N Y
Settled in Lawrence

9 years old
4 years old
2 1/2 years old
Assistant agent of the Western Pennsylvania Kansas Company; joined party at

Joined party at Buffalo, N Y ; left at St Louis
Joined party at Rochester, N Y

Joined party at Buffalo, N Y
Settled in Zeandale township, present Riley county, in 1855 [10]
years old; died at Lawrence February 2, 1855
4 years old
Joined party at Albany, N Y ; settled in Lawrence
Lived in Lawrence in February, 1855

Joined party at Buffalo, N Y

17 years old
15 years old
12 years old
3 years old
Joined party at Chicago
Joined party at St Louis
Left party at St Louis

Settled at Wabaumee in 1854; later lived in Shawnee county

Killed in Quantrill's raid on Lawrence, August 21, 1863
Joined party at Amsterdam, N Y
11 years old; sister of Mrs Thomas Overfield
Brother of Mrs Thomas Overfield

Joined party at Albany, N Y
Died at Lawrence, November 6, 1855
Joined party at Buffalo, N Y ; this name perhaps should be listed as "Thomas O'Hanlin "

Settled in Douglas county

Note on manuscript list reads: "Left behind "
7 years old

Returned to Massachusetts late in 1854; conducted Sixth Party of 1855 to Kansas
in April, 1855; settled in Douglas county

Left party at St Louis
Paid fare only as far as St Louis
Joined party at St Louis; settled in Lawrence

Killed in Quantrill's raid on Lawrence, August 21, 1863
Brother of Frederick; settled in Lawrence
Formerly of Leeds, England; joined party at Buffalo, N Y ; settled in Douglas county
In the 1855 census this man is listed as "Vandaline Leman "
Settled near Kansas City, Mo
Probably never came to Kansas
14 years old
12 years old
7 1/2 years old
Lived in Lawrence in February, 1855
From Switzerland

Joined party at Buffalo, N Y
Son of Morey
Mother of A W Morey
Joined party at Albany, N Y

Father-in-law of E Masuch
Son of Henry Neusser
Settled in Douglas county
Settled in Douglas county
See, also, entry under Furguson

Agent of Western Pennsylvania Kansas Company; joined party at Chicago; left at St Louis

Brother of J A Pike
Settled in Douglas county; later lived in Florence, Kan

Settled first at Lawrence; moved to Zeandale township, present Riley county, in 1855
"Bo[ugh]t Nathl Ames ticket"- Note on manuscript list
Joined party at Ypsilanti, Mich

Joined party at Albany, N Y
Joined party at Albany, N Y
Joined party at Albany, N Y; left at St Louis
Joined party at Buffalo, N Y
Joined party at Albany, N Y
Settled in Douglas county
Settled in Lawrence
Joined party at Albany, N Y
Joined party at Buffalo, N Y
Joined party at Utica, N Y Died in Douglas county July 17, 1855; aged about 25 years
From Germany

16 years old
11 years old
4 years old
Lived in Lawrence in February, 1855

Lived in Lawrence in February, 1855

Joined party at Rochester, N Y
Joined party at Albany, N Y
Joined party at Albany, N Y settled in Douglas county
"Confirmed drunkard, sent back from Detroit "-Note on manuscript list

Son of Abraham; settled in Lawrence
Joined party at Amsterdam, N Y
"Left behind" - note on manuscript list
"Left behind "-Note on manuscript list









Chief sources used in compiling this list: twp manuscript lists appearing consecutively in a small record book of the Emigrant Aid collection, loc. cit.; Webb Scrapbooks, loc. cit.
*Voted in the first election held in Kansas territory, November 29, 1854.
t Listed in the first census of Kansas territory, 1855.

     Charles Branscomb, conductor of the Second Party, returned from Kansas territory in time to take charge of the Third Party, which left Boston on September 26. The Boston Evening Telegraph carried this account of the company's departure:

     Yesterday afternoon [September 26], at 21/4 o'clock, the third party of Kansas emigrants from Boston, assembled at the station-house of the Western Railroad. The company consisted of 96 individuals in all, nine of whom were women, and about a dozen children.44 The party, with the exception of five adult Swedes, was composed entirely of New Englanders, the major part from Massachusetts, with a few from Maine, New Hampshire and Connecticut. The occupation of the men is chiefly farming, though there are a few carpenters and shoemakers among them. They generally carried rifles or muskets, and were a substantial class of men. Prior to the departure, the entire company, (among whom was a large number of the friends of the emigrants,) united in singing Whittier's splendid lyric . . . and also the song of the "Kansas Emigrants."
Prayer followed from Rev. L. E. Caswell, city missionary, which was impressively solemn and appropriate. The departure then took place, after mutual congratulations, amid hearty cheering and some few tears of affection and sympathy.
We learn that at Worcester an accession to the party of 31, and at Springfield, of a smaller number, was made-all of the right material for Western pioneers. The company quartered at the Delevan House, Albany, last night, and, being largely increased by accessions from New York and other places, was to leave for Buffalo at 71/2 o'clock. They leave Buffalo this evening [September 27], and proceed, via Detroit, Alton and St. Louis, to the "chosen ground." It is thought there will be upwards of 200 in the party when it leaves St. Louis. [45]


     The Chicago Daily Democratic Press wrote of the party's arrival in that city:

     Yesterday afternoon [September 29] over a hundred and fifty persons, mostly from the vicinity of Boston, arrived in this city on their way to Kansas. There were about twenty families among them. They are to settle together in a town called Waukarusa on the Kansas river, forty miles above its mouth. [46]

     The account also told of the public meeting held in the evening at which C. H. Branscomb spoke to a good-sized crowd of Chicago citizens on the aims and intentions of the Emigrant Aid Company and its pioneers.

     From Chicago to Alton the party traveled by train. At the latter city they took a steamboat for the 24-mile journey to St. Louis which they reached on September 30 at half-past six in the evening. There they boarded the Clara for the journey up the Missouri river to Kansas City. The river was low and it took six days to complete the trip. While on board the Clara, on October 3, the emigrants held a meeting. William B. Wiltse was chosen chairman and Augustus H. Gleason acted as secretary. Josiah H. Pillsbury, Daniel Lowe and Charles Dickson were appointed a committee on resolutions by motion of James W. Morgan. They passed resolutions in appreciation of the philanthropic efforts of the Emigrant Aid Company, acknowledged their debts to the company's agents, and expressed thanks to Captain Cheever of the Clara for his hospitality. [47]

     There can be no doubt, however, that these resolutions did not reflect the opinion of all the group. The Third Party had experienced delays and inconveniences en route which were disheartening. Many were discouraged by their reception at Kansas City on October 7, and by the news that they could not have equal shares in the "Lawrence Association." A correspondent for the New York Times wrote his paper on October 9:

     The truth is, that the Boston Emigrant Aid Company has by no means fulfilled its pledges to the public, or its duty to its proteges. There seems a total lack of system in their operations, and of efficiency in their agents. The last company, which arrived early Saturday morning, in charge of Mr. Brunscombe, are loud in their complaints, and justly so. They were about ten days on the road, subjected to much greater expense than had been expected, frequently scattered, both members and baggage being left behind at several points on the way, and worse than all, fording on their arrival not the least provision made for their comfort, or to facilitate their location. The Company


     advertises at home, to provide good board, till the emigrants locate, at a dollar and a half per week; while the truth is that the only accommodation is found at a professed hotel owned by them, and kept in the most shameful manner, as regards cleanliness and fare, at the rate of a dollar and a quarter a day. When the Banner State discharged her load here on Saturday morning, I was reminded more than I liked to be of the landing of Irish Emigrants at New York. Like them, the members of the Boston Train are sent on shore to go uninformed, unaided, alone, through the great Territory in search of homes,--subjected to the most outrageous plucking on the part of the jackals who hover around to enrich themselves by such means. All day Saturday and Sunday, straggling parties of men and women were wandering away into the prairie, forbidden by both purse and stomach to remain at Kansas City, deprived of the privilege of spending the Sabbath, like their forefathers of old, in thanksgiving for their safe arrival. . . [48]

     If the treatment of this company was impartially reported by the Times correspondent, it is not surprising that many of the emigrants never entered Kansas territory. The letter of Charles Loomer, who, with his wife and three children were in the Third Party, described the experience of one family:

Kanzas City, (Mo.) Oct. 13, 1854.

Dear Friends:-We arrived safe at this place on Saturday, Oct. 7th, 1854. We hired a log house a short distance from the city, on the highway to California, soon after our arrival, and are keeping house. There is but one room in our log cabin.-You can see nothing but hills and valleys all around. There are any quantity of pigs in this place; they run wild all over the fields and in the Streets. You can "Smell pork" anywhere. There is much travel by our house, and Indians, men and squaws, on horseback, frequently ride by. Kanzas is anything but a city; a few stores by the water side, and about one hundred log houses Scattered around the hills, make up the city. I have not as yet been to the territory, which is 50 or 60 miles from this place. Some of our company, on their arrival, immediately went there in wagons, and on foot; exposed to the scorching sun. The heat is greater here now than it is in midsummer. The party on foot immediately on their arrival, turned about and came back. They say there is but one hill to be seen, and al] the rest is prarie. Timber is scarce, and water is very scarce indeed. About one-third of our company, which entered Kanzas 200 strong, have returned home or gone to St. Louis and other places. On the passage from St. Louis to Kanzas there were some cases of dysentery, myself and family had an attack.
Those who bring with them $500 or $1000 to buy stock and implements for their farms, and are young, or have good constitutions, get along very well; but for men without capital, or whose health is none of the best, it were


better for them to stay at home. There are various opinions in regard to the territory, or that part of it where the emigrants calculate to plant themselves. I believe, however, they all agree in regard to the fertility of the soil, the scarcity of woodland, timber, and wood to burn. . . [49]

     The Boston Daily Evening Traveller published this story:

     A young Milk street clerk, who went out with the September party from this city, writes to his friends a most doleful account of his sufferings. He says that, after reaching Kanzas City, he and others of his party started on foot, gun in hand, for their new location. On their way, he says, they were obliged to sleep in the hay gathered up in the fields, purchasing a quart of milk of an Indian squaw for twenty-five cents to moisten their hard food, that upon reaching their destination they found the accommodations to be a few overcrowded tents, and they were obliged to camp in the open air. The land now unclaimed is some distance from the river, and is bare of wood.
In addition, he says it is necessary- to keep a vigilant eye upon their effects, for fear of their disappearance. He declares that of the party of one hundred and sixty who left with him, at least ninety are on their way back to the Eastward, well satisfied that they are not fitted to settle a new and unbroken country, and quite disposed to pronounce the whole Kanzas scheme a grand humbug.

     The Traveller commented:

     ". . . it evidently requires a very different sort of person from this . . . writer to settle and develop the resources of the western wilderness." [50] Probably there were a number in the Third Party who were unqualified for pioneer life, for Charles H. Branscomb, the guide, wrote the Emigrant Aid Company while en route to Kansas, urging circumspection in regard to the character of people allowed to join the company's parties." [51]

     Those who decided to settle in Kansas found claims in, or near, the Aid Company settlement at Wakarusa-or Lawrence, as it was by this time known. [52] Available information indicates that approximately two-thirds of the emigrants returned East, or settled outside Kansas. Practically all those who remained were New Englanders.













     Chief sources used in compiling this list: Two manuscript lists appearing consecutively in a small record book in the Emigrant Aid Collection, loc. cit.; "Webb scrapbooks," loc. cit.; Allen, Mrs. Chestina B., "Sketches and Journal,"-MSS. division, Kansas State Historical society.
     *Voted in the first election held in Kansas territory, November 29, 1854.
     f Listed in the first census of Kansas territory, 1855.

     Although the Fourth Party did not leave Boston until mid-October the lateness of the season did not prevent this company from being the largest of the year. It finally numbered, on arrival at Kansas City, 230 individuals, among whom were many women and children.

     Thomas H. Webb reported to the Emigrant Aid Company trustees that the Fourth Party "took their departure from the Western Rail Road Depot, on Tuesday the 17th . . . [of October] at 2¼ o'clock P. M., accompanied by J. M. S. Williams Esqr. . . ." [56] Williams went only as far as Detroit. The 124 who started from Boston were augmented by numerous additions of Massachusetts and New York emigrants as the train proceeded westward. Charles


H. Branscomb, on his way back after conducting the Third Party, met the Fourth Party at Detroit and accompanied them to Kansas City. They reached St. Louis on October 22 and the following day began their journey on the steamboat Sam Cloon to Kansas City. After a slow trip, because of low water in the Missouri river, they arrived on October 28. Wrote one observer:

     The fourth party . . . reached this place [Kansas City] last Saturday eve. It was one of the exciting scenes which are so often seen upon the borders of a new country. After they were all ashore there began the rush for the hotel. I among several others held a room which I had spoke for about three hours before the arrival. I went out to see the rush, and when I went back to my room I found it occupied by a man, his wife and four children. Subm[it]ting with a good grace to that which I could not remedy, I took my blanket and slept soundly on a pile of straw in one corner of the attic. The company as yet have not concluded what to do. [57]

     As in the case of the Third Party, there were many complaints that the Emigrant Aid Company had failed to fulfill promises, and that it had misrepresented conditions in Kansas. George O. Willard wrote

     I was one of the company which left Boston Oct. 17th, under the protection of the "Emigrant Aid Company." If the agents of this concern continue to send East reports in regard to this country, so different from the actual state of things here, it will greatly deter freemen from Eastern states from emigrating hither. We were told by Messrs. Caswell, Webb & Co., in Boston, that wherever we stopped on our journey, suitable accommodations would be prepared at half the usual price. Also, that our meals on the road need not average 20 cents per meal; that when we arrived in Kansas City we could immediately enter a hotel, conducted by their agents, and remain for half price until we had been into the Territory and selected our claims. How did we find these things? When we arrived in Albany, at half past 12 P. M., we had good accommodations. After this no arrangements whatever were made, that I could learn. At Chicago we were coolly informed, at 1 o'clock P. M., that no .hotel in the place could keep us. Consequently, two car loads remained in the cars all night. The rest wandered about the streets, some going to hotels and paying $2 for a breakfast and lodging. Coming up the Missouri, we were stowed into a miserable old boat, already half full, and about 75 of us slept on the floor, and many of us found our own blankets. At St. Louis we were told by Mr. Slater, one of the company's agents, that what provisions and other articles we might purchase should go up the river for $1 per hundred pounds. Instead of this, we were forced to pay $1.62 and $2 per hundred, and 25 cents storage on every article. Arriving at Kansas City, we were ushered into a house capable of holding about 150 persons. This, too, was half full. Some 75 or 100 slept on the floor, and 20 of us went to the stable and turned in on the hay. For these accommodations we were obliged to pay


in advance. Such have been the arrangements which we have met throughout at the hands of this company. We paid for, and were told we should have first class passage, instead of which we barely got third-rate. Of our company, which numbered 230 when we landed, I do not think 100 can be found in the territory. But few were dissatisfied with the country, but the cost of living was so much more than they had been told at the east, that many became discouraged and returned. In fact, while we were coming out we met a number of the previous company returning. [58]

     A large number of the Fourth Party went from Kansas City to Lawrence, to look over the prospects for settlement in the surrounding territory. Wrote Harvey Abbott of the disposition of the company:

     Some procured houses for their families at Kanzas City, some few scattered away on their own "hook," and four or five turned back before reaching Lawrence, but at least 150 of them were there over the Sabbath, Nov. 5th, besides about fifty of a party from Ohio, that came up on Saturday night. A part of this 200 only could have room to lay down in the big thatched tent called the "meeting house," some had tents of their own, made of cotton cloth, while others were obliged to lay upon the ground without shelter, with the thermometer at 30 degrees. Our party were waiting the return of their committee of an exploration, chosen some days before, and had gone to Big Blue, about 75 miles from there. . . [59]

     Charles Robinson wrote the Emigrant Aid Company trustees on November 4 that the Fourth Party had decided to locate on Rock creek, "a small stream between the Vermillion and little Vermillion rivers." [60] Very little information is available concerning this short-lived settlement and its location. John Doy, of the First Party, wrote from Lawrence on December 1: "A number of the emigrants have formed a village at a place called Rock Creek. This place is about 75 miles west of us, a fine country, but rather short of timber." 61 The site was in what is now Pottawatomie county and may have been at the point where the Fort Leavenworth-Fort Riley military road crossed Rock creek (i. e., present Louisville). The names of most of those of the Fourth Party who settled there were signed to the following document:

Rock Creek, Kansas Territory, November 12, 1854.

     Resolved, That we, members of the 4th Kansas party which left Boston, Oct. 17th, have not lost our confidence in the resources of this territory. We


admire its beautiful scenery, and are convinced of the healthfulness of its climate, and the fertility of its soil, and we advise our friends to emigrate here in the spring. But in our candid opinion the "Emigrant Aid Company" have erred in failing to present the dark, as well as the bright side of the condition of things here. In particular we lament that no more provision has been made by it for the temporary accommodation of emigrants, and that no more efforts have been put forth to select locations for parties arriving here, and that misrepresentations have been made respecting the price of provisions and the cost of living. As an act of justice to our friends east, who propose coming here, we would caution them against too much reliance on said company. Signed: L. Knapp, G. N. Roby, N. G. Titus, G. O. Willard, C. Stearns, I. A. Titus, W. Schoffield, L. L. Saphan, F. G. Schalling, T. Hoyt, G. N. Marshall, A. H. Powers, M. B. Powers, E. Howland, H. Pettingell, S. Johnson, H. Hammond, D. Hammond, G. Tilton, T. Whitehorn, M. D., N. Woolson, W. D. Wickes, W. R. Wickoff, M. D., F. E. Head, H,. Hall, J. W. Leland. Being every member then and there present. [62]

     George O. Willard in sending a copy of the resolutions to the [Boston?] Journal wrote: "Our Secretary, C. Stearns, was told at Lawrence, the town started by the Aid Company, that if he sent those resolutions east, a coat composed of tar and feathers would be prepared for him and applied. He said he should send them, but whether he has done so or not I do not know."

     Before the election held November 29, 1854, this group seems to have dispersed from Rock creek. Some returned to Lawrence; some remained in present Pottawatomie county, but moved westward to the vicinity of the Big Blue river. Several settled at Juniata. George O. Willard described this place in his letter of January 7, 1855, which he headed "Juniata, (on the `Big Blue River') ":

     . . . A town site has been laid off here, and settlers are coming from nearly every State in the Union; about fifty families are here now. The town is on the "Blue River," about five miles from its mouth, and the same distance from the Kansas River, and about 125 miles from the mouth of that river. We are also about twenty miles from Fort Riley. Various tribes of roving Indians are scattered about us, but they are generally peaceable. . . . Provisions of all kinds are very dear here at this time. Potatoes and butter we do not get at all. Wages are pretty fair. Any kind of a mechanic will make money here another spring. Game is abundant-I have seen 8 deer in one herd. Turkeys and squirrels are also plenty; quails and prairie hens are abundant. The river is filled with fish weighing from one to one hundred pounds. I ate a portion of one caught in the Kansas, which weighed 76 pounds. There is no ice in the river at this place now. We have a bridge across the Blue river here 300 feet long, built


by government. The military road from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Riley passes here. [63]

     In the census of Kansas territory taken in January and February, 1855, these members of the Fourth Party are listed as living in the vicinity of Juniata: Asahel G. Allen and family,samuel Whitehorn, M. D., Israel P. Brayton, John Wilbur, Alden Babcock, Hatch Hall and family, Moody B. Powers and family, Amos H. Powers, Horace A. Wilcox and Joseph W. Leland.

     Horace A. Wilcox, late in 1854, joined with Elisha M. Thurston (also of the Fourth Party) and three other men in locating a town site near the mouth of the Big Blue river which they called Canton. This site was included the following spring in the formation of Manhattan. Dr. Samuel Whitehorn also had a part in the founding of Manhattan.

     Another group of pioneers in the Fourth Party selected claims in present Wabaunsee county. [64] In the census of 1855, eighth district, is a list headed "Census of Wabaunsee, Feb. 26, 1855." Most of the names on it are those of members of the Fourth Emigrant Aid Party: George H. Hill and wife, Von Renssellaer Morse, George B. Lewis, Samuel Tay, Hartford P. Leonard and wife, James M. Bisbey and family, Calvin H. Sawin and family, Simon H. Ryan and family. There is also the name of Charles P. Farnsworth of the Third Party. Lemuel Knapp and family, and Edwin M. Tripp settled in the vicinity of Fort Riley. Practically all the rest of the Fourth Party who remained in Kansas territory are listed in the 1855 census as living in, or near Lawrence. Among the feminine members of this company was Mrs. Clarina I. Howard Nichols, champion of woman's rights, and one of Kansas' most famous women. With her were two sons by her first marriage, A. O. and C. H. Carpenter. Mrs. Nichols went back to Vermont in December, 1854, but returned the following spring [65] to make Kansas her home for a number of years.



(Departed from Boston, November 7, 1854; arrived at Kansas City, November 19, 1854; Jerome B. Taft, conductor.)

     No roster of this party has been located, nor is the size of the group on its arrival in Kansas City known. The names of those who have been positively identified as members of the Fifth Party are listed below.

One of the founders of Topeka One of the founders of Topeka Settled in Douglas county--------One of the founders of TopekaOne of the founders of Topeka Probably returned East Settled in TopekaSettled in Topeka----Promoter of the Descandum Kansas Improvement Company
See The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v VIII, pp 342-349
son of Amasa Soule.Probably returned East.Settled in Douglas county.---- --------Conductor of the party.Died in Lawrence on May 1, 1855.
†Chase, EnochMechanic Newburyport, Mass
†Chase, Jacob B.Farmer Newburyport, Mass
(Cook, SimeonLaborer Salem, N H
†Cook, Mrs. Bettie---- Salem, N H
†Cook, Mary E.----Salem, N H
fDavis, GeorgeFarmerVermont
†Dickey, Milton C.Mechanic New Hampshire
Duston, Mr. -----Salem, N H
†Hickey,** James A.Farmer Brandon, Vt
fMerriam, James FDentistVermont
Russell** ------------
fSoule, Amasa----Chelsea, Mass
†Soule, William L. G.FarmerChelsea, Mass
Spencer, L. B.--------
†Stewart, John E.Farmer Salem, N H
†Stewart, Mrs. Mary A.----Salem, N H
†Stewart, Ann M.----Salem, N H
†Stewart, Mary A.----Salem, N H
fTaft, Jerome B.FarmerBoston, Mass
†Taft, Mrs. Julia----Boston, Mass

t Listed in the census of Kansas territory taken in January and February, 1855.

     The Boston Telegraph of November 7, 1854, carried this mention of the departure of the Fifth Emigrant Aid Party:

     At 2½ o'clock today, by the Worcester and Western Railroads, the fourth [il Kanzas party from this city took its departure for the new territory. The company consisted of fifty-five adults, with but four or five women, and a very few children-a class of emigrants strongly recommended by the association for this trip, in view of the lateness of the season. They are hardy,


resolute men, and will do good service. Accessions will be made at Worcester, Springfield and other points on the route. This party is under the charge of Mr. Jerome B. Taft, who has been in the territory before, and who will return in the spring for his family. . . [69]

     Of the journey Amasa Soule wrote:

     We left Boston as you recollect, on Tuesday, the 7th inst., and on Saturday [November 11]. . . we arrived at St. Louis, where we went immediately on board a Steamer, which did not leave until Monday noon. When we started from St. Louis, we began to think we were near the end of our journey; but the most tedious business that I ever engaged in was that same passage up the Missouri-that river of mud, crooks and shoals. The water being very low, we were subjected, some days, almost hourly, to being grounded upon the sand bars, that are continually shifting, so that no pilot can clear them. We were until Sunday following [November 19] reaching Kansas City. . . [70]

     While on board this steamboat, the Australia, the company adopted resolutions in praise of the conductor of the party, Jerome B. Taft. This document was dated November 18, 1854, and signed by L. B. Spencer, president, and James F. Merriam, secretary. [71]

     On arriving at Kansas City, some of the party found accommodations for a time at the Emigrant Aid Company hotel. Others, with families, were advised by Samuel C. Pomeroy, company agent, to take their families to Parkville, Mo., where the women and children might remain while the men explored Kansas territory for a place to settle. According to John E. Stewart, quite a number of the Fifth Party, especially the young men, became homesick the first week and returned East. [72] Amasa Soule and others of the company arrived at Lawrence on November 23. Soule and his son, the John E. Stewart family and the Simeon Cook family all found claims in the vicinity of Lawrence.

     Charles Robinson, member of the Second Party and agent for the Emigrant Aid Company, had explored the country along the Kansas river with a view to locating future parties of emigrants. One of the most promising locations was the site of present Topeka. It was to this place he directed four members of the Fifth Party. These men were Enoch Chase, Jacob B. Chase, [73] Milton

small one-room log cabin


     This picture is reproduced from a painting made by Henry Worrall in 1870 from specifications furnished by F. W. Giles, one of the founders of the town. "It is a true representation of the original cabin and its surroundings, as they existed during the winter of 1854-5, to the most minute detail." The painting hangs in the museum of the Kansas State Historical Society.
     Nearly all the members of the Topeka town company, organized December 15, 1854, came with the Fifth and Sixth parties of the Emigrant Aid Company. The cabin was located at what was is now the southwest corner of First street and Kansas avenue.


C. Dickey and George Davis. They arrived and made land claims on November 29, 1854. Several members of the Sixth Party who arrived in Lawrence early in December joined them in founding the town of Topeka.74 Two other members of the Fifth Party, Dr. James F. Merriam, and James A. Hickey, settled in Topeka before the middle of December, 1854.


(Departed from Boston, November 21,1854; Charles H. Branscomb, conductor.)


Ware, William L.Needham, Mass.*****
Weymouth, William H.Exeter, N.H.Spent winter of 1854-1855 in St. Louis;arrived in Topeka, where he settled, about March 1, 1855;died in Topeka in 1888

Compiled from manuscript roster in a record book in the Emigrant Aid Collection, MSS. division, Kansas State Historical Society, and other sources. Mrs. Gilbert's name does not appear on the roster. but the date of her arrival has been verified from another source.
†Listed in the first census of Kansas territory taken in January and February, 1855.

     On November 27, 1854, Thomas H. Webb wrote Agent Charles Robinson

     The sixth and last Party for the season left this city on the 21st inst. under the charge of Mr. Branscomb, who contemplates returning to spend the winter in New England. Considering the lateness of the season, no efforts were made to get up a Party; and we discouraged, as we had done, for a month previously, women and children being taken out. We shall renew the emigrating business as early in the ensuing year as our friends at the West may deem it advisable. [75]

     B. Slater, agent at St. Louis, wrote on November 25 that the Sixth Party numbering some 30 persons had arrived on that day, and immediately proceeded up the Missouri river on the steamboat Genoa. He also mentioned that William H. Weymouth of the party, suffering from smallpox, had remained inst. Louis. [76] Excerpts from Leonard G. Brown's letter give some details of the journey: Missouri, Nov. 26, 1854.

     I am in the steamboat Genoa, going up the Missouri river; there are about one hundred and fifty persons on board, besides the crew. About three-fourths are going to Kansas.
I have shed no tears yet, but enjoy myself first-rate. I paid twenty-two dollars for my passage to St. Louis, and from there to Kansas city, fourteen. They have charged heretofore only ten dollars, but it costs more to go up late in the season. It will cost me about forty dollars.
Four young men of us are going to club together and build a house, and live together, till next spring, and work together on our respective farms. Perhaps you would like to know what kind of a time we have on board the steamboat. While I am writing, some are playing cards, smoking cigars, chewing tobacco, drinking spirit, and some are talking, and others are Writing and reading. I have not seen any of the Kansas party drink any liquor. There is one doctor, one minister, shoemakers, carpenters, wheelwrights, farmers, &c. [76]


Quite a number are from Maine; one man from there has his wife and four children. Some women are going to meet their husbands; some have left their families behind, and are going out to pick their farm, and build a house, and then they will send for their families. When we arrived at Kansas city, we were told that provisions were very high; corn was two dollars per bushel, and hard to get at that; flour twelve dollars a barrel. This city is in Missouri, four miles from the mouth of the Kansas river, and it is fifty miles from Lawrence city, where we have to go, and we were told that the timber claims were all taken up, and that we should have to go twenty miles above Lawrence city. . . [77]

     On the roster of the Sixth Party are the names of two men who were in the First Emigrant Aid Party-George W. Hutchinson and Ira M. Jones. Aside from these two, and Mrs. Anson Mallory and daughter, all of whom had interests in Lawrence, the remainder of the Sixth Party who stayed in Kansas, joined with four men of the Fifth Party and founded the town of Topeka.

     According to historical accounts, Loring G. Cleveland, George F. Crowe, Fry W. Giles, Jonas E. Greenwood, Daniel H. Horne, S. A. Clark, William C. Liniker, Timothy McIntire and Thomas G. Thornton, all of the Sixth Party, reached Lawrence on December 2, 1854, after walking from Kansas City. There they met Charles Robinson, Aid Company agent, Cyrus K. Holliday, from Pennsylvania, and Milton C. Dickey of the Fifth Party. They discussed the new town site (not yet named Topeka) some twenty-five miles up the Kansas river and decided to send a committee to investigate it. The committee found the location ideal. On December 5, they held a meeting and organized a town company. C. K. Holliday was made president. Those who signed the agreement were C. K. Holliday, F. W. Giles, Daniel H. Horne, George Davis, Enoch Chase, J. B. Chase, M. C. Dickey, L. G. Cleveland. Charles Robinson was made an honorary member of the town company. The rest of the Sixth Party remaining in Lawrence soon arrived and work was begun on living quarters for the Winter.

     Late in December,samuel F. Tappan, member of the First Party and a Lawrence settler, paid "Topeka" a visit and described it in a letter dated December 22, 1854:

     Mr. Editor:-In my last communication I promised to furnish you with a description of a visit to a new town laid out by some of the members of the fifth and sixth parties, on the banks of the Kansas river, twenty-five miles above this point. A good opportunity for going presented itself day before


yesterday, and availing myself of it, I took up my bed and rode up to the site of the new city.
At the new city we found entertainment at one of the log cabins, which was partaken of in true pioneer style-ten of us seated on the ground, with a trunk or a box for a table, and a blazing fire in the sod fireplace at one end of said cabin.
During the evening we visited a neighboring cabin made of sticks, prairie hay and mud, with no window, and nothing but a "cotton cloth door."
We passed the evening in a social chat in the hovel, until the hour arrived for us to make up our bed on the "hard ground," which was done by spreading buffalo robes, blankets, etc., in front of the fire.
Early in the morning we were awakened by the cook, who wanted the room occupied by our party to perform the duties of his station. I went out to view the city and for a ride on the prairie. The proposed limits of the city is two miles east and west on the south bank of the Kansas river, and one and a half miles north and south upon the prairie. The surveyor, Mr. Searl . . . [of Lawrence], has partly surveyed the city out into lots 75 by 150 feet-the levee to be 130 feet wide, and four of the principal avenues of the same width; the remainder of the Streets to be 80 feet wide. The Association owning the city numbers, or is to number, fifty members. An interest in the city has been presented to Governor Reeder. It is intended by the Association to name their city "Topeka," the name given to the river by the Indians. It signifies, as I have been told, "wild potatoes," some of which grow on its banks. Land is reserved for public purposes, etc. One quarter of the lots are reserved to the Emigrant Aid Co., and one quarter to be given away to persons who will agree to put a sufficient amount of improvements upon them. . . [78]


1. Other articles on the Emigrant Aid Company published by the Historical Society are: Carruth, W. H., "The New England Emigrant Aid Company as an Investment society," in Kansas Historical Collections, v. VI, pp. 90-96; and four articles in The Kansas Historical Quarterly-Johnson, Samuel A., "The Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas," v. I, pp. 429-441; Hickman, Russell K., "Speculative Activities of the Emigrant Aid Company," v. IV. pp. 235-267; Johnson, Samuel A., "The Emigrant Aid Company in the Kansas Conflict," v. VI, pp. 21-33 ; Langsdorf, Edgar, "S. C. Pomeroy and the New England Emigrant Aid Company. 1854-1858," v. VII, pp. 227-245, 379-398.
2. Only the resources of the society's manuscript, archival, library and newspaper collections have been used in this article. Probably much additional data could be found in the 1854 files of many New England newspapers, and in the manuscript collections of certain Eastern libraries.
3. Report of the Special Committee Appointed to Investigate the Troubles in Kansas (Washington, C. Wendell, 1856), 34 Cong., I sess., House Report No. 200 (serial 869), [Sec. III p. 884. Thayer's statement needs some qualification. That the company's directors and officers unofficially supplied arms to Free-State men in 1855 and 1856, has been well established.-See Isely, W. H., "The Sharps Rifle Episode in Kansas History," in The American Historical Review, April, 1907.
4. History of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, With a Report on Its Future Operations (Boston, 1862), p. 8.
5. Correspondence in Emigrant Aid Collection, Mss. division, Kansas State Historical society. Eli Thayer accompanied the party only as far as Buffalo, N. Y.
6. Clipping from the Boston Commonwealth, July 18, 1854, in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. I, p. 62.
7. Two of the earliest local emigrant aid societies organized were the "Worcester County [Mass.] Kansas League," and the "Monroe County [N. Y.] Kansas Emigration Society." The Worcester Society promised to guarantee the Worcester county emigrants' expenses to Kansas, up to $20. This amount did not cover the fare.-See New York Daily Tribune, July 20. 1854.
8. Daniel R. Anthony to Isaac Butts, editor, July 24, 1854, in the Rochester Daily Union, July. 1854.---nipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. I. p. 69.
9. Unidentified clipping in ibid., p. 70. "Charlestown," although not positively identified, was almost certainly Edwin Davenport.
10. According to the "Trustees' Records," v. I, entries of August 7 and August 12, 1854, Robinson was not officially an agent of the Emigrant Aid Company until August 7. but had gone to Kansas in the company's interest.-MSS. division. Kansas State Historical society.
12. Boston Daily Advertiser, July 29, 1854, and unidentified clippings in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. I, p. 70.
12. Letter to the editor, July 29, 1854, published in the Rochester Daily Democrat, August 9, 1854.-Clipping in ibid., p. 84.
13. Charles H. Branscomb was a young lawyer from Holyoke, Mass. He later settled in Missouri and served in the state legislature. Col. James Blood was from Wisconsin.
14. Anthony to Isaac Butts, editor of the Rochester Union, dated August 5, 1854, reprinted in the New York Daily Tribune, August 29, 1854.
15. "Charlestown" to the Boston Journal, dated August 6, 1854. published in the issue of August 26, 1854.-Clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. I, p. 102.
16. Letter of B. R. Knapp, dated August 9, 1854, published in the Boston Sunday News, August 27, 1854.-Clipping in ibid., p. 103.

17. "Charles town's" letter of August 7, 1854, in the Boston Journal of August 29, 1854. -Clipping in ibid., p. 106.
18. Ferdinand Fuller was chairman of the meeting and Edwin Davenport, secretary. The proceedings were published in the New York Daily Tribune, August 12, 1854. 19. "Charlestown's" letter of August 7, 1854, loc. cit. There were other permanent settlers, too-S. N. Wood, J. A. Wakefield, Rev. T. J. Ferril, to mention a few.
20. Knapp's letter, dated August 9, 1854, in the Boston Sunday News of August 27, 1854. -Clipping in the ''Webb Scrapbooks," v. I, p. 103.
21. According to C. H. Branscomb the First Party had a squatter organization also, with Ferdinand Fuller as president and Edwin Davenport as secretary.-Worcester (Mass.) Daily Spy, August 12, 1854, clipping in ibid., p. 89.
22. Letter dated. August 16, 1854, in the Boston Sunday News, September 10, 1854.--Clipping in ibid., p. 123.
23. Letter dated August 12, 1854, published in the Lynn (Mass.) Weekly Reporter, September 2, 1854.-Clipping in ibid., p. 117.
25. Clipping from The National Aegis, Worcester, Mass., in "Webb Scrapbooks." v. I. p. 106.
26. Advertisement from the New York Daily Tribune, August 26, 1854. Children under three years of age traveled free, and those between three and twelve for half price.-See clipping from Boston Journal, September 14, 1854, "Webb Scrapbooks," v. I, p. 128.
27. The musicians were Forrest and Joseph Savage, and their cousins A. and N. Hazen, all of Hartford, Vt. See article "The First Kansas Band," by Edward Bumgardner, in The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. V, pp. 278-281.
28. Clipping from the Boston Journal, August 30, 1854, in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. I, p. 106.
29. Best available figures indicate there were about 135 in this party, though it has been possible to list only 107.
30. Those who joined at Albany also traveled under the auspices of the New York Kansas League which had just been formed. The Rev. Mr. Lockwood was said to be their conductor and financial agent. See New York Daily Tribune, August 25, 1854.
31. "S. P. C." may have been Samuel C. Pomeroy. The letter, dated September 1, 1854, was published in the Boston Traveller in September, 1854.-Clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. I, p. 122. "E. P. Lincoln," should be "L. P. Lincoln."
32. Clipping in ibid., p. 151, from Boston Commonwealth, September, 1854.
33. Clipping in ibid., v. 11, p. 21, from Boston Evening Traveller, November 23, 1854--Letter dated October 20, 1854.
34. Most of the second Party arrived at the Wakarusa settlement on September 15, 1854.
35. Clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. I, p. 162, from the Boston Atlas of October 14, 1854.-Letter dated September 19, 1854; reprinted from the Milwaukee (Wis.) Sentinel.
36. Charles Robinson's home was Fitchburg, Mass., not Rochester, N. Y.
37. Albert D. Searl, not Searles.
38. According to a statement in the Lawrence old settlers' "Minute Book," loc. cit., the first twenty claims were bid as follows: 1st choice to J. F. Morgan for $252.50; 2d to F. Fuller for $180.00; 3d to S. C. Harrington for $202.50; 4th to W. H. Hovey for $239.00; 5th to S. J. wiles for $287.00; 6th to J. B. Taft for $312.00; 7th to L. P. Lincoln for $310.00 8th to H. A. Hancock for $302.00; 9th to E. P. Bond for $305.00; 10th to Silas Wayne for $315.00; 17th to J. A. Ladd for $327.00; 12th to J. S. Mott for $302.00; 13th $1 E. D. Ladd for $212.00; 14th to N. T. Johnson for $155.00; 15th to J. Savage for $170.00; 16th to Joel Grove r for $7,0.00; 17th to F. Osbert Tones for $165.00; 18th to George Gilbert for $52.00; 19th to C. S. Pratt for $40.00; 20th to Otis H. Lamb for $40.00. None of the money bid was ever paid as the association voted not to collect.
39. One exception was Moses Pomeroy, young relative of Samuel C. Pomeroy, who died on October 1, 1854, of a fever contracted on the way to Kansas. His is the first death recorded in the Wakarusa (or Lawrence) settlement. 40. The boarding house was kept by Lewis L. Litchfield and his wife of the second Party. In late October they had some 150 boarders.-Letter of Samuel F. Tappan, Jr., dated October 24. 1854, in Kansas City (Mo.) Enterprise, October 28, 1854, clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. I, p. 208.
41. The Third Emigrant Aid Company Party.
42. According to Joseph Savage there were 79 members enrolled on the books of the Lawrence Association and entitled to equal shares in city lots. He also stated that S. V. Lum, S. N. Simpson and S. N. Wood were afterwards admitted by vote.-Savage, Joseph, "Recollections of 1854," loc. cit. Chief sources used in compiling this list: Two manuscript lists appearing consecutively in a small record hook in the Emigrant Aid Collection, loc. cit.; "Webb Scrapbooks," loc. cit.
44. Thomas H. Webb reported that the Third Party leaving Boston numbered 86 individuals; there were several immigrants from Switzerland in this party, but none from Sweden.
45. Boston Evening Telegraph, September 27, 1854.-Clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. I. p. 141.
46. Chicago Daily Democratic Press, September 30, 1854.-Clipping in ibid., p. 149.
47. Worcester (Mass.) Daily Spy, October 18, 1854.-Clipping in ibid., p. 166; New York Daily Tribune, October 20, 1854.
48. Of the Emigrant Aid Company hotel "Idem." wrote: "The financial agent [Samuel C. Pomeroy) has within a few days purchased the `Union Hotel,' in Kanzas City, for which he paid $10,000. It is a fine brick edifice, and is designed for the reception of emigrants on their arrival. It is under the supervision of Mr. Morgan, a Massachusetts man. --Letter dated September 28, 1854, published in the Boston Evening Telegraph of [October] 1854, in clipping in Webb Scrapbooks," v. I, p. 165. The Third Party either traveled from St. Louis to Kansas City in two boats, or the writer mistakenly substituted the Banner State for the Clara. The indictment of the Emigrant Aid Company appeared in the New York Daily Times of October 21, 1854.
49. Boston Herald, November 10, 1854.-Clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. II, p. 10.
50. Boston Daily Evening Traveller, October 24, 1854.-Clipping in ibid., v. I, p. 174.
51. "Trustees' Records," v. I, tenth meeting, October 7, 1854, loc. cit.
52. Some provision was made for sharing lots in Lawrence with the Third Party according to Samuel F. Tappan, who, in a letter dated October 14, 1854, wrote: "The city is designed to be two miles square, divided off into city lots of 1-7th of an acre each. After land has been reserved for public buildings, and other public purposes, something over 9,000 lots will remain for distribution. The Emigrant Aid Co. are to have 1/4 of the lots, 1/4 are in the hands of a Board of Trustees, to be given away to persons that will build upon them within a year. Each member of the last party [i.e., the Third Party] is to receive two lots. Each member of the two first parties receives about thirty lots. Most if not all of the members of the three Parties, have taken up farm claims containing 160 acres within ten miles of this city."Letter published in the Boston Atlas, November 31, 1854, in clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. II, p. 1.
55. Dr. Samuel Whitehorn does not appear on the manuscript list of the Fourth
Party, but Mrs. Chestina B. Allen in her "sketches and Journal," loc. cit., states that he was in the company.
56. "Trustees' Records," v. I, twelfth meeting, October 21, 1854, loc. cit. J. M. S. Williams was one of the Aid Company trustees.
57. Letter dated October 30, 1854, signed C. W. H. [possibly G. W. Hewes of the First Party], published in the Essex Banner, Haverhill, Mass.-Clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. II. p. 14.
58. Letter dated January 7, 1855, to the [Boston?] Journal.-Undated clipping in "Kansas Territorial Clippings," v. I. pp. 53-55, in Library, Kansas State Historical society.
59. Boston Evening Telegraph, November 23, 1854.

80. "Trustees' Records," v. I, fifteenth meeting, November 22, 1854, loc. cit.
61. New York Tribune.-Undated clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. II, p. 52.
62. Resolutions published with G. O. Willard's letter of January 7, 1855.-Clipping from [Boston?) Journal, loc. cit. The following names are incorrect above: J. A. Titus, Solomon L. Lapham, G. M. Marshall, Henry Harmon, Daniel Harmon, and Samuel Whitehorn. 63. Ibid., p. 54. Samuel F. Dyer, with his family, came to run the government ferry at the military road crossing of the Big Blue river in the latter part of 1853. By late 1854 Pioneers from a number of states had settled in the vicinity of Juniata.
64. The Kansas Tribune, Lawrence, January 24, 1855, carried this item: "Wauponsa.. Messrs. S. H. Ryan and J. M. Bisbee of Wauponsa called upon us last week. They give very flattering accounts of that place. It is located at the mouth of Big Creek, on the south side of the Kansas river, 65. miles above Lawrence.
65. See roster of the second spring Party of 1855, to be published in the August issue of The Kansas Historical Quarterly.
66. James Hickey made this statement in May, 1856: "I came into the Territory on the 27th of November, 1854, spent a week in Lawrence, and got to Topeka about the 12th or 14th of December, and have resided there ever since."-Report of the Special Committee Appointed to Investigate the Troubles in Kansas, [see. III p. 205.
67. James F. Merriam made this statement in May, 1856: "I came into this Territory from Vermont. I came out in company with a young man by the name of Hickey. At Albany we fell in company with some 80 or 100 more, who were coming out here, and we came out with them. There was one man who might be called a leader, named Tafft, who made arrangements for the party. They were not known by any particular name or organization."-Ibid., p. 208.
68. Russell is referred to in ibid., p. 867.
69. Clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. II, p. 5. According to Thomas H. Webb, Emigrant Aid Company secretary, there were 62 persons in this party leaving Boston.
70. Letter dated November 25, 1854. published in the Chelsea
(Mass.) Telegraph & Pioneer.-Clipping in ibid., p. 61.
71. Published in the Herald of Freedom, Lawrence, January 6, 1855.
72. Statement of John E. Stewart, in Hyatt Collection, MSS. division, Kansas State Historical society.
73. Although from the same town, Jacob and Enoch Chase were not related.
75. "Letter Press Books," v. [I], Emigrant Aid Collection, MSS. division, Kansas State Historical Society.
76. "Trustees' Records," v. 1, sixteenth meeting, December 2, 1854, loc. cit. William H. Weymouth recovered from his illness and reached Topeka about March 1, 1855.
77. Published in the Lynn (Mass.) News, December 22, 1854.-Clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. II, p. 93. Brown probably did not settle in Kansas. He is not listed in the 1855 census.
78. Published in the Boston Journal, January 22, 1855.-Clipping in "Webb Scrapbooks," v. 11, pp. 201, 202.

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