Kancoll: The Kansas Historical Quarterlies




The Southern Kansas Boundary Survey
From the Journal of Hugh Campbell,
Astronomical Computer


edited by Martha B. Caldwell


November, 1937 (vol. 6, no. 4), pages 339 to 377.
Transcribed by lhn; digitized with permission of
the Kansas State Historical Society.

I. INTRODUCTION
ACCOUNTS of the survey of the southern boundary of Kansas [1] have been preserved in the letters and journals of at least four members of the expedition. The journal of Joseph E. Johnston, commander, published in The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 1, pp. 104-139, was copied from the original deposited by relatives with the library of the College of William and Mary in Virginia. Eugene Bandel, private of the Sixth infantry, recorded his impressions in letters and journal, edited by Dr. Ralph P. Bieber, of Washington University, St. Louis, and printed in his Southwest Historical Series, v. 2. The accounts of John H. Clark, astronomer, and his principal assistant, Hugh Campbell, were located by Doctor Bieber in the War Department records. Doctor Bieber's photostat copy of the Campbell journal was lent to the Kansas State Historical Society for publication.

     The astronomical party, consisting of John H. Clark, Hugh Campbell, and three assistants, set out from St. Louis, April 29, 1857. Traveling southwest "by way of the state road" they arrived at the western boundary of Missouri fifteen days later and located their camp on the Quapaw reserve just west of the Missouri line. For two weeks they remained in that region, attempting to establish the place where the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude intersects the western boundary of Missouri. The densely wooded area and the frequent rains greatly hindered their observations. Furthermore, the western boundary of Missouri was marked "by blazing trees on a breadth of from ten to twenty feet," [2] thus making it difficult to fix the "initial point accurately with reference to it." [3] So it was not until May 29 that they had located their position satisfactorily.

     On May 31 the party struck camp and proceeded to the camp of the military escort near Baxter Springs. The command then began

(339)

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its travel west along the thirty-seventh parallel. For over three months the group continued its journey. The astronomical party, moving in advance of the surveyors, established, in all, eleven observation stations along the 463-mile boundary line.

     The astronomers "finished operations at the terminal point," September 10, and on the following day Johnston, in obedience to additional instructions, [4] proceeded to the southwest to reconnoiter for a railroad route. Near Rabbit Ear mountain in New Mexico the expedition turned east, traveling along the North Fork of the Canadian river. After a fourteen days' march in this direction, Johnston divided the command. He with a detachment of cavalry, proceeded south to the Canadian river, and the remainder, including the astronomers, continued eastward, under Captain Wood, arriving at the initial point in southeast Kansas on October 25. Two weeks later the expedition, again united, set out for Fort Leavenworth.

     Much controversy has developed over the original survey. Reports by subsequent surveyors that an error had been made in the southeast corner of Kansas were, according to Dolph Shaner, of Joplin, Mo., confirmed by the Geographical Survey. [5] In a letter to him the director stated that the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude intersected the western boundary of Missouri approximately 480 feet north of the southern boundary of Kansas. The error was of importance when ore veins were developed along the state line. However, a letter from the Department of Interior settled all controversy by asserting that the survey made by Col. Joseph E. Johnston "forms the true boundary line between Oklahoma and Kansas," and that "The public land survey recognized this line as limiting the jurisdiction in the respective states, and its relation to the true 37th parallel does not enter into consideration in connection therewith." [6]

     Recently a movement has been under way to erect a monument at the southeast corner of Kansas to commemorate this expedition. Progress to the extent of surveying and locating the exact corner has been made.

     The diary of Hugh Campbell covers the period from his starting at St. Louis, April 29, 1857, to his return to Fort Leavenworth, November 15, of the same year.

CALDWELL: SOUTHERN KANSAS BOUNDARY SURVEY 341
II. ST. LOUIS TO INITIAL POINT ON WESTERN BOUNDARY OF MISSOURI

     April 29, 1857. Started from St. Louis to commence operations for the survey and demarcation of the southern boundary of Kansas. Met with Col. J. Johnston, 1st cavalry, under whose direction the work is to be carried on. The following is the organization: John H. Clark principal assistant. Hugh Campbell asst. & John E. Weyss surveyor.

     Mr. Clark and myself go in advance, in order to establish the initial point (37° North lat.) before the arrival of the surveyor. The party with which Mr. Clark sets out consists of 1 wagon, 1 ambulance and 5 men all told. We marched about 5½ miles from the suburbs of the city and encamped on a creek near the line of Pacific railroad. Estimated, 5

miles.

     April 30th. Started about 7 a. m. and marched over a Macadamised road until 2 p. m. when we encamped. Today-for the first time this spring,-I have seen the Peach tree in blossom. The country through which we passed is very fertile, well fenced and cultivated. To give an idea to what extent the spirit of speculation has gone. A gentleman told Mr. Clark last night, "that he had sold some land at $800 per acre," & "that prices varied between five and eight hundred dollars." This point was distant between five and six miles from St. Louis.

     The only town of any importance passed today was Manchester, consisting of about 2 doz. buildings, mostly taverns. I noticed one Medical gentleman's office (a small log cabin.) Estimated 28 miles.

     May 1st. Started at 6 a. m. and travelled until 4h -15m p. m. when we encamped on the left bank of the river Merrimac.

     The road over which we marched today, has been exceedingly rough, having many difficult ascents and descents. The country is thickly timbered with Black Jack on the heights, and a heavy growth of white oak in the deep valleys. In many of these valleys we passed some beautiful farms with fine dwellings. As a general thing I have seen but few Negro hands employed in the fields. Today we crossed the Pacific road. The Merrimac is a beautiful stream clear and swift, its banks at some points are high and covered with a growth of Cottonwood, oak, &c. Estimated about 30 miles.

     May 2. Morning, cold, cloudy and raining, at 7½ a. m. we crossed the Merrimac, from last night's camping ground and continued until 3h-2m p. m. when we encamped.

 &160;   The greater portion of the country through which we travelled to day, is very poor. The timber consists of a low growth of scrubby

342 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

oak, fit for no other purpose than fence rails. Passed a branch of the Pacific R. R. to Springfield where the hands were at work. About 24 miles.

     May 3. Started at 7 a. m. and marched until 3 p. m. when we encamped at Bush creek.

     The character of the country through which we passed is sterile, there is but little timber and that of an inferior quality. We are much annoyed by poor and ravenous hogs stealing corn from our mules and otherwise disturbing us &c. About 24 miles.

     May 4th. Started from camp at 7 a. m. and marched until 4½ p. m. when we encamped on Beaver creek.

     To day the country affords quite a relief. Passing high ridges we could in some instances see for several miles. Crossed two prairies, between 5 or 6 miles in width, which appeared to be very fertile. The principal occupation of farmers in these regions seems to be stock raising.

     Seated at present on an eminence at the ford of Beaver creek, I have a full view of the surrounding country. Beneath is the valley of this beautiful mountain stream, dotted in spots by fields of luxuriant wheat and oats, when the surrounding heights are well timbered and that of a superior quality to what we have hitherto seen, being much straighter and more free from knots, rendering it suitable for R. R. ties.

     The water during our march was rather scarce, being mostly supplied from wells and springs near the road. Crossed the surveyed track of the Pacific R. R. (Branch to Springfield.) About 28 miles.

     May 5th. Started at 7 a. m. and marched until 1 p. m. when we encamped on the left bank of a clear mountain stream called the Big Peine.[7]

     Today our road lay through a succession of beautiful, well watered and fertile valleys, of which that of the little Peine [Piney] was by far the most interesting, being well timbered with white oak and cottonwood of a superior size. About 18 miles.

     May 6th. Started from Camp on big Peine at 6½ a. m. and marched until 4 p. m. when we encamped on the left bank of the Gasconade river.

     We have now passed the following counties viz. St. Louis, Franklin, Crawford, Pulaski and Le Clede in which we are now travelling. Forded a river at Weensville [Waynesville] (County seat of Pulaski.) the name of which I could not ascertain. Passed over some

CALDWELL: SOUTHERN KANSAS BOUNDARY SURVEY 343

very rich bottom lands, where I saw wheat between 4 and 5 inches long.

     The valley of the Gasconade is very fertile, and well timbered with oak, cottonwood, &c. The river is about 100 yards wide, very clear and rapid. About 33 miles.

     May 7th. Started this morning from camp on the Gasconade river at 7 A. M. and marched to 4 p. m. when we encamped.

     The country through which we passed is fertile some places, in others very poor. We endeavoured at several places to purchase eggs to no purpose. The people of the mountainous districts are particularly poor. They live in low log cabins and appear in want of many necessaries of life. Passed through Lebanon the county seat of Le Clede. It consists of two or three small groceries, a court house without windows, and a jail. About 26 miles.

     May 8th. Started this morning at 7 a. m. and marched to 3 p. m. when we encamped on the left bank of a small stream.

     To day we have travelled in Webster county. The country here presents a better appearance than most of the preceding counties. We are now about 14 miles from Springfield. About 26 miles.

     May 9th. Started at 6½ A. M. and marched until noon when we encamped on a small stream, about 1 mile west of Springfield through which we passed. About 15 miles.

     May 10th. Started from camp 1 mile from Springfield at 6 a. m. and travelled until 4h-21m p. m. when We encamped near a house on an open prairie.

     The morning was very cold and disagreeable feeling more like a January than a May morning. At noon we halted one hour to graize, when the day became quite warm, toward evening it clouded up and we encamped in a heavy rain.

     The country through which we passed to day is generally better suited for farming purposes than any we have passed over for the last few days. It consists chiefly of open prairies covered with numerous and well cultivated farms. These prairies are intersected with clear and cool streams of water, besides large springs are frequently met with. Those facilities combined with that of good grass and excellent soil renders it a desirable location. I noticed great numbers of prairie chickens. In some instances we drove flocks of them in advance of us on the road. They appear much larger than those I have seen in Texas.

     I have just learned that very extensive lead mines have been discovered in this vicinity, which will prove very productive as soon

344 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

as proper means of transportation can be procured to bring that mineral to market. I have also learned that congestive chills and fevers are raging with fatal effect in many instances, particularly in the locality where the lead mines are worked. About 30 miles.

     May 11th. Last night we experienced a severe storm of wind, thunder and rain which continued the greater part of the night. Started at 8½ a. m. and marched until 3½ p. m. when we encamped.

     Our march to day was over a rolling prairie, the Eastern terminus of the great Buffalo plains. The soil is quite fertile. The country as far as the eye can see is studded with scattering farms. Fine streams of water are met at short and convenient distances. The uncultivated portions are covered with herds of mules, horses &c. Belts of timber are stretching out in all directions along the banks of rivers and creeks, suitable for fencing or building. All that is wanted is a Railroad to carry the produce to market, to make this a flourishing agricultural region. Passed the town of Mount Vernon which has about 300 or 400 inhabitants.

     We encamped on the bank of a fine stream near a flour mill a little East from a small village called Sarcoxe. About 21 miles.

     May 12th. Last night we came nigh having a serious accident in a stampede of our animals. The six wagon mules becoming frightened broke loose from the wagon tongue, all being fastened to the trough which they dragged along until becoming entangled in the bushes, we succeeded in capturing them.

     We marched for the most part over a rolling prairie extending in every direction for several miles when we arrived at a considerable stream called Shoal creek where we encamped. Passed a mill at the ford where they refused to sell us bran for our animals. [8]

     We are now in Newton county having passed through Webster, Green [and Lawrence.] About 25 miles.

     May 13th. Marched to day about 3 miles which brought us to Grand falls where we encamped, for the purpose of reconnoitering with the sextant to find the parallel of 37° North latitude. We pitched our camp near the residence of a Mr. Scott, who has a store and a fine flour mill. The different falls on shoal creek afford excellent water power

     May 14th. Last night Mr. Clark observed (at Camp near Scott's mill) for time and Lat. We found Grand falls about 2 miles North. Struck camp and travelled in a south west direction, about 7 miles, where we found the west boundary, of Missouri, a little west of

CALDWELL: SOUTHERN KANSAS BOUNDARY SURVEY 345

which we encamped with a view of further reconnoitering. We are now encamped on what is called the Quawpaw reserve. The west boundary of Mo. is marked by blaizes on trees, and is very indistinct.

     May 15th. Mr. Clark observed last night. I computed and found our Camp in 36° 59' 30". Moved farther East in order to get a clearer space for a meridian line, the country in the vicinity being densely wooded. Should the lands along the line continue the same, I do not believe we will be able to get farther than the Arkansas river this summer. We are still in the Quawpaw nation, having fixed our permanent camp for establishing the 1st meridian, near a log but owned by a Delaware Indian named Jim, and about 150 feet west of the Missouri boundary.

     May 16th. To day put down log, on which to mount instrument, it was found too small for Transit Inst, but sufficiently large for zenith telescope which Mr. Clark mounted. The observing tent was then pitched over it. This is merely a large wall tent having an aperture of about 1½ feet extending from one wall to the other, through which the Inst is pointed. Mules wandered off, up to 2 p. m. nothing heard of them. This evening near sunset 4 were recovered. 7 still missing.

     May 17th. Last night very stormy, rain and thunder accompanied with high wind. It has continued so through the whole day. Occasionally we have a shower of sleet. Weather excessive cold. Mr. Clark and myself collected wood and built a large fire in front of our sleeping tent which we found to be very comfortable. To day the seven missing mules were recovered. As yet we have not been able to make any observations.

     May 18th. Morning clear with rather a cool breeze, but apparently more favorable for our operations.

     Mr. Clark permanently fixed observing tent, mounted and levelled zenith telescope, observed for time and placed this inst. in the meridian approx.

     May 19th. Day clear and warm but toward noon it clouded up. I computed sext obs for time.

     Mr. Clark adjusted zenith telescope in verticality, by observing the Polar star direct, and the reflected image in a basin of Quick silver. Night so cloudy we have not been able to operate farther.

     May 20th. Morning cloudy and hazy, bad prospects for hastening the work.

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     May 21st. Day clear and warm. Major Dorin (Indian agent) [9] and Mr. Scott visited us. Observed for Lat until 1½ a. m.

     May 22. I was engaged to day in computing Lats one result places about ¾ of a mile south of the Initial point, or parallel of 37° North Lat.

     May 23. Observed last night from sun set, to dawn for Lat, and value of micrometer screw which we did not succeed to obtain accurately.

     The morning clear and warm, toward noon it clouded up and a heavy rain set in. No prospects for our being able to observe to night.

     May 24th. We were employed to day computing the observations previously made, which gave rather unsatisfactory results.

     This evening a courier arrived at our camp, with the information, that the surveying party had come up and was encamped south of us.

     Evening cloudy, showing indications of rain. Barometer falling. No prospect of observations. At 2 a. m. observed elongations of Polaris for values of micrometer screw, which was found to be "6609" for one division.

     May 25th. Last night we were visited by a severe storm of rain, thunder, &c. Mr. Clark remained over night at Mr. Weyss Camp.

     May 26th. Last night observed and to day computed the Lat of our camp which we found to be 36° 59' 09", distance of observatory south of parallel of 37° 5157.63 feet.

     May 27th. Employed all last night in observing for Latitude. Mr. Weyss cleared out North to the parallel about 6 yards wide.

     Day, cloudy, thunder, wind and rain.

     May 28th. Last night made obs. for ]at. Early in the evening we experienced severe storm of thunder, hail, rain &c. afterwards it cleared up.

     Col. Johnston [l0] arrived at our camp and dined with us. His command of about five hundred men is encamped seven miles East [west?] [11] The Colonel informs us that he has received orders from the Secretary of War, to make a reconnaissance for a Pacific railroad wherefore he intends to return by the valley of the Canadian.

     May 29th. Observed all night from sun set to sun rise with zenith telescope for Lat, and Brunner theodolite on Elongation (Eastern)

CALDWELL: SOUTHERN KANSAS BOUNDARY SURVEY 347

of Polaris for the true meridian. Error of signal lamp from true meridian 2' 16" west of North. Latitude furnished to Mr. Weyss 36° 59' 08.87. On this he will prolong the meridian to the 37th parallel, on which he determines the Prime Vertical.

     May 30th. Last night cloudy, raining &c. It appears to rain here almost every other day. Owing to this state of the weather, I had the comfort of a good night's sleep. "Want of sleep is the only bane of Astronomy."

     The Indian reservation on which we carried on operations in laying off this first meridian, is owned by a tribe called Quawpaws who are almost extinct. The region in the immediate vicinity of our encampment is rather sterile, for agricultural purposes, except in the valleys of creeks or rivers. The country is rolling and covered with timber principally Black jack on the elevations distant from the streams, but near the rivers, oak, ash, and Cottonwoods of a superior quality are met with.

III. ALONG THE KANSAS BOUNDARY

     May 31st. Struck camp and marched seven miles west, which brought us to the Camp of Colonel Johnston on the left bank of Spring river, where emerging from the timber for the first time we came in full view of an open rolling prairie extending north, south and west as far as the eye can see. After striking the valley of this river I noticed several Indian farms, having neatly fenced fields of oats, wheat and corn. They also plant cabbage, turnips &c. The soil in this portion of the valley is very fertile. The timber on the banks of Spring river consists chiefly of oak, cottonwood & ash with a heavy undergrowth in many places. The grass and general vegetation on the prairie west is now between 6 and 8 inches long presenting rich verdure, and luxuriance. The military command under Colonel Johnston consists of four companies of cavalry two companies of infantry and two mountain howitzers. The train number, between 80 and 100 wagons. Distance from the Initial point 7 miles.

     June 1st. Mr. Clark established observatory and adjusted instrument in the meridian. [12]

     June 2. Last night Mr. Clark made a good set of observations for Latitude. We found ourselves about 30" North of the parallel. Morning clear and pleasant. We also had sextant observations for time. The dew was so heavy, that we found it necessary in observ-

348 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

ing to be continually wiping the object glass in zenith telescope and the covering of the artl. horizon of the sextant.

     June 3. Last night clear and pleasant, observed for Lat. until after 1 a. m., result obtained 37° 00' 31".67.

     This morning at 8 a. m. we were entertained with a cavalry drill, four companies deployed out from camp, over the neighbouring heights making a magnificent display.

     June 4th. Last night so cloudy we were not able to make further observations.

     June 5th. Last night succeeded in making a few observations among the flying clouds to determine the lat and true meridian. Distance measured from observatory to Parallel 3180.5 feet. (Lat of sta. 37° 00' 31".67.)

     I was informed during our operations at this camp, that on cow creek about 25 miles North and Shwanee creek 30 miles North, both tributaries of Spring river, excellent coal was taken up from the beds of these streams, indicating extensive fields of this fuel in their vicinity.

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     June 6. Struck camp and moved west over the beautiful and fertile prairie above mentioned. Crossed several small streams of which the most remarkable is Tar creek, from whence that substance is taken for use by the settlers. A march of 20 miles brought us on the right bank of the Neocho [sic] river which we forded and proceeding about 4 miles further in a North west direction, encamped on a small tributary.

     The Neocho is between 80 and 100 yards in width and rather muddy like most prairie streams, it is rapid and has a mean depth at this ford of 2½ feet. The east bank at this point is high, and exhibits the various stratas composing the prairie which we crossed, between it, and spring river. The lowest strata, or that, on a level with low water, is slate, underneath which, I have been informed by reliable authority is found coal. It is a crooked stream forming a valley, at each curve of its meanderings, between four and five miles in width. This valley contains rich alluvial soil covered with rank vegetation between three and four feet high. It is well timbered principally with oak, ash and black walnut, of a superior quality and great size. Getting out from this timber, the open prairie is again seen extending west, with slight belts of wood indicating the courses of small streams. Some scattering Indian farms are met with. The few settlers are engaged principally in planting corn. Distance travelled 25 miles.

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     June 7th. Marched south about one mile and encamped on Russel's creek on which was established the 3rd meridian. [13] The soil in the vicinity of this creek is fertile and the graizing excellent, a narrow strip of timber marks its course as far as the eye can see. This timber consists chiefly of cottonwood and oak of a rather diminutive growth. On its immediate banks I found numbers of wild rose bushes in bloom. I have been informed by Mr. Childers a settler near the crossing of the Neocho, that in a south west direction from our present camp, coal is abundant. This statement was corroborated by other settlers, who further represented, that on Fly creek which empties into the Neocho a little south of the ford, and in fact most of the tributaries of that river, this fuel is commonly found.

     We were continually visited at this camp by rain and thunder storms. During the night of the 8th and morning of the 9th of June we experienced the most severe one, I have yet seen in those regions. Mr. Clark and myself were obliged to escape from the covered ambulance in which we slept, and seek refuge in the observing tent, even there the rain beat through heavy marine duck, completely saturating our bedding and personal clothing. Peal after Peal of thunder continued from midnight until near 3 a. m. The whole surface of the prairie stretching out toward the Neocho river and the strip on Russel's creek, appeared illuminated at intervals, with a yellow light. During this time sulphurous fumes were sensibly felt by the whole party.

     The Neocho river is now so much swollen, with the recent rains as to render it impassible to the surveying party on the east bank.

     For some days previous, I had been annoyed with rhumatism slightly, but now I am completely prostrated. I can scarcely stoop to the basin to wash my face. There is a sudden rise in the Bar to day.

     June 10th. Last night we were again visited as usual by another rain and thunder storm, but not quite so severe as that of the night of the 8th and morning of the 9th. To day it is clear and cool. As yet we have not had a chance to make further observations for Lat.

     June 11. Day clear and warm. Continued obs. during the greater part of the night, for Lat and true meridian.

     June 12th. Last night Mr. Clark succeeded in getting a full set of observations for latitude and true meridian. Took down observing tent and Instrument, packed up for camp on the Verdigree river.

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Lat of astronomical station on Russel's creek where we left the post or log, in the ground on which the Inst was mounted, 36° 59' 31".3. Day cloudy with a strong breeze from the southwest.

     June 13th. At 9 a. m. struck camp and marched over an open rolling prairie about 21 miles and encamped, at a point known as Camp Snow, on a sluggish prairie stream. The timber consists of a few scattering bushes of cottonwood and hickory. Here we found the main body of the cavalry encamped about four miles farther down the stream.

     The prairie over which we accomplished this day's march is very fertile, as indicated by the luxuriant growth of vegetation. Patches of flowers (some over an acre in extent) of a deep scarlet color, are interspersed over the elevations. On the lower grounds, and in marshy localities, great quantities of wild garlic grow. Distance 21 miles.

     June 14th. Marched about 8 miles over a small elevation, when we arrived at and crossed Labet creek [14] a small stream close to the Verdigree river. The timber on this creek consists of cottonwood and post oak of a diminutive growth. Graizing good. Encamped on the Verdigree river. The course of this stream is discernible at a considerable distance in consequence of its being marked by an extensive belt of timber, which consists of oak, ash, cottonwood, and black walnut, some of these, particularly the latter, is of very large dimensions. A very rank growth of vegetation is everywhere to be seen in this valley.

     June 15th. Struck camp in a heavy rain, and crossed the river. Marched about 4 miles over a delta formed by the junction of the Verdigree and one of its tributaries called Pumpkin creek [Onion creek?] on which we encamped. This creek is well timbered, with the same quality which is found on the Verdigree river. The soil in the delta is very fertile, and covered with luxuriant vegetation.

     To our north and in view of Camp are situated the villages, of the Osage Indians, which are now deserted, as they (Indians) have gone on their summer campaign to hunt the buffalo, beyond (west of) the Arkansas river. These habitations consist of frame work, covered with canvas or hides, which covering they remove before leaving them. At this point they receive their annuities from the agent.

     June 16th. Remained encamped to day in order to reconnoiter for a crossing.

     Last night experienced heavy rain, morning cloudy and haizy,

CALDWELL: SOUTHERN KANSAS BOUNDARY SURVEY 351

toward noon the day cleared off with a strong S.west breeze. There are two peculiarities in the Meteorological character of this country in the summer. First. Rain does not cool the atmosphere, as the heat is very oppressive, before, during, and after heavy showers. Second. Rain does not clear off the sky, as it often rains for days, and is cloudy in many instances for the same number of days afterwards.

     June 17. Moved in a south west direction about three miles, and made arrangements to establish the fourth meridian. [15] After crossing Pumpkin Creek we found ourselves ascending beautiful heights or uplands covered with the most luxuriant grass and other vegetation, particularly flowers of various colors. As the ascent continues, little specks of timber can be seen in all directions, the growth becoming more dense toward the Verdigree and its tributaries. The grass in our present vicinity is of a superior quality, to that hitherto met with, being much finer, and consequently better liked by the animals. The view to the S. W. still displays numbers of small streams flowing toward the Verdigree, on some of these I found great numbers of wild rose bushes. We had less rain and a much clearer sky, than at any of the previous camps.

     June 18th. Last night obtained a good set of observations from which we found our astl. station about 19" or 20" north of the parallel.

     This evening the Honl. Mr. Phelps [16] of Mo. and Mr. Eno [17] of New York arrived in our camp. Colonel Johnston and Captain Garnett came up with the remainder of the command, and encamped close to us.

     June 19th. Mr. Phelps and Mr. Eno have concluded to remain in our mess. The former gentleman gave the first information of a riot in Washington, D. C. at the municipal election. [18]

     June 20th. Last night cloudy and stormy, Colonel Johnston wishes the lat. obs. repeated another night. Mr. Weyss (surveyor) arrived. Distance measured from Initial point to 4th meridian 57¾ miles. [19] He (Mr. Weyss) lost a man named James Field who was drowned in crossing the Neocho river.

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     June 21st. Last night we succeeded in getting a few observations through the thin clouds which covered the heavens. This morning Mr. Weyss received the final result 37° 00' 19".2.

     At 9 a. m. the cavalry and infantry struck their respective camps and marched westward. Three companies of cavalry moved forward, one remains behind under Capt. T. J. Wood [2O] to escort the surveying party.

     At noon Mr. Clark struck camp, and marched west in rear of the column.

     The country over which we pursued our course presented a different aspect to that hitherto traversed. Ridges, mounds and small elevated tablelands, covered with a luxuriant growth of vegetation, intersected with lines of timber (mostly blackjack and cottonwood) marking the courses of gullies or small streams, now occupies the view. The country as far as the eye can see, has the same broken and irregular appearance. Continued our course until 5 p. m., when we came up with the military and encamped on a small stream, the banks of which are well wooded with sycamore, cottonwood and Hackberry. Distance about 12 miles.

     June 22. Took up line of march at 9 a. m. Seven miles from our encampment struck a prong of the little Verdigree west, close to a circular pond or lake about 1000 yards in diameter. Here we remained several hours in order to cut a road through the banks, which are high on the east, and heavily timbered on the west. From this point we proceeded about ten miles farther, and encamped at 6 p. m., on the bank of a small creek (Horse-headcreek) well timbered on the west bank with oak, cottonwood, sycamore, walnut & cherry.

     The country on this day's march is still more abrupt and broken, at several gullies, we had much trouble in crossing the wagons. Passed over many ridges very rocky and covered with a dense growth of black jack. Distance about 16 miles.

     June 23. Our march today was over a hilly, broken country. We had many bad places to cross the wagons. Passed through a large grove of Post oak and encamped on a stream called Walnut creek. [21] This stream has very high banks and its valley is well timbered with oak and black walnut. It appears to be the main trunk to which, different other streams heading in the highlands north, unite at a point south of us, forming one considerable tributary to the river bearing the same name.

CALDWELL: SOUTHERN KANSAS BOUNDARY SURVEY 353

     June 24th. This morning Mr. Clark crossed the river and commenced operations for establishing the 5th meridian. [22] The soil in the valley of this river is very fertile and the grass here, as well as, on the neighboring highlands is excellent. The principal productions are as follows. viz. Timber in immediate vicinity of river consists of oak, sycamore and walnut, of which, the latter is of very large dimensions. Fish. Cat, Trout or Bass. [23] Buffalo and Garr. Game. Deer, Antelope and Turkies are very numerous. The latter are met with chiefly in this valley and those of the adjoining streams.

     June 25th. Last night Mr. Clark observed for time and lat, also for true meridian. He succeeded in getting a good set of observations.

     June 26th. Last night repeated observations for lat and true meridian. Day very warm and cloudy. Tht. Farht. 90° in the shade.

     June 27th. To day struck camp and again crossed the creek, when we encamped in a grove close by the river.

     We managed last night to get a good set of obs. for latitude.

     June 28. To day computed our observations for final result of 5th meridian (36° 59' 52".6) 748 feet to be measured North to Parallel. Captain Anderson marched this morning with his company in advance in order to reconnoiter and open the road.

     June 29th. Having finished operations on the 5th meridian yesterday, we started early this morning, continued part of the day on the same stream. At 4 p. m. we encamped on one of its tributaries, [24] branching into heights on our west. We are now evidently approaching the dividing ridge. The soil is of the same character previously mentioned, but not of such depth. The waters of all these streams are very clear. Below the point where they unite forming one river, I have been told the valley is settled and under a high state of cultivation by Cherokee half breeds. Distance 12 miles.

     June 30th. To day we passed the highest ridge, between the waters flowing east and those running west into the Arkansas river, from thence we rapidly descended and encamped on Spring creek [25] a tributary of that river. (Arkansas.)

354 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

     The character of the country over which we passed, is a high rolling plain covered with fine grass.

     In the timber of the creek I noticed very large walnut and mullberry trees. Distance 12 miles.

     July 1st. Started at 8½ a. m. Marched over some broken rolling country, crossing several small streams. At 2½ p. m. we came in sight of the Arkansas river where we encamped. Graizing in the vicinity is excellent. Distance 15 miles.

     July 2. From sextant observations found ourselves about one mile south of the Parallel (37° N. Lat.) Moved up on the east bank and made preparations for crossing camp equipage and provisions.

     The advance guard was first ferried over, which consisted of two companies of infantry with baggage, ammunition &c. under Capt. Garnett. [26] Every thing was transported across in ammunition wagons, which are lined with sheet iron. Four of these are bound together with strong poles over the boxes & hauled back and forward with hawsers.

     The ferry was established at the ford used by the Osages, while going on their hunting excursions west of this river.

     The Arkansas river at this point is about 300 yards wide, its waters are muddy, not quite as much so, as those of the Mississippi or Rio Bravo. Its valley is wooded and about two miles in width, the main bottom here, being on the East side. On the west it is a rolling prairie as far as the eye can see, affording excellent grass.

     The entire country from the west boundary of Missouri up to this river, is fully capable of sustaining a large population in agricultural and pastoral pursuits. The creeks and rivers afford timber of the largest and finest quality, while the graizing ranges are inexhaustable. In addition to the above, the country will undoubtedly furnish immense beds of coal which will ultimately prove a great source of wealth.

     July 3. This morning Mr. Clark moved his camp North of that of the military about one mile, in order to establish himself closer to the Parallel. We accordingly placed observatory on the summit of a mound, about 100 feet above the level of the river. [27] This commands quite an extensive view of the Arkansas, and some of its tributaries which appear to be well timbered.

     July 4th (Saturday). Last night succeeded in getting a good set of

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observations. This day, being the anniversary of the declaration of independence, was strictly observed in the military camp. At noon the troops were drawn up in line, and a national salute fired from the howitzers. After this a grand fourth of July dinner was served up, at which all the officers both military and civil presided.

     July 5th. Last night we had another good set of observations. Lay over in camp during the day.

     July 6th. Finished operations of this meridian and started at 1 p. m. making a march of sixteen miles. Passed several small creeks tributaries of the Arkansas. This march was over a low flat prairie. The soil is fertile and grass excellent.

     July 7th. The march today was over a rolling prairie extending to the horizon in every direction, saw many dry buffalo chips indicating the presence of those animals at certain seasons of the year. At 2 p. m. we arrived at, and encamped on a creek flowing south with a deep sandy bed. (Pa-ha-be-creek) [28] several of the wagons bogged down, rendering it necessary to attach extra mules. East bank high, a low bottom extending west from the other bank. Some large timber is here met with, oak and cottonwood. Distance about 13 miles.

     July 8th. Marched today over a broken country, and encamped on a creek having dark muddy water.

     The region in our present vicinity presents for the first time a sterile appearance, the vegetation is shorter, there is less timber than in any portion hitherto visited, and its general aspect less inviting.

     While encamped, we were visited by a band of Osages with their Chief Bighead. [29] They numbered about fifty (50), all well mounted. They are very tall and athletic. Their only clothing is the breech cloth, and blanket. The head is bare, with the hair shaved closely, except on the top of the head where a small triangular portion is allowed to grow long. The chief wore a fur band around his temples. They all were painted with rouge or vermilion, about the face and head.

     There were several boys amongst them, who displayed their dexterity with the bow and arrows, in shooting down a small stick, having either a five cent or a ten cent piece placed on its top. This sport was furnished by the teamsters and soldiers, who appeared to enjoy it very much. The distance at which the boys fired was about

356 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

ten yards. Those Indians informed us that the buffalo were scarce. Distance marched, 15 miles.

     July 9th. Started this morning at 8½ a. m. and marched until 2 p. m. when we encamped on some buffalo water ponds. (No wood, very bad water.) The buffalo chips are now the only fire wood, to be found.

     The soil in the vicinity of our camp and the line of this day's march is very dry and parched. The first buffalo was killed today by Captain Wood's servant. Distance 18 miles.

     July 10th. Started this morning at 8½ a. m. and marched until noon, when we encamped on the west bank of a creek flowing (south) under the surface of sand. [30]

     The first portion of our march was over a considerably broken country, having many gullies or sloughs, produced evidently by the washing of water from the still higher country north, during heavy rains. The latter part was a sandy region, overgrown with wild hemp. The sand appears to increase in depth toward the south but diminishes in the north. At a distance in the south, can be seen white sand hills, with a few scattering bushes of diminutive timber, farther in the same direction I am informed by one of our Indian guides, [31] is a large salt plain, which will be mare minutely described hereafter.

     Four buffalo were killed today; for the first time on this trip we dined on the flesh of this animal. Distance 13 miles.

     July 11th. Last night so cloudy we were not able to observe. Slight showers of rain occurred during the night. We are very much annoyed by a species of large black sand bug which keeps constantly on the move in the night.

     This evening a hunting party, which started in the morning, returned, bringing with them two buffalo bulls, two cows and three calves killed during the day. They reported meeting with a herd, going north, numbering about 5,000 which they broke and pursued.

     July 12th. This morning the cavalry moved to a stream farther west, owing to the scarcity of grass in our present camp, leaving the infantry to guard us while at this station. Colonel Johnston, Mr. Phelps, Mr. Eno and Captain Garnett go to visit the salt plain south of our camp. [32] They are escorted by a strong detachment of cavalry. This party returned before sunset. The Colonel places the com-

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mencement of the salt plain or Pewsa about 15 miles south of our astronomical station. It is situated about 98° 15' west of Greenwich and in 36° 43' north lat. & it is formed by a number of streams heading in the ridges north and gradually converging, make a point of confluence which overflows at certain seasons of the year an area of about 15 square miles. During the dry summer months, evaporation ensues, producing a fine crystalized salt. It is not found of any considerable thickness except in such places as water may have remained in pools. In all the streams flowing into it, water is found immediately beneath the sand, by digging, and is very brackish. The soil is sandy with very little vegetation, and scarcely a stick of timber to be seen.

     Last night 12 pairs of stars observed with zenith sector, place us in lat. 36° 59' 38".4.

     July 13th. Last night we had another good set of observations, although considerably disturbed by high wind, which has blown from the south since we left the Arkansas river. At 1 p. m. the Tht. Fart. reads 101° in the observing tent. The heat appears to increase with the breeze.

     This evening a little before sunset two buffalo came in full view of our camp, distant about 800 yards. Several of Captain Garnett's men on foot crept up within a few yards and fired without effect. They (buffalo) were then pursued by Lieutenant Macclemore [33] mounted, who getting outside kept them at the same distance making a semicircle toward camp. He finally succeeded in separating the bull and run him within a few hundred yards of the wagons, when he brought him to bay by a shot, during this time a number of foot and mounted men attacking, killed him.

     July 14th. Messrs. Phelps and Eno left this morning for the east.

     Today I observed and found the temperature of drinking water at this camp 80°Fart.

     Captain Anderson [34] commanding escort to surveying party arrived, and reported that Mr. Weyss will be here tonight, also Mr. Kennerly with the surveying train.

     Toward evening a buffalo came close to camp, he was immediately pursued by three of our Indian guides mounted, shortly after overtaking him one of their horses fell, that of Jim Connors a Delaware, and was instantly killed. The rider was not materially injured. Mr. Weyss arrived at sunset.

358 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

     July 15th. This morning Mr. Weyss was placed on parallel, which finished operations on the 7th meridian, (distance of parallel from observatory 2211 feet Let 36° 59' 38".1) after which we marched over a dry parched ridge and encamped on another creek larger than the one left, having a few cottonwood trees. The water flows under a large bed of sand. We can see buffalo in all directions.

     Last night a soldier of Captain Desausure's [35] company while on post as a sentinel shot a Mexican, in the employ of the Quartermaster. The man is not expected to live. The plea made by the sentinel was "that he mistook him for an Indian." Distance 9½ miles.

     July 16th. Started at 9 a. m. and encamped at 3 p. m. The country over which we marched is a high level prairie, the wind blowed from the south a very strong breeze and a perfect sirocco. The grass is parched to a crisp as well as every other species of vegetation. I saw several large herds of buffalo which came up close to the column; many were shot.

     I noticed dogs, accompanying the soldiers, worn out by the fatigue of the day's march, died on the road.

     The water on which we encamped is highly impregnated with sulphur and salt. No wood. Grass good. Distance, 19 miles.

     July 17th. The country, over which we marched today presented a different view, to that of yesterday, being broken and hilly. It appears to be the ascent to a tableland. Near the summit we can see the declivities (red clay) washed clear of vegetation, sloping to the prairie over which we have marched. Numerous streams head near this slope, making their course south. We crossed one quite large and encamped on a tributary; [36] found considerable timber consisting chiefly of cottonwood and oak. Procured water, by digging in the sand, which is so bitter as to render it disagreeable to use. Some beautiful specimens of gypsum were collected in this vicinity. The heat here is very oppressive. Tht. Fart. at 2 p. m. stood at 104° in the shade, at 2½ p. m., 106°. A soldier of K. company 2nd cavalry shot off the two fore fingers of his right hand. Distance, 10 miles.

July 18th. Today ascended the red bluffs before mentioned, and

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which we can see the valley of the Cimarron river. The country North and south appears much broken, being intersected with deep gullies. We encamped near the source of one of these, bearing toward the valley of that river. A large herd of buffalo today ran close to the column, so that I had a good view of them. They first charged toward us, and then shyed off at a greater distance, running parallel with the column. They appear very clumsy, but run with great speed. Distance, 12 miles.

     July 20th. Today lay over in camp in order to reconnoiter for a better position for our observatory, but not being able to find one, we commenced operations after mid day for establishing the 8th meridian. [37] The heat here is exceedingly oppressive, at 4 p. m. in a very cool exposure the Tht. read 106°, with scarcely what might be called a breeze. Our position is now north of the second salt plain.

     July 21st. Last night was so cloudy we were not able to obtain observations for the determination of the Parallel. The Mexican who was shot by the soldier a few days previous died about midnight, he was interred this morning on a height to the west of our observatory. The body was first wrapped in blankets and deposited in the grave, it was then covered with green willows, afterwards with earth. He was a native of Taos in New Mexico.

     The atmosphere today is more cool. A breeze is blowing from the southeast, and sky is overcast with clouds.

     The cavalry and Quartermaster's train moved to another creek west of us, leaving the two companies of infantry to guard this camp.

     Tomorrow the Colonel intends to visit the salt plain south of our present station, where he will remain two days in order to make a complete reconnaissance. When this meridian is determined, we will have completed more than half the distance of the southern boundary of Kansas.

     July 22. Last night so cloudy we were not able to make any observations. This morning we had a heavy shower of rain. Four or five Indian ponies came close to our camp, they were taken possession of by our Indian guides.

     Colonel Johnston escorted by one company of cavalry, left this morning on a reconnaissance to the second salt plain, also some salt springs reported as lying in the same direction. [38]

     The surveying party arrived escorted by Lieutenant Bell. [39]

passing over a very broken country encamped on a creek where we found good water by digging. Plenty timber for cooking purposes, principally cottonwood. Distance, 13 miles.

July 19th. Today marched to the summit of a high ridge from

360 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

     July 23. Last night clear. Made obs. for Lat. the result of which places us somewhat more than half a mile south of the parallel.

     July 24th. Last night succeeded in getting a full set of observations for Lat and true meridian. Final result places our observatory in Lat. 36° 59' 28".6. After computing observations, struck camp and marched six miles, which brought us up to the cavalry camp.

     The Colonel has returned from his reconnaissance of the salt plain. It is situated at the junction of the Cimarron and Red fork and has an area of about ten square acres. In many places it resembles a thick sheet of ice, varying from six to ten inches in depth, and is very hard. Two wagon loads were taken up, for the use of the command. Grasshoppers near the stream flowing through the centre were found in a state of preservation, being incrustated with salt. Long west of Greenwich [omission], Lat [omission]. Several salt springs were found in the vicinity of this plain.

     July 25th. Last night a soldier who had been previously affected with scurvy, died of that disease. He was interred this morning with the usual honors of war.

     Struck camp at 9 a. m. and marching about 17 miles encamped on a gullie or slue where water was found in pools. About three miles from last Camp, we crossed the Cimarron river. The water at this point runs under the sand. Its bed is between three or four hundred yards wide. South of the point where we crossed it, salt is found.

     The country over which we marched today is rolling, and intersected with numerous ridges having but little vegetation. Captain T. J. Wood with his company went on a reconnaissance to the south. Distance, 17 miles.

     July 26th. We were last night visited, by a heavy wind and rain storm. The wind blew a terrific gale from the south, driving the rain under our tents so as to inundate the floors.

     Started at 9 a. m. and encamped at 4 p. m. in the bed of the Cimarron river. Our course for the most part lay in the channel of that river. Passed several salt ponds of water. Road very sandy. Distance 18 miles.

     July 27th. Struck camp at 9 a. m. and marching over a series of ravines & ridges we again struck the river where we encamped. In consequence of late rains, a sudden freshet has covered the bed of the river with water. Distance, 18 miles.

     July 28th. Last night one of the cavalry soldiers died from the effects of drinking too much water, during the warm days previous to striking the Cimarron river. He was interred this morning with the usual military honors.

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     Struck camp at 9 a. m. and marched in view of the river, on which we again encamped at 3 p. m. Found some springs which in addition to digged wells, afforded a sufficiency of excellent water. We are still in view of the tortuous meanderings of the river. The character of the soil, since we first struck the Cimarron is sterile and unfit for cultivation. There is very little vegetation of any description. Distance, 15 miles.

     July 29th. Marched several miles on the river's bank, when we ascended the high table land on the west. The bluffs jutting out, show horizontal stratas of pure limestone. Pursuing our journey a few miles we encamped at 2 p. m. near some holes filled with rain water, sufficient for cooking purposes. There is no wood and very little grass here. Distance, 15 miles.

     July 30th. Yesterday after encamping the Colonel concluded to establish his 9th meridian at this point. [40] Consequently today we have been employed erecting observing tent making computations &c.

     Last night we were visited by a terrible storm of wind, and rain. The tent in which Mr. Clark and myself slept was blown down, leaving us exposed until the tornado passed over, which lasted some hours.

     At 6 p. m. three infantry soldiers arrived at our camp, from the surveying party in the rear, informing us "that at 3 p. m. the Indians (Kioways) attacked the surveying party and killed the driver of the instrument ambulance, and cutting loose the mules belonging to it, run them off." Captain Desausure with one company of cavalry goes in pursuit.

     On the arrival of Mr. Weyss the surveyor I learned from him the full particulars concerning this attack. [41] He (Mr. Weyss) with

362 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

twelve men was engaged in prolonging the tangent and marking the parallel, escorted by twenty-one infantry soldiers, numbering in all thirtythree men. From the nature of the operations it was necessary for these men to be scattered over an area of about three miles. The surveyor had a small ambulance drawn by two mules, to transport his light instruments in the field. About 3 p. m. while operating among the bluffs near the point where we left the river; two Indians came up, one of whom spoke Spanish. They represented, that they had been at Colonel Johnston's camp, and came back for a broken down horse. They made every manifestation of friendship. The surveyor having finished operations put away his instruments, and the ambulance took the road which we previously made around the base of the bluffs, in order to ascend the table land west. The foot men kept near the crest of the bluffs and in view of the vehicle. The Indians being well mounted took the road. Suddenly one of them fired his gun from the pummel of his saddle shooting Le Clair, the driver. They immediately stampeded the mules turning them toward the river. Mr. Weyss shouted to collect the men, and the few close by opened fire, at a distance of eight or nine hundred yards and ran to the rescue. The mules shortly bogged down in the marshy ground close to the river; the Indians immediately cut them loose and escaped. When the escort got possession of the ambulance, they found Le Clair dead, being shot through the heart. [42]

     July 31st. Last night so cloudy we did not succeed in getting any number, of observations. However from one pair of stars, we found our position very close but a little south of the parallel.

     Mr. Thompson returned from a reconnaissance west, and reports a rolling prairie as far as the eye can see without wood, but plenty of water and grass.

     August 1st. Last night we succeeded in getting a good set of observations. Lat deduced 36° 59' 53".30. Captain Garnett, Mr. Kennerly and Mr. Weyss arrived here today, no farther news from the Indians.

     At 2 p. m. struck camp and marched about 4 miles when we encamped at water pools. The grass in our present vicinity is superior in quality to any we have hitherto seen. There appears to be considerable moisture in the atmosphere.

     August 2. This morning before starting, Captain Desesaure arrived. He did not succeed in coming up with the Indians. Marched about half mile north and encamped on a water pool.

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     August 3. Starting at 9 a. m. marched over a level plain for the distance of 20 miles when we encamped at pools of rain water. [43] No wood to be seen. Buffalo chips the only fuel. Distance, 20 miles.

     August 4th. Started this morning at 8 a. m., and marched to 2 p. m. when the cavalry column which was far in advance of the main train halted, and grained about 2 hours. During this interval they also reconnoitered for water, which was found about three miles in advance.

     The country through which we marched, is one extensive plain inclining toward the east. There is not a stick of timber, or even a tall weed to be seen. It appears like a calm sea extending in every direction to the horizon.

     The pond on which we encamped appears to be permanent, as I have seen divers and a few ducks. Excellent grama grass grows in the immediate vicinity of this isolated pool. It is about five hundred yards in diameter. It is the intention of the chief to remain here during the 5th and 6th to recruit the animals. Distance 25 miles.

     August 5th & 6th. Remained over in camp those two days in order to sufficiently recruit our now wearied animals before starting for the terminus of the line.

     Lieutenant Bell leaves tomorrow on a reconnaissance to the North fork of the Canadian.

     August 7th. Starting this morning at 8 a. m. We marched to 5 p. m. when we encamped. [44] We are still on a continuation of the same table land, which we ascended after leaving the Cimarron river. During this day's march it was quite level with very little grass. Crossed several Indian trails running from south to north, all appear to be old. North and south the same character of country extends to the horizon. West, the direction of our march, is a gradual and continuous ascent. Every slight elevation at a distance glimmers through a dense mirage, appearing like small islands in a lake. The view is neither relieved by a pond or water or a bush of timber. Continued our march to late in the evening and encamped without water. [45] From my tent I can hear the piteous cries of near one thousand animals suffering from thirst, which awakens in my recol-

364 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

lection, scenes on the desert west of the Colorado river of California. Distance 30 miles.

     August 8th. We were favored last night by a heavy shower of rain, from which we caught considerable water from our tents, & on Indian rubber blankets, thereby enabling us to give some to our thirsty animals. We marched west about ten miles, and North three, when we struck the Cimarron river and the Santa Fee road.

     August 9th. Starting this morning about 9 a. m. we continued our march along the valley of the Cimarron, about ten miles, when we encamped and prepared to establish the 10th meridian.

     Last night about 9 p. m. Mr. Weyss and party arrived at our camp in an exhausted condition, having missed the road to the main body of the escort. The mail party from Santa Fee encamped near us.

     August. 10th. Last night observed for Lat, but found ourselves about three and a half miles south of the parallel. [46] The Colonel accordingly countermarched on the same road back about 6 miles and encamped. Here we met the surveying party.

     The general aspect of the country in our present vicinity is not an inviting one, not a tree meets the view as far as the eye can see. The channel of the Cimarron is a dry bed of sand, where water is only found by digging, and so impregnated with sulphur and soda as to render it almost unfit for use. The heat is intense, the Tht. Far. standing at 99° & 100° in the shade.

     We are now about 4000 feet above the level of the sea, which places us out of the regions of dampness. I have no reason to regret this, as I feel almost well of a severe attack of rhumatism, which rendered me unable to walk while passing over the damp country between the west boundary of Missouri and the Arkansas river. This disease I contracted from previous exposure, while in the service of the United States & Mexican boundary commission.

     This evening a difficulty occurred between two teamsters in which one of them was stabbed through the liver with a butcher Knife; he is not expected to live. The man who committed the act is kept under a strict guard, in order to deliver him up to the civil authorities, as well as to protect him from the fury of the other teamsters, who will undoubtedly lynch him if they can get an opportunity to do so.

     August 12th. Finished operations on the 10th merid. Started about noon and travelling ten miles encamped on the river. Colonel Johnston remained in this vicinity during the 13th and 14th, in

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order to hear from Leavenworth, in regard to a provision train which he expected here. The Santa Fee mail passed our camp on the 15th. From it the Colonel learned, that the provision train had not left on the 24th ultimo.

     August 16th. Started at 8½ a. m. and marched about 17 miles up the valley of the river (Cimarron) where we encamped.

     As we continued our journey from the last camp, the features of the country materially change; from an immense open and level plain, it becomes suddenly broken and rocky. The river which was formerly defined by one continuous bed of sand, now becomes a bold and rapid stream, having its banks well clothed with rank vegetation and a considerable amount of timber (cottonwood and willows). At this point the valley begins to narrow, forming a canon.

     August 17th. During last night a light rain driven by a N. E. wind began and continued until after daylight. The Colonel has concluded to remain in camp in consequence. It now begins to feel like fall weather. The thermometer stands at 62° Farht. In front of some of the markees, are to be seen fires with little groups of officers collected around, indicative of the change in the atmosphere.

     It continued to rain during the whole day.

     August 18th. Last night about 12 p. m. a considerable commotion was caused by one of the cavalry sentinels discharging his carabine. He reported that he fired at a mounted man coming down from the rocky cliffs in the vicinity toward the animals, after which he retired at full speed.

     Starting this morning, continued our march up the circuitous valley, which as we advanced appeared to improve in aspect. It has a rich soil with excellent grams grass, it widens out in some places to about ¼ of a mile, and is walled on both sides by precipitous cliffs. Flocks of wild turkies are seen in all directions. Today there were over thirty killed. In some instances they were absolutely run down.

     We met Lieutenant Bell commanding Co. K. 1st cav. who was detached some days previous to reconnoiter the North fork of the Canadian. Distance 12 miles.

     August 19th. Struck west from the valley of the Cimarron on a small tributary, in order to arrive at the terminal point, but were obliged to retrace our march, owing to its becoming so narrow as to be impassible.

     August 20th. We again entered the valley of the Cimarron and marched about 7 miles from our last camp, when we penetrated the valley of a small creek, on the east, where we encamped.

366 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

     In the vicinity of our present encampment the ascent to the table land inclosing the valley varies from four to six hundred feet in height. Game in our present vicinity is very abundant, from thirty to forty deer and antelope are daily brought into camp, by soldiers and hunters.

     To day on the march, I witnessed the shooting of one antelope and three deer, the former attempted to run through the cavalry column and was killed by Lieut. Bell. On our arrival, a deer ran through the camp ground among the soldiers and escaped.

     We remained here until the 24th occasionally moving a short distance, in order to procure better grass. During this time we had an almost continuous rain, which swelled the small creeks to such a height as to render them difficult to pass.

     August 25th. The party detailed to operate on the 103 meridian set out this morning, escorted by Lieut Otis [47] with 35 dismounted cavalry. Proceeded up a beautiful little valley lying to the N. W. of the main one, about 7 miles, and encamped. [48] This is our last camp in the operations of running and marking the southern boundary of Kansas. Colonel Johnston having established this encampment and leaving an additional escort of mounted cavalry; after a few days returned to the Santa Fee road with the main body of his command, in order to meet his provision train from Fort Leavenworth.

     August 26th. I was employed to day computing lists for Latitude, and making general arrangements for the coming lunation.

     August 27th. Last night we were visited by a very high wind which prevented us from obtaining a good set of observations.

     August 28th. Last night cloudy and stormy.

     August 29th. A good set of observations for long obtained.

     August 30th. Cloudy and windy.

     August 31st. At 3 p. m. a hail shower fell the particles measuring one inch in circumference.

     We were occupied up to the 10th of Sept. at this point. During this time we experienced such weather as above described.

     The general aspect of the country in the vicinity of the head waters of the Cimarron is rugged and much broken. This river obtains its source from numbers of small streams heading at the base of a tableland between four and six hundred feet., above the little valleys from whence they flow. The soil of these valleys in most instances, is fertile, but their extent is very limited. The only tim

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ber found here is cedar, which grows on the slopes and broken ridges of the ascent to this tableland. In every instance a fine quality of grass is found, which accounts for the great variety of game, though the country is little suited for agricultural purposes.

IV. RECONNOITERING FOR A RAILROAD ALONG THE NORTH FORK OF
THE CANADIAN RIVER, AND THE RETURN TO LEAVENWORTH

     Sept. 10th, 1857. Finished operations at the terminal point, which completes the field work on the southern boundary of Kansas. Marched about 20 miles down the valley of the Cimarron toward Aubury's trail. [49]

     Sept. 11th. Starting this morning at 7 a. m. we continued our march crossing a creek several times which in many instances was very boggy, from high banks washed off by recent rains. In one instance I was in a precarious position in consequence of my caratella upsetting at a ford. The mules however keeping steady, it was immediately raised by some soldiers who were on the spot, which saved me the trouble of cutting open the covering with my knife, in order to jump out. Distance 13 miles.

     Sept. 12th. Started at 7 a. m. and continued, until noon, when we perceived some horse men on an elevation about 4 miles distant. We then halted in order to let some of the soldiers who had lagged behind between five and six miles come up. This was owing to many of them being Barefooted, and the roughness of the road over which they marched. By the time of their arrival, we discovered those on the eminence to ride back and forward, we advanced and found them to be sentinels. This was joyful news as our provisions were just out.

     Two hours march farther brought us in sight of camp, when we were rejoiced to meet old friends, and find plenty of provisions, clothing, newspapers, &c. [50] Distance 15 miles.

     Sept. 13th. Marched west, until sunset in Aubury's trail and encamped on Cedar Creek. [51] Distance, 30 miles.

     Sept. 14th. To day marched over an open prairie when we arrived at and encamped on Me. Neice's creek, on which there is no

368 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

wood. Distance, 9 miles. I endeavored to day to procure a pair of shoes but did not succeed. I am almost barefooted. I hope yet to be successful.

     Sept. 15th. Lay in camp in order to make preparations for a reconnaissance along the North fork of the Canadian and from thence to proceed to the Initial point to observe for Longitude.

     Sept. 16th. At 8½ a. m. the cavalry trumpeters sounded the general which is the signal for the last tents to fall, marched over a rolling prairie when we arrived at Cottonwood creek where we encamped.

     This is a small creek having pools of water at different distances, its course is marked by a narrow strip of cottonwood timber. There are many wild grape vines intermingled from which we collected an abundance of that fruit. Distance, 13 miles (estimated).

     Sept. 17th. Started this morning at 8 a. m. and continued until noon when we encamped on Rabbitear creek. [52]

     Our march to day was over a level prairie. We passed several dog towns or marmot villages. Many of those animals were killed with shot guns only. We could see large herds of Antelopes in the distance gracefully scampering over the extensive plain, some times coming close to the column as if in wonder at the novel sight before them.

     Rabbitear creek is a small stream much like the one on which we encamped last night, it runs at the base of a high table land, the front of which shows striking evidences of volcanic action. Distance, by viameter, 12 m, 3800 feet.

     Sept. 18th. Morning cold, heavy mist with a slight rain rendering the climate very disagreeable. Moved up the same creek and encamped in order to obtain better grass and await the arrival of some officers from Fort Union [53] en route for the East.

     The Barometer now reads 24.88 in. which places us a very high elevation above the level of the sea. By the time we encamped, it cleared off with a pleasant breeze from the South. Dist 2 miles, 4186 feet.

     Sept. 19th. Starting early we turned our faces for the long wished for East, continued our journey along Rabbitear creek which has an easterly course. The high volcanic bank previously mentioned continues as far as the eye can see on the North bank, on the south it is a low rolling country over which we are marching. Encamped at the junction of Cottonwood creek with Rabbitear. [54] Lat 36° 36' 21". Distance, 15 m., 2903 feet.

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     Sept. 20th. Marched over the same character of country, along the above mentioned creek which is in fact the North fork of the Canadian. Water found in pools, wood scarce, grass good. Lat [omission]. Distance, 25 m., 2506 feet.

     Sept. 21st. Started at 9 h. 17 m. a. m. and continued our march on the southern bank of the North fork, over a rolling plain. No wood, sufficiency of water. Grass good. Lat 36° 37' 36". Distance, 19'm., 4500 feet.

     Sept. 22. Left the creek at 6 a. m. and ascended slightly to pass over a table land in order to cut off a bend, anticipated a long march but was agreeably deceived, as we found a large pond about 2 miles in circumference filled [with] water and well supplied with ducks. Here we encamped. No wood. Grass poor. Lat 36° 36'. Distance, 15 miles.

     Sept. 23. Started this morning at 8 a. m. and marched until 2 p. m. when we encamped again on the North fork of the Canadian. The country for the most part is a level prairie. Where we struck the stream, its banks displayed white bluffs. Grass good. No wood. Water plenty and pure. Lat 36° 37' 20" .5. Dist 23 miles, 1933 feet from large pond.

     Sept. 24th. Today marched over a high ridge extending along the south bank of the North fork. Not a particle of timber to be seen. Crossed the stream and marched about 2 miles on the North bank when we encamped on a plat of fine mesquite grass. Lat 36° 42' 39". Distance, 14 miles, 1895 feet.

     Sept. 25th. Started this morning at 8 a. m. and marched until 1½ p. m. when we encamped. Our course lay along the valley of the North fork. At this point it is a level bottom covered with a luxuriant growth of fine grama grass. Crossed Mr. Bell's road on his reconnaissance to this stream. The valley at this point is between three and four miles wide of a low level bottom, from thence the country becomes slightly elevated and broken.

     While turning an abrupt curve of the valley we suddenly came in view of an Indian encampment, [55] at a distance of about four miles, and a band of warriors advancing to meet us. They proved to be Kaioways accompanied by their head chief, Tehorsen. They appeared alarmed of our purpose in visiting them. About the lodges we could see some confusion in hurrying off stock to the opposite side of the valley. When they met the advance guard the chief presented

370 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

a paper to Col. Johnston the purport of which was their treaty with the government. They then scattered along and travelled with our column, their numbers gradually increasing from every hill and canon we passed. They were for the most part painted and in war costume. They were all well mounted and made frequent displays of their horsemanship. After encamping the head chief and Col. Johnston held a talk. The Col. demanded the custody of two of his tribe who had murdered one of the surveying party under Mr. Weyss named LeClair in the latter part of July last on the Cimarron river. This he (Tehorsen) at first denied and blamed on the Cheyennes, but afterwards acceded, "that if any of the outlawed members of his tribe had committed the deed, he would deliver them up to be dealt with by the Government authorities." He at the same time professed great friendship for the Americans.

     After the talk had ended great numbers flocked into camp for the purpose of trading. The principal articles of trade were moccasins, adorned with beads, reatas &c, these they exchanged for articles of clothing. Generally the Kaioways are of the medium high, with muscular fraim, & very savage appearance. They wear the hair rather long. The war chief of the tribe is called Setanki, [56] he is said to speak the Spanish language fluently, and to be a great scoundrel. He was not with the band who visited our camp. Distance 16 miles, 2920 feet. Lat. 36° 42' 41".

     Sept. 26th. Set out this morning and continued our march along the river bottom inclining slightly to the south, crossed some very heavy sand hills and encamped south of them. Dist 18 miles, 4613 feet. Lat 36° 41' 53".

     Sept. 27th. Started this morning at 9 a. m. and continued down the valley about three miles, when we crossed the stream on the now East bank, the west bank being a white sandy barrier as far as the eye could see, crossing a ridge we encamped on a tributary in the vicinity of some excellent grama grass. Distance 8 miles, 5015. Lat 36° 45' 05".

     Sept. 28. Started at 8½ a. m. and marched on the west bank until evening, when we encamped on a tributary flowing from the south. [57] We crossed several others almost as large.

     We were met to day by another delegation of Kaioways, one of whom had an old hickory shirt suspended from a stick as a flag of truce. The East bank of the North fork still presents the same ap

CALDWELL: SOUTHERN KANSAS BOUNDARY SURVEY 371

pearance, being a succession of steep sand hills. Distance 20 miles, 1800 feet. Lat 36° 46'.

     Sept. 29th. Started this morning at 8 a. m. and marched until 2 p. m. when we struck the river, crossed it, and encamped on the opposite bank. (East.) [58]

     The country through which we marched was a succession of deep arroyos and broken ridges. Crossed several tributaries, some having running water.

     The forth fork at this point is about fifty feet wide, having indications of overflowing its banks, at certain seasons. Several large cottonwoods are found in the vicinity, affording sufficiency of wood for cooking purposes, grass good.

     First buffalo on our return trip was killed to day by John Connor (Delaware) guide. Distance 18 miles, 2026 feet. Lat. 36° 46' 44".

     Sept. 30th. To day turned our course toward the North, when after marching about 16 miles we came suddenly upon the Cimarron river. Countermarched about 2 miles and encamped on some water ponds on this dividing ridge. Distance to Ponds, 14 miles, 1226 feet.

     Oct. 1st. This is my 27th birthday and 10th on the prairies. Marched to day irregularly south and North on the dividing ridge between the North fork of the Canadian and the Cimarron rivers, on the latter part of our march we came in view of immense herds of buffalo. Passed a large pond covered with brant and ducks, encamped near the source of the red fork" of the Cimarron. Country much broken, large herds of buffalo can be seen in the distance all around our camp. No wood. Grass very poor. Distance 16 miles, 823 feet.

     Oct. 2. Starting this morning we took a S. E. direction, over a fine rolling country. As far as the eye could see immense herds of buffalo covered the plain. Sometimes the advance of the column was driving them before it, at others they were cantering parallel with it, by hundreds. We must at least have seen twenty thousand of these animals to day.

     Encamped on the red fork of the Cimarron in a heavy rain and wind storm. Distance 17 miles, 3173 feet.

     Oct. 3. To day marched along the valley of the Red fork [59] and encamped in view of its junction with the Cimarron. Our march to day was more difficult than hitherto, owing to our being obliged to cross this stream several times, when the wagons bogged down in quick

372 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

sand. The valley at this point is shut in by red bluffs. The table land or divide, appears to be covered in some places with a heavy growth, of black jack. The valley is well timbered with cottonwood & white oak &c. The waters of the Red fork are very brackish, and those of its tributaries flowing through this red soil are bitter. Distance 13 miles. Lat. 36° 45' 52".

October 4th. To day moved west about one mile to better grass. [60]

     The following is now the reorganization. Col. Johnston with 60 mounted cavalry goes to the Canadian. The remainder of the Command under Captain Thomas J. Wood will proceed without delay to the Initial point.

     The salt plain which was previously found here is entirely destitute of salt which proves that it is merely an animal formation.

     October 5th. Colonel Johnston with a company proceeded toward the Canadian and the main command under Capt. Thos. John Wood continued Eastward.

     Crossed the salt plain after leaving camp, it has an area of about 10 square acres, but the salt had entirely melted away. Our course being south of the Kansas [Arkansas river] and on the south slope of the divide, we were under the necessity of crossing much broken country.

     Passed several large herds of buffalo. Some were killed in the immediate vicinity of camp. Distance 18 miles, 1599 feet.

     October 6th. Continued our march in the same direction from 1°-2° south or North of East. Were much retarded by being obliged to build temporary bridges across streams. Saw a great many buffalo. Several were killed. Distance 17 miles, 2948 feet. Lat 36° 42' 32".

     Oct. 7th. This morning cold drizzling rain. Left camp about 10 a. m. crossed several deep and muddy streams. Marched over a prairie on which we encamped. Saw several herds of buffalo. Dist. 8 miles, 3880 feet.

     October 8th. To day marched over a rolling prairie gradually declining toward the first salt plain west of the Arkansas river, near which we encamped. Large herds of buffalo appeared moving to and fro as far as the eye could see, several were killed close to the

     Encamped close to first salt plain west of the Arkansas river. Distance 20.4 miles. Lat 36° 45' 14".

     Oct. 9th. To day lay over in camp in order to recruit our animals train.

CALDWELL: SOUTHERN KANSAS BOUNDARY SURVEY 373

which are much broken down. Saw a large herd of buffalo about 11 a. m. run within about 400 yards of camp toward our animals, they were headed off by the mounted guard.

     This morning Capt. Wood accompanied by a bugler left Camp in order to explore the Salt plain. Up to 8 p. m. he has not arrived producing some anxiety as to his safety.

     October 10th. This morning at 8 a. m. Capt. Wood arrived in Camp. Signals had been kept up during the night in firing guns, blowing trumpets &c.

     Started a little after 8 a. m. Our course lay over the Southern extremity of the salt lake, struck it between 9 and 10 a. m. and crossed it in about 1½ hours. It is an immense sandy plain entirely destitute of vegetation. At this season it has a crustation of salt about 1/8 of an inch thick. Length of Lake from West to East 5½ miles. Wherever water stands in small pools, it very brackish. Saw immense herds of buffalo on this plain and its vicinity, I was told by our guide, that they are more numerous here than elsewhere, being enticed by the salt. We encamped on an outlet or river flowing from it,, which is the Salt fork of the Arkansas. [61] The bed of this stream is about 1867 feet wide. Its west bank is well defined by a strip of Cottonwood and walnut timber. This stream rises at the Eastern extremity of the salt plain, and flows in an Easterly direction, about three miles, when it turns abruptly south. Its waters are very salt. It has a sluggish current between 1 & 2 feet deep.

     Saw over two thousand buffalo huddled together south of our ford. Our camp is near two springs of fresh water close to the river. Cloudy and rainy. No observations.

     Distance 11M, 881 feet.

     October 11th. Started this morning at 9 a. m. About. two miles of our march was over a sandy soil, when we struck a level prairie, broken in some places by small arroyos: Saw immense herds of buffalo as far as the eye could reach. Several herds ran close to the Infantry column, where numbers were killed. [62] About 2 p. m. we encamped on a red stream flowing south, having a few scattering cottonwoods. [63] It is about 10 feet wide with between 2 & 3 feet water.

374 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

     For the first time I was close by, when a buffalo was shot. It was a young bull. Toward the posterior of the body the hair is very short, near the head it is much longer, also very long on the front parts of the fore legs. He appeared very tenacious of life, and it took several shots to dispatch him after he fell. Distance 15 miles, 3066 feet. Lat 36° 48' 51".

     October 12th. Started this morning at the usual hour, and marched over an open rolling prairie, intersected at short distances with gullies or slues, the crossing of which very much fatigued our animals. These water courses all flow from North W to S. E. Crossed another considerable stream having timber, & encamped on a third heavily timbered with Cottonwood. The banks of these creeks are in most instances very steep and are lined with trees. The grass is very fine. We now have a rich black soil, in place of the red clay heretofore met. Distance 14 miles, 158 feet.

     October 13th. Starting at the usual hour we prosecuted our march over a now low level prairie, covered with long, coarse grass. Met a band of Osages (Indians) hunting the buffalo. Encamped on a tributary (Pa-ha-be- creek) [64] of the little Arkansas, 3 miles & 3000 feet south of our crossing, when we passed over it before (or the point where the parallel of 37° N. Lat bisects it). Found Indians encamped near us. (Osages.) Our mules were much fatigued and some broken down when we got into camp. Distance 16 miles. Lat 36° 57' 23".

     October 14th. Marched in a N. E. direction about 5 miles and struck the road pursued while trailing the boundary. We were obliged to remain on one of the creeks nearly the whole day in order to construct a bridge to cross the train. Got entirely over by sun down, when we encamped. Distance 5½ miles.

     October 15th. Marched over a rolling prairie on our former road crossing two creeks, when we encamped in a low bottom covered with very long course grass. Distance 17.25 miles.

     October 16th. This morning for the first time we experienced a heavy frost, the Thermomt. Fart. reading below 32°. Marched until noon when we arrived at the Arkansas river and encamped. The Quarter master's train and Mr. Clark's party crossed the river which is now very low and encamped on the opposite or East side. [65] Distance to river 10 miles.

     October 17th. Started this morning at 7½ a. m. and marched

CALDWELL: SOUTHERN KANSAS BOUNDARY SURVEY 375

until 4 p. m. when we encamped at the source of the little Verdigris, about one mile west of our old camp on that stream. From the base of a small ridge bearing south from our camp, a number of beautiful springs are located, from whence flows one of the main branches of the Verdigris. Distance from Arkansas river to this point is 25.5 miles.

     October 18th. Last night we had heavy rain which continued nearly the whole day. Struck camp at mid day, and marched along the above mentioned creek when we encamped west of Merid. N. 5. A courier arrived from the train with a letter for the mail. Distance 7.3 miles.

     October 19th. This morning we were delayed from starting as soon as we expected in consequence of the mules belonging to the escort straying off and taking the road ahead. They were not found before 10 a. m. Mr. Clark's teamster also had a mule to stray away, which has not yet been found leaving only 5 mules in the team. Stopped to graize at crossing when the wagon of the escort overtook us, after which encamped. Distance 12.8 mi.

     October 20th. Marched to last crossing of little Verdigris. Encamped near a small lake south of the road. Distance 21.2 miles.

     October 21st. Marched to Pumpkin creek at crossing; (This is six miles from the Osage villages) [66] where we encamped after a fatiguing march through cold disagreeable rain which lasted through the whole day. Distance 19 miles.

     October 22. Starting early this morning we crossed first Pumpkin creek, Verdigris river and Labet creek, [67] from thence we pursued our journey and encamped at Camp Snow. Distance 13.8 mil.

     October 23. Starting early this morning we marched until sunset, when we struck the Neocho and encamped, near the ford. Distance 21.3 mil.

     October 24th. Last night we were visited by Mr. Edwards, an Indian trader among the Osages, who related many amusing and interesting anecdotes concerning that tribe. Started early this morning and crossing the Neocho river, we continued our march over the prairie lying between it and Spring river on which we encamped at 4 p. m. Distance 20.467 miles. Distance from Arkansas river to Spring river 140.98 miles.

376 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

TABLE of DISTANCES FROM SPRING RIVER TO ARKANSAS RIVER

Miles
Spring river to Childer's house on Neocho river20.00
Childer's house to Camp Snow21.30
Camp Snow to crossing of Pumpkin creek near Osage villages14.00
Pumpkin creek to Lagoon on 1st prong of Verdigris19.00
Lagoon on 1st Prong of Verdigris to source of main prong41.00
Source of main prong of Verdigris to Arkansas river25.50

     October 25th. Starting this morning we crossed Spring river (four months and twenty five days since we passed it before) and proceeding to the initial point encamped on the site of meridian No. 1.

     The distance of boundary line surveyed was 463 miles which occupied us 85 days. On this line there were 11 Astronomical stations, determined in Latitude with the Zenith sector, from which offsets to the Parallel were measured on the true meridian. The position of the last station was determined in Longitude with reference to Greenwich by observations of moon culminations with the Transit instrument during one lunation. The remainder of the time was taken up, in a reconnaissance along the North fork of the Canadian and the country south of the Parallel (37°). This (reconnaissance) was made with the sextant, viameter and compass, and includes a distance upwards of 540 miles, from the point where the Santa Fee road crosses Rabbitear creek, to Spring river.

     We continued making observations at this point up to Nov. 6th. The command arrived on the 28 Oct. [68] and after recruiting a few days, started for Fort Leavenworth.

     Nov. 7th. Set out this morning for Fort Leavenworth in rear of the main command. [69] Crossed Spring river and travelled on the south bank. This stream possesses some excellent sites for water power. Encamped on a small tributary called Shwanee creek. [70] Distance 21.5 miles.

     Nov. 8th. Marched over a fine rolling prairie and encamped on another small creek flowing south. Distance 27 miles.

     Nov. 9th. Continued our march over some fine farming country. Passed through Fort Scott and encamped about 3 miles beyond it. Distance 20.5 miles.

     Nov. 10th. Travelled over a fine rolling country having a few scattering farms along the road, and encamped near Mine creek. [71]

CALDWELL: SOUTHERN KANSAS BOUNDARY SURVEY 377

After encamping a teamster named Crain became intoxicated and threatened Mr. Clark's life. He promptly dismissed him. Distance 22.5 miles.

     Nov. 11th. Traveled over the same character of country as yesterday except it was better timbered. Encamped near a small village called West point. [72] Mr. Clark went forward this morning to give the Col. notice of Crain's dismissal. The main command being but one day in advance. Distance 16.5 m.

     Nov. 12th. Marched to day on the borders of Missouri in Cass county. Met a teamster from the other train with two mules to join me; also a sergeant of cavalry with money to pay off Crain and a letter from the Col. directing me to expell him from the train, which I immediately did. Dist. 15 miles, 1000 feet.

     Nov. 13th. Started at 8 a. m. after dismissing Crain from the train and travelled until after sun down, when we came up to the main camp near the village of Little Santa Fee [73] on Indian creek, where we encamped. Distance 27.7 m.

     Nov. 14th. From Indian creek we next struck Kaw river. It occupied the main train the whole day to pass it. We encamped with Mr. Kennerly with the expectation of crossing it tomorrow. The ferry boats are capable of passing over one wagon and six mules at a trip. Indian creek to Touley's ferry [74] -Kaw river-13.3 miles.

     Nov. 15th. To day we travelled 22 miles which brought us to Leavenworth city, where all the property was disposed of at auction, it being advertised previous to our arrival.

     From this point we set out with our field notes for Washington city.


Notes

1. For the preliminary, history leading to the survey see Joseph E. Johnston 's "Surveying the Southern Boundary Line of Kansas," edited by Nyle H. Miller, The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 1, pp. 104-139.
2. Johnston's "Journal," May 30, op. cit.
3. ibid.
4. A letter from John B. Floyd, Secretary of war, directed him to ascertain the most practicable route for a railroad from the initial point of the boundary of Kansas to the Rio Grande.-House Ex. Docs., 36 Cong., 1 sess.
5. Dolph Shaner to Kansas State Historical Society, March 7, 10, 1933.
6. Thomas C. Howell, assistant commissioner of the General Land office, to R. J. Tuthill, auditor, Commerce Mining & Royalty Company, Miami, Okla., July 2, 1926.-Copy.
7. Piney Fork, a tributary of the Gasconade river.
8. Probably the mill of J. S. Reding near Shoalsburg, Newton county, Missouri.
9. Maj. Andrew J. Dorn was agent at the Neosho agency from 1863 to 1860. Dorn county (the present Neosho and Labette counties) was originally named for Major Dorn.
10. For biographical sketch of Colonel Johnston, see Johnston, "Journal," op. cit., p. 106, footnote.
11. ibid., entry for May 28, 1857.
12. Observatory station was set up about one half mile south of present Baxter Springs.
13. The third observatory station was located about three and one half miles south of the present town of Chetopa.
14. The description fits that of present Pumpkin creek.
15. Astronomical station was established approximately three miles southwest of present Coffeyville, Montgomery county.
16. John S. Phelps of Springfield, Mo., served as congressman from his district from 1844 to 1863. He was later elected governor of the state.
17. Mr. Eno was a nephew of Mr. Phelps.
18. A dispatch from Washington, dated June 1, 1857, gives the following account: "Our municipal election is in progress There has been fighting at the polls and some blood shed. The executive authority, at the request of the mayor, ordered out the marines to preserve order throughout the city, and prevent improper interference with voters at the polls. There is great excitement in the city."-New York Daily Tribune, June 2, 1857.
19. For method of marking the line, see Johnston, "Journal," June 15, op. cit., p. 111.
20. Thomas J. Wood was a native of Kentucky. He became captain in the First cavalry in 1855 and served with distinction in the Union army, being promoted to major general in 1865. -Cullum, Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U. S. Military Academy, v. 2, p. 118.
21. Description is that of Big Caney creek.
22. Astronomical station was located across the line in present Oklahoma and slightly west of Elgin, Chautauqua county.
23. Bandel wrote: "This forenoon we did not expect to leave camp, and therefore we went fishing. In about two hours we caught more fish than the whole company could eat. There were some forty fish caught, some of them weighing over ten pound's."-Bandel, "Journal," June 24, 1857, Southwest Historical Series, v. 2, p. 152.
24. Rock creek.
25. Probably Beaver creek.
26. Richard B. Garnett became captain of the Sixth infantry in 1855. Joining the Confederacy in 1861, he rose to the rank of brigadier general. He was killed at the battle of Gettysburg.-Cullum, op. cit., p. 25.
27. The observation station was situated east of present Chilocco in Bay county, Oklahoma.
28. Bluff creek.
29. For Colonel Johnston's account of this visit see Johnston, "Journal," July 8, 1857, op. cit., p. 117.
30. Observation station was located on Sandy creek about one half mile south of the line and west of the present town of Waldron, Harper county.
31. The three Delaware Indian guides were Jim Conner, Benjamin Love, and George Washington.
32. See Johnston's account, "Journal," July 12, op. cit., p. 118.
33. Owen Benan MeLemore was second lieutenant in the Sixth infantry. He resigned in 1881 to join the confederacy and was fatally wounded in 1862.
34. George Thomas Anderson, captain in First cavalry, resigned his commission in 1858, and later became a brigadier general in the confederate army.-Heitman, Francis B., Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, v. 1.
35. William D. De Saussure was captain in the First cavalry. At the outbreak of the Civil War, be joined the confederacy as colonel, losing his life at the battle of Gettysburg.ibid.
36. This camp was probably on Greenwood creek, a tributary of Salt Fork of the Arkansas.
37. Observation station was located in present Oklahoma about one half mile south of present Avilla township, Comanche county.
38. See Johnston. "Journal," July 22, op. cit., p. 120.
39. David D. Bell was first lieutenant in the First cavalry. He died in 1860.-Heitman, op. cit.
40. Observation station was located just below the line in present Oklahoma and about one mile west of the eastern boundary of present Seward county.
41. Bendel who was on guard with the surveyors, gives the following account: "We left camp this morning at ten o'clock, marched about eleven miles, and encamped on the Cimarron again. We marched all day in the bottom of this river. Aout five miles back two Indians met us. They wore long hair and were dressed in white men's clothes. They were armed with flintlock shotguns, and both had good ponies and seemed very friendly. They said they belonged to the Kiowa. After viewing us to their satisfaction, they rode to where the surveyor's party and escort were. The line runs on the far aie of the Cimarron, and the party who, at the time, were some four or five miles distant, could not be seen by us. Now an ambulance with water kegs follows the surveyors on their line; and [the ambulance] is drawn by two mules. This the Indians noticed. After shaking hands with our men, taking presents from them, and ascertaining there were no cavalrymen with them, they waited for an opportunity for action. At the same time the guard did not doubt the friendly intentions of the Indians. The ambulance had to drive somewhat out of a straight line to get around a hill. This was what the Indians waited for. They stood by the ambulance, fired at the driver when they saw no soldiers near, and made the mules run toward the river. There they cut the mules out of the harness and [ran] away with them. A party has left camp to go after the ambulance, but has not yet returned. Four men, mounted on the saddle mules of some teams, have been sent off to the cavalry for orders, which must be thirty or forty miles ahead. A great mistake was made. When it came to the point, it was found [that] there was no ammunition among the escort. Some had one cartridge, some a few, [and] some none. This evening twenty rounds apiece have been issued to us. After the attack the surveyors left flags, chain, and instruments, and came to camp with the escort. The long roll was beat, but there was no use in any of us footmen following the Indians on their swift ponies."-Bandel, "Journal," July 30, op. cit., pp. 171, 172.
42. See, also, Johnston,"Journal,"July 30, August 1, op.cit., pp.123-125. 43. Camp in present Oklahoma about four miles southwest of present Liberal, Seward county.
44. Expedition encamped in present Oklahoma about seven miles east of the present western boundary of Kansas.
45. Bandel wrote: "The day being warm and the dust rising, you cannot understand how we suffered. All the water the company has is two kegs full of ten gallon each. After coming into camp, each of us got about a gill of water to quench our burning thirst."Bandel, "Journal," August 7, op. cit., p. 170.
46. Astronomical station established in present Cimarron county, Oklahoma, about nine miles west of the present Kansas-Colorado line.
47. Elmer Otis was a native of Massachusetts. He was breveted second lieutenant of the First cavalry in 1855. He later became colonel.--Cullum, op. cit., p. 358.
48. Astronomical station was in the southwest corner of present Baca county, Colorado.
49. Aubrey's trail was a route selected by Francis X. Aubrey, a Santa Fe trader, in an attempt to shorten the Santa Fe trail. This route started at Fort Aubrey in present Hamilton county and ran in a southwesterly direction. It crossed the Cimarron river and joined the Santa Fe trail in the neighborhood of Cold Springs in present Cimarron county, Oklahoma.
50. Bandel records: "Again the command is all together. The astronomers, having finished their observations, have come in this evening. The train has also come in from the Santa Fe road."-Bandel, "Journal," September 12, op. cit., p. 189.
51. Cedar creek a branch of the Cimarron, is in the extreme western part of present Cimarron county, Oklahoma.
52. This creek is located in the eastern part of present Union county, New Mexico.
53. Fort Union is in present Mora county, New Mexico.
54. The encampment was in the extreme southwestern part of Cimarron county, Oklahoma.
55. The Kiowa camp was located about ten miles east of the present town of Gunman, Texas county, Okla.
56. Setangya (Sitting Bear) was commonly known to the whites as Satank. He was a noted Kiowa chief and leader of the principal war society of the tribe. $e was one of the signers of the Medicine Lodge treaty of 1867. Handbook of American Indiana, Part 2, p. 513.
57. Probably Clear creek.
58. Camp located in the eastern part of present Beaver county, Oklahoma.
59. Buffalo creek, a tributary of the Cimarron, rises in the northern part of present Harper county, Oklahoma.
60. The expedition was encamped in the extreme northern part of present Woodward county, Oklahoma.
61. Camp was in the western part of present Grant county, Oklahoma.
62. Bandel wrote: "Buffaloes very numerous. It seems if any more could find room on the prairie, more would be there. We kill them more for the pleasure of hunting than for the sake of meat. Of a buffalo weighing from eight hundred to a thousand pounds, hardly fifty pounds of meat will be taken by the men of the command. I killed one on the road today but did not take any of the meat, having plenty of it in our wagons already."-Bandel, "Journal," October 11, op. cit., p. 202.
63. The stream was probably Cottonwood creek which flows south through present Grant county, Oklahoma, emptying into the Salt Fork of the Arkansas.
64. Bluff creek.
65. "Today the astronomers and an escort left ahead of us for Spring river, [in order] to finish their work of observation before we get there. "-Bandel, "Journal," October 16, op. cit.
66. Osage villages were located in the northwest part of present Coffeyville, Montgomery county.
67. Apparently they first crossed present Onion creek, then the Verdigris river and east of that what is now Pumpkin creek.
68. Captain wood's party arrived on October 31.
69. The main command set out for Fort Leavenworth on November 5.
70. Shawnee creek flows south through the eastern part of present Cherokee county.
71. Mine creek, a tributary of the Osage river, is in Linn county.
72. West Point was a town in Bates county, Missouri.
73. Little Santa Fe was located on the Kansas boundary in the southwestern part of Jackson county, Missouri.
74. For a history of Toley's ferry see George A. Root's "Ferries in Kansas," Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 2, pp. 266, 267.


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