ardo's Treatise on the Limits of Louisiana and Texas (tr. and ed. by Charles w . Hackett, Austin, Tex., 1934, II) places it in east Texas, between the Trinity and Sabine rivers.
The same interpretation which locates Quivira, not in Kansas, but in the Texas Panhandle, also excludes from the former state Fray Francisco de Velasco, O. F. M., of Ofiate's Quivira expedition of 1601 (Castefieda, I, 194). It would therefore appear, in view of divided scholarly opinion on the location of Quivira, that no priest can be definitely traced in Kansas during the Spanish period, though the case for Fray de Padilla's presence there is solidly probable and, if preponderating weight of expert opinion is to decide the issue, almost certain. Villasur's expedition of 1720 into Nebraska, which had an accompanying chaplain, the Franciscan, Minguez, does not seem to have passed through Kansas, while Bourgmont, commandant at Fort Orleans on the Missouri, who led an expedition, 1724, across the Kansas prairies in search of the Padoucas, bad no priest with him, the chaplain at the fort, Father Mercier, having remained behind. The possibility that Father Marquette may have been in KanSaS (Moeder, op. cit., 1) must be ruled out as in flat contradiction with the documents.
The first priest to reach Kansas during the American period was Father Charles De La Croix, pastor at Florissant, Missouri, who in August of 1822 visited the Osage of Neosho (G. J. Garraghan, S. J., St. Ferdinand de Florissant, 182; Id., Catholic Beginnings in Kansas City, Missouri, 26). In view of the conflicting interpretations of the Coronado and Ofiate routes no priest can be definitely said to have set foot in Kansas before Father De La Croix. First resident priest was Father Joseph Anthony Lutz, of the St. Louis diocese, who in 1828 began a short-lived mission among the Kaw Indians on the north bank of the KanSas river not far from the site of Lawrence (J. Rothensteiner, History of the Archdiocese of St. Louis, I, 452-460).
FIRST MASS-If Fray de Padilla (1541), and later Fray de Velasco (1601) reached Kansas they may be presumed to have said mass there (supra, first priest). The first verifiable mass in Kansas was said by Father Charles F. Van Quickenborne, S. J., August 25, 1827, on or near the site of St. Paul in Neosho county. "On the feast of St. Louis, August 25, I had the happiness of saying the first mass ever said in this country" (Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, III, 513).
FIRST RECORDED BAPTISM.-It is at least likely that baptisms were administered during the Spanish period, but no record of them survives. The following is the first certified baptism: "A neosho chez Mr. Ligueste Chouteau," August 27, 1827, Father Charles F. Van Quickenborne baptized Henri Mongrain, "Son of Noel pere and of Tonpapai, age two years, sponsor Mr. Ligueste P. Chouteau" (baptismal register, St. Ferdinand's church, Florissant, Missouri. There is no evidence that Father De La Croix baptized on his visit to Kansas in 1822).
From the White Cloud Kansas Chief, January 19, 1860.
FUNNY ACCIDENT.-Our young friend, Morris Fraley, recently started on a visit to his friends in New York, whom he had not seen for four or five years. But by some accident he got in the wrong coach, and found himself in the vicinity of Council Bluffs, Iowa, where he chanced to meet a young female acquaintance, Miss Jenny Mewhinney, formerly of this place. While enjoying a good time in her company, a certain preacher up there, with "malice prepense," took occasion to call in, and before they knew what he was up to, he had them marriedl Here was a predicament; but like a true philosopher, Morris determined to make the best of it. To-day he arrived in town with his bride, and we learn they intend to let it stay so, "bein' as how" it has gone so far. We certainly wish them abundant happiness, even if it was an accident!
From The Big Blue Union, Marysville, July 18, 1863.
CUTE.-One of our citizens, a passenger on the stage coach to Atchison one day last week, relates that on board was a couple from California who kept the "machine a-goin" by pouring on to the brake of the coach, at the top of every hill which it was about to descend, melted butter, a can of which they had along with them. The driver would put on the brake but the wheels would Slip on the rubber, and the coach go with a rush to the bottom of the hill, much to the astonishment of driver and the amusement of the passengers. The party was anxious to make time to connect with a certain train of cars at Atchison, hence this "cute" arrangement to hurry up things--all of which was but anticipating a pleasant ride on the Pacific R. R. Under full head of horse-power-breaks are up-it's not enough! How fast the people are getting!
From The Big Blue Union, Marysville, October 18, 1862.
On Monday last a novel trial came off before His Honor, Judge Newell, upon a writ of habeas corpus, issued by His Honor, in the case of the State vs. Medicine Horse, an Otoe Indian chief, charged with being an accessory of Moses Betine, for the shooting of V. C. Poor. It appeared that the Big Chief was arrested on Suspicion, and lodged in jail without any warrant of commitment, and was brought before Judge Newell for a hearing. There was no evidence to connect him with the shooting affair, or that he was present at the time, and was therefore released. After the argument of the council, Magill for the state, Brumbaugh and Thompson for the prisoner, the court announced the decision, informing Medicine Horse he was free. The Big Chief, thinking it was his time to address the court, made a short speech in his native tongue, which was anything but intelligible to the court, lawyers and bystanders; the meaning of which, was that he had always been friendly to the whites and was thankful to the court for his discharge. After his release there was a delegation of Otoes in town to receive him, where there was a general hand-shaking. Thus ended the first trial of an Indian in Marshall county, before our courts.
A resolution which would strike out the word "male" from "male citizens" in the Kansas constitution was adopted by the legislature in 1867. Under the leadership of S. N. Wood, of Chase county, a woman suffrage convention was held in Topeka on April 2, and for several months following speakers for and against the amendment canvassed the state before it was defeated in the fall election. Among these were Lucy Stone and Henry B. Blackwell, her husband. That the woman suffragist traveled in a hostile world is evident from a sampling of suffrage papers at the Historical Society.
Following is a brief note addressed by Mr. Wood
to Jacob Stotler, editor of the Emporia News, and Stotler's reply
scribbled on the same paper:
Planning Miss Stone's itinerary, Mr. Wood asked S. M. Strickler to co-sponsor her lecture in Junction City but Mr. Strickler answered:
Junction City, Kans., Apr. 7, 1867.
Lucy Stone kept her engagement at Junction City, and the Junction City Weekly Union's account of the meeting was published April 27, 1867.
From the Topeka Kansas State Record, August 5, 1871.
If you take the "noon train" west from Topeka,
and no accident befalls said train, you will reach Abilene shortly after six
o'clock, in time for Supper, either at the "Drover's Cottage," where the bland
and childlike Gross is the "Secretary," or at the Gulf House, whereof Messrs.
Putnam & Stevens are the "head men."
Before dark you will have an opportunity to notice that Abilene is divided by the railroad into two sections, very different in appearance. The north side is literary, religious and commercial, and possesses our friend Wilson's Chronicle, the churches, the banks, and Several large stores of various description; the south side of the road is the Abilene of "Story and song," and possesses the large hotels, the saloons, and the places where the "dealers in card board, bone and ivory" most do congregate. When you are on the north side of the track you are in Kansas, and hear sober and profitable conversation on the subject of the weather, the price of land and the crops; when you cross to the south side you are in Texas, and talk about cattle, varied by occasional remarks on "beeves" and "stock." Nine out of ten men you meet are directly or indirectly interested in the cattle trade; five at least out of every ten, are Texans. As at Newton, Texas names are prominent on the fronts of saloons and other "business houses," mingled with sign board allusions to the cattle business. A clothing dealer implores you to buy your "outfit" at the sign of the "Long Horns"; the leading gambling house is of course the "Alamo," and "Lone Stars" shine in every direction.
At night everything is "full up." The "Alamo" especially being a center of attraction. Here, in a well lighted room opening on the street, the "boys" gather in crowds round the tables, to play or to watch others; a bartender, with .a countenance like a youthful divinity student, fabricates wonderful drinks, while the music of a piano and a violin from a raised recess, enlivens the scene, and "soothes the savage breasts" of those who retire torn and lacerated from an unfortunate combat with the "tiger" The games most affected are faro and monte, the latter being greatly patronized by the Mexicans of Abilene, who sit with perfectly unmoved countenances and play for hours at a stretch, for your Mexican loses with entire indifference two things somewhat valued by other men, viz: his money and his life.
The observer who believes that, after all, a man is about the most interesting study in this world can find much to interest him by standing in any frequented place in Abilene. Barring the bow legs produced by incessant horseback riding, it is impossible to find finer forms than those of many of the "herders," and it is said that a partial compensation for the injury done the legs, is partially atoned by the reduced size of the feet. The reader of Bret Harte's stories and John Hays' poems, can See plenty of faces that might have been used as studies by B. H. and J. H. We saw "Jim Bludsoe" who had somehow come up from the drowned wreck of the "Prairie Belle," and encountered "Tennessee" and his "Partner" frequently. We Saw "Little Breeches," at the "Novelty"-Abilene's only theatre-he was "peart and chipper and sassy," sat on a front bench with his arm around his "girl's" neck, and in reply
to a tap on the shoulder from a neighbor remarked, "Look a yer. You'd better lemme alone. I've eat up more men than ever Wild Bill did."
It may be inferred from the foregoing that the Texan cattle driver is somewhat prone to "run free" as far as morals are concerned, but on the contrary, vice in one of its forms, is sternly driven forth from the city limits for the Space of at least a quarter of a mile, where its "local habitation" is courteously and modestly, but rather indefinitely designated as the "Beer Garden." Here all that class of females who "went through" the Prodigal Son, and eventually drove that young gentleman into the hog business, are compelled to reside. In the amusements we have referred to does the "jolly drover" while the night away in Abilene.
Day in Abilene is very different. The town seems quite deserted, the "herders" go out to their herd or disappear in some direction, and thus the town relapses into the ordinary appearance of towns in general. It is during the day, that, seated on the piazzas of the hotels, may be seen a class of men peculiar to Texas and possessing many marked traits of character. We allude to the Stock raisers and owners, who count their acres by thousands and their cattle by tens of thousands. It was the good fortune of the writer to meet several of these gentlemen, and it has rarely been his fortune to meet men more unassuming and more willing to communicate information.
As the life and experience of one large stock raiser is much like that of another, the history of Col. Thomas O'Conner will perhaps present as favorable an illustration as another.
Col. O'Conner is an Irishman by birth, and came to Texas when a boy of fifteen. He took part in the war for Texas independence, and was present at the battle of San Jacinto, where being the only boy in an army of men, he became known to everybody. His fortune at the close of the war consisted of a horse and a Spanish quarter dollar, of which the "pillars" were nearly obliterated. He "turned his hand" to various avocations and "got a start" in cattle by doing some work for the government and receiving $3 per day, taking his pay in cattle at $10 per head. By the natural increase of his cattle he is now the owner of 30,000 head, though of course this is a mere estimate, the Texas cattle raiser being literally so rich that he does not know how much he is worth. Col. O'Conner is of the opinion, and his own experience seems to verify its truth, that a young man possessing no capital save industry and honesty can do better in Texas than elsewhere on earth. The life of a stock man as described by Col. O'Conner is anything but a life of ease. It is literally "working the stock." To prosecute the business successfully requires a small army of men and horses. The work of collecting and branding the cattle demands incessant travel nearly all the year, and of course much exposure to the weather and hard fare, yet the business has a fascination about it which leads a man who engages in it to follow it the remainder of his life. One of the pleasant features of the business is the feeling of friendship prevailing among stock men of the same section, and their occasional meetings at the "branding pens" break agreeably into a life otherwise monotonous. In their dealings these men rely solely on each other's honesty, and Col. O'Conner remarked, with evident pride, on the rarity of a dishonest action among them.
The growth of the cattle trade in Texas is far more recent than most people imagine. When Col. O'Conner went to Texas there were comparatively few
cattle on the prairies, although there were thousands of wild horses. The large herds belonging to the early missions had been destroyed by the Indians or otherwise scattered, and all the cattle now in Texas descended from the stock taken into the state by settlers or purchased subsequent to the revolution in Mexico. With this fact the increase is truly wonderful. In spite of the enormous exportation and the fact that many thousands of them have been killed for their hides alone, the amount of cattle now in Texas and owned by single individuals, is enormous. Capt. R. King, now at Abilene, owns the Gertrudios ranch, fifty miles from Corpus Christi, and owns 50,000 head of cattle, besides being largely engaged in raising mules, having this year imported thirty thoroughbred jacks from Kentucky. Capt. Kennedy owns a ranche twenty-five miles from Corpus Christi, and has enclosed 150,000 acres. This enclosure is formed by building a single "string" of fence thirty-six miles long across a peninsula. The fence is said to have cost $36,000. All of the "heavy men" we have mentioned drive to Abilene, but the cattle driven north do not represent the extent of the cattle trade in Texas. V. P. Poole and S. W. Allen, of Galveston, ship largely to New Orleans, and own sixty or seventy thousand head.
These figures give a faint idea of the magnitude of the Texas cattle trade, and it may well be imagined that to carry it on requires rare business qualifications and much special knowledge. To drive the cattle, as some of them are driven, eleven hundred miles to Abilene, is a great undertaking. The force required is about one man to each one hundred and fifty head, and each man must have at least three head of horses. Great care has to be taken in the management of the cattle, and stormy nights the cattle driver must remain in the Saddle all the time. Often in bad weather the drover does not dismount, except to mount a fresh horse, in forty-eight hours. Occasionally the cattle Stampede and on one occasion during the present season sixteen thousand head ran together on the Upper Canadian and many days labor were required to separate the different herds. The element of danger also enters into this pursuit; should the drover's horse fall with him in one of these rushes of frightened cattle, horse and rider would be trampled to fragments. The life of a drover resembles very strongly that of a cavalry Soldier, and in fact most of the quiet middle-aged men who sit so placidly on the hotel Steps in Abilene have in their day seen service in the front of battle; several that we met had held high rank in the confederate service, and yet we suppose that political and military discussions are nowhere rarer than at Abilene.
In this long digression we have said more about Texas than Abilene, and must return to the latter locality. Abilene, then, is Still the great cattle market of this country. It is a great distributing depot from which cattle are sent in every direction. Colonel Myers recently Sent a large drove to Salt Lake City; thousands are taken to Portland, Ore., fourteen months being expected to elapse before the cattle reach their destination. More cattle than ever before are being bought by ranchmen to be wintered in Kansas; other thousands are being shipped east over the KanSas Pacific railroad, which last named road has completely outgeneraled the Union Pacific, in its efforts to divert the business. It is impossible to estimate the number of cattle in the vicinity of Abilene, from the fact owing to the settlement of the country, cattle do
not approach as near as formerly. The buyers and sellers, however, are to be found and here the transfers are made. The man who would get hold of the ins and outs of the cattle trade cannot get around Abilene.
What the future of the trade may be it is impossible to state. The Kansas Pacific railroad will for a long time be a means of transport along a greater or less portion of its length, as it offers every needed facility at every point. With the completion of the railroad system of Texas and the settlement of the country, it is possible that an entire change of system may take place there, but at present we are not making prophecies. All we have to say now is, that if a man wishes to see how a vast and important business is conducted; if he wishes to see the men who transact that business, and wishes in addition to see Something entirely unique in the line of human beings, his best plan is to spend a night and day in Abilene.
Wednesday morning we visited the Anchor mills, to witness the first Steam gotten up with hay for fuel. The mills along the valley from Newton west, have nearly all adopted the use of hay for fuel, and we are glad that Mr. Fulton this early not only benefits himself financially, but assists the farmers by using hay in his mill. It is the general impression that great preparations first have to be made before hay can take the place of coal or wood, to get up steam. This is a mistake. The only preparation or expense is of two sheet iron receivers, made to fit up close to the furnace doors. They are about three feet long, and considerably larger at the opening than the furnace doors. In these are sheet-iron doors that raise as the hay is pushed through them, and fall closed as soon as the hay passes. Firing with hay requires more labor and closer attention, but the saving in the expense well repays for additional help. The Anchor mills in busy times use from sixty to seventy dollars worth of coal a month. They can run the Same length of time with the same power for thirty dollars by using hay. In using coal the money is sent out of the county; by using hay it is kept at home, and furnishes employment to home industry.
It is rather interesting, in view of the present colossal proportions of the Santa Fe road, to sit down and talk with M. L. Sargent, now of the Central Branch and Missouri Pacific, and Speak of the days when he first came west and joined Col. T. J. Peter, at Topeka, in the administration of the A., T. S. F. At the time of the arrival of Mr. Sargent the only furniture in the "general offices" was a pine table and two splint-bottom chairs; there were no books except a section boss' time book, and Mr. Sargent brought with him the first regular Set of books kept for the company. The financial manage
ment was, however, very easy for a long time. The road never had any income till it reached Carbondale, when it commenced to haul coal at $10 a car. Mr. Sargent, by stepping to the door and counting the coal cars brought in by the road's only daily train, could tell what were the total receipts of the company for the day.
We have often been tempted to hint to a few of our dear old dames in this vicinity that when their husbands come home to them with a breath smelling of beer and whisky strong enough to drive a dog out of a tan yard, that they don't get their perfumery at this office, and we want it distinctly understood that we keep no whisky or beer ranch, and neither are we a Croesus, that would enable us to buy the vile stuff for our neighbors, and don't forget to put it down in your Auto that we are no "bar fly," either, and when your drunken husbands come home to you and endeavor to convince you that they are not (hic) drunk, that they had just ran across the "editor" and he had urged them to take a little beer (which, by the way, ladies, costs forty cents per bottle, unless they "sign up" for a whole case at one time), you may safely hazard your last hair pin that they lie like sheol; and the first piece of calico that dare crook its finger in this direction we will sue for slander, and State that it can't be settled for no "two hundred dollars," either, and another thing you want to impress upon your minds is this: the first married man that is prone to drink who attempts to cross our threshold, without a written permit from his wife, is liable to be handled roughly!
A young Indian chief was So delighted by a tintype of himself taken by a wandering artist at the agency that he wanted a picture of his squaw, who was placed in position before the camera. Just as everything was ready the chief wanted to see how his better half would look. He put his head under the cloth, and, to his horror, saw she was standing on her head. He instantly jerked his head out from under the curtain, but saw her standing on her feet Thinking he might have been mistaken, the Indian took another peep and she was again standing on her head. He remonstrated with her, saying she could not expect a picture to look like her if she persisted in standing on her head. The squaw denied sSuch acrobatic performance. Upon taking one more look Mr. Indian flew into a rage, grabbed his squaw by the shoulders, shook her violently, and dragged her out of the place, saying she was bewitched and should not have a picture until she learned to stand on her feet.