ISAAC McCOY, Baptist missionary to the Indians, was an outstanding figure in the development of the Indian removal policy of the United States. He began his missionary work on the western frontier of Indiana in 1817 and spent the twelve years following with the tribes of Indiana and Michigan. By 1823 he was convinced that the ultimate decline and ruin of the Indians could be avoided only by removing them from the encroaching whites and by colonization in lands west of Missouri. The following year he submitted his conclusions to the Baptist Mission Board and was authorized to present the matter at Washington. Secretary of War John C. Calhoun, whose department was at that time in charge of Indian affairs, approved McCoy's plans and became a supporter of the measure. McCoy worked unceasingly for the program and published in 1827 his Remarks on the Practicability of Indian Reform, in which he urged concentration of the perishing tribes in some suitable portion of the country under proper guardianship of the government. 
By 1828 many of the tribes had migrated to the West and in that year an exploring expedition was ordered by the government to permit certain other tribes to examine the country west of the Mississippi and select locations. McCoy was appointed one of the commissioners. Two tours were made and delegations of Pottawatomies, Ottawas, Creeks, Chickasaws and Choctaws were taken into the territory. In 1830 McCoy was appointed surveyor and agent to assist in the migration westward, and devoted more than ten years to the work. During this period he spent much time in what is now Kansas selecting and surveying locations for the tribes and establishing missions and schools. Much of the early recorded history of the state relates to the settling of the Indians within its borders and subsequent efforts of mission groups to introduce the ways of civilization.
This paper is a brief sketch of McCoy's life up to 1823, when he began his work at Carey mission, near St. Joseph's river, Michigan.
Although the establishment of this mission was the result of many years of directed effort, it hinged at the last upon the terms of the Treaty of 1821, whereby the government sought to purchase lands from the Ottawa, Chippewa and Pottawatomie nations. McCoy's hopes depended on the adoption of a provision for the establishment of a school for the Pottawatomies in Michigan territory and his own subsequent appointment as teacher. He planned, of course, to combine teaching and religious instruction. The treaty, as concluded, provided for the school, and upon its ratification McCoy received his appointment. But he had struggled with many deterring forces by the time this end was reached.
McCoy's determination to "labor" in the Indian country runs like a vein of iron through the account of his life. Before his twentieth year the idea of going to Vincennes, Indiana territory, had taken definite form in his mind, strengthened by a mystical experience in which he was directed by a luminous spot in a cloud-darkened sky to that place.  Soon after this occurrence he married Christiana Polke, and in the year 1804 set out from Shelby county, Kentucky, with his sixteen-year old bride, for the territory of the Wabash. Here he settled on public land about seven miles above Vincennes, later removing to the settlement where he prepared to follow the art of making spinning wheels, which he had learned from his father. But the climate of the region was not favorable and in 1805 the little family (there was by now a small daughter) removed to Clark county, Indiana territory, and settled on Silver creek.
Throughout his journal for this period are references to mental perturbation on the subject of preaching. By 1808 he had been regularly licensed. In 1809 he was again visited by "agitations of the mind" respecting preaching at Vincennes, and with the consent of his wife-who expected never to be settled until he had accomplished his purpose of laboring at that place-the family returned to the country of the Wabash where, in the year following, McCoy became pastor of Maria church. Here life was filled with peril and hardship. The family suffered much illness; only a bare existence was possible on the small earnings from wheelmaking; and the Indians were a constant menace, forcing them at times to live at the forts. But in spite of all this McCoy planned to enlarge the field of his work and by 1815 had conceived the idea of forming a
society for domestic missions. He later found that the idea had been developed elsewhere, yet "such was the obscurity of my situation," he recorded, "that I had never heard of it. . . I concluded it. would not be foreign from the general Missionary Cause, for these western regions to turn their attention in part to the destitute [who] were immediately under their notice. I had no sooner conceived the plan than I felt pretty much transported with the idea."  As a result of perseverance he was given an opportunity in 1816 by the Longrun (Kentucky) Association to a make a three months' tour in the territories of Illinois and Missouri. This tour took him to what he describes as the heart of the devil's empire-a place less menacing in aspect after 120 years, known as St. Louis.
The enthusiasm of the Longrun Association for domestic missions had declined, however, by the time the tour was over. There were but few members then favoring the project and these, wrote McCoy, could not obtain for the expiring scheme a decent funeral. The cause of foreign missions was then in the ascendency. A period of despair followed, out of which came the idea that he must so improve his financial condition as to be able to give all his time to preaching-seemingly an impossible goal, since time already spent in the ministry had brought him to a state of poverty. Restlessness filled his heart and his constant prayer was for a larger sphere in which to work. "I have thought," he wrote, "that if a suitable opportunity should offer I would offer my services to the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions-to travel under their auspices in these western regions." 
Hearing that the Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Society was contemplating a mission in the West, McCoy made known his desire for an appointment. Also he informed the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions for the United States of his desire to become a missionary, suggesting St. Louis as a field. But the board did not favor his request and selected two others for the St. Louis post. News of this action came when his fortunes were at low ebb, when he was afraid "to go in company" lest he should see a creditor, and when the needs of eight children pressed down upon him. Fever, which failed to respond to "physick and barks" burned his strength and energies, and he believed that he was dying. Then, when matters had reached the lowest point during this time of trial, he received notice from the Baptist board of his selection as missionary to the Wabash country
for the period of a year. This was in August, 1817. His field was defined as the counties of Edwards and Crawford, Illinois territory; Knox, Sullivan and Daviess counties, Indiana territory. 
McCoy received the appointment in October, following, and assumed his duties at once. His journal record of distances traveled indicates his determination to carry the message to remote corners of the assigned territory. But his program of work did not permit him to spend much time with the Indians and, since he had by now decided to dedicate the remainder of his life to their earthly and eternal welfare, he set about to devise means. Late in 1817 he visited Thomas Posey, Indian agent at Vincennes, and informed him of his plans. Posey was friendly and offered assistance, suggesting that McCoy defer any trips to the Indian villages until after his desire to work among them had been presented in council. Early the following year McCoy visited Territorial Judge Benjamin Parke. He recorded the interview as follows:
I rode to Vincennes and conversed with Judge Parke on the introduction of civilized habits among the Indians, he having been in the service of government in Indian affairs, is well acquainted with their character, altho. he thinks their civilization practicable, he supposes it will require say 15 or 20 years to effect any thing of consequence but I hope that this dis-heartening opinion of his is owing to his want of faith. 
Judge Parke's lack of enthusiasm did not act as a deterrent. In a short time McCoy wrote, "My feelings are all alive with the Subject of introducing the Gospel among the Indians";  and he set out on a tour with a view of preparing for the meeting of the Indians. But at this point, the death of Agent Thomas Posey halted his plans. In considering the situation it occurred to McCoy that it would be desirable to have a missionary appointed to the position of agent. This plan, he reasoned--
would bring the whole business with the Indians under the Control of the Board, in a way that our Benevolent measures would not be liable to be thwarted by an illnatured Agent, and every movement in the Agency might be rendered subservient to their Civilization. The Indians might be persuaded to accept of such articles as part of their annuities, as incline them to Civilization such as Cattle, hogs, etc . . . . and knowing that he could obtain stock, and implements of husbandry, he [the Indian] would hardly fail to become a farmer, a Citizen of the U.S. A Christian. 
McCoy found no means of putting the plan into operation, how-
ever, and was obliged to wait for the development of favorable circumstances. Judge Benjamin Parke, acting as temporary agent following the death of Posey, was clearly out of sympathy. With the appointment of William Prince as agent, McCoy's outlook became brighter. Prince favored the project of an Indian school and arranged a meeting with the Weas for June, 1818, at which time McCoy set forth his plans. The Indians appeared to favor the proposal.
Although his appointment as missionary had been for a period of one year only, and had implied no desire on the part of the Baptist board to locate him permanently, McCoy determined to establish himself in the Indian country. He wrote of his decision: "We resolved to show to those to whom it might concern, that when we spoke of laboring for the benefit of the Indians, we meant precisely what we said; and having actually made a beginning among them, we hoped that if the Baptist board of missions should not continue its patronage, help would be obtained from some other source."  He fixed upon a site for the mission on Raccoon creek, Parke county, Indiana, and erected two log cabins. By this time-October, 1818-his commission had expired, and he went into the wilderness with Christiana and their seven children (the eldest had died of typhus) with no more tangible support in the venture than the hope that Heaven would dispose the hearts of some to lend them aid. This naive faith was rewarded by a pledge of assistance from the board, given in a letter from the corresponding secretary to McCoy dated at Philadelphia, December 2, 1818. He wrote:
The drafts you have sent on have been duly honoured and will continue to be so . . . . The Board is anxious to see the cause of the Redeemer spread through the nations and in a peculiar degree to hear of its influence on the Indian bosom. It also wishes its missionaries to be comfortable to the utmost extent of its ability . . . . It might be a matter of question whether one broad Indian station might not be preferable as to the prospect of ultimate success than several more limited ones. The latter however seems demanded by reason that the funds come in a greater or less degree from all parts of the Union . . . . It [the board] nevertheless confides much in the wisdom, piety and prudence of its Missionaries, and I may add has a high sense of the zeal, disinterestedness and discretion of their beloved Brother McCoy. The expenses attendant on the preparing a mission house you will state and had better draw on us, so as not to feel the least embarrassment. The idea of the Board was to supply you with $500 annually, leaving you to devote as much of your time to the mission as you could command from family demands . . . . I can only in general observe that the board will ever be happy that you state to them what your comfort will require at their hand.
and I am convinced you will ever find the principles on which they act are liberal, sympathizing and evangelic . . . . An assistant will be sent as soon as the Lord shall provide a suitable character.
McCoy notes the receipt of this letter in his journal entry for January 19, 1819:
On the 9th inst. I received a letter from the Board, which, although its contents did not fully come up to our desires, gladdened our hearts by an assurance of the patronage of the Board. While I fear that our mission will be restricted in its operations on account of the fearfulness of the Board that they will incur too great an expense, I feel much pleasure in finding them disposed to adhere to a cautious frugality in the expenditure of the moneys entrusted to them and in the very affectionate & friendly manner in which they write to me. The sincerity of these assurances of friendship is confirmed by their desire & labor to afford me a colleague.
A very practical idea now entered into McCoy's planning. He had been unable to attract more than a few Indian pupils to the school on Raccoon creek and as a consequence had made but a poor showing. The board, he reasoned, would soon suggest a discontinuance of his labors unless he widened his activities. Therefore he directed his efforts towards securing a location where he could increase the number of pupils, and reach, as well, a larger number of adults. It was this determination that led, later, to his intense interest in the 1821 treaty, and his eventual location on St. Joseph's river. But before this removal to St. Joseph's there was a season of work at Fort Wayne.
Immediately after his arrival at Raccoon creek, McCoy had journeyed to the frontiers of Ohio with the view of extending his acquaintance with the Indians and finding, if possible, a field for his labors. A few months later he made a second tour, having in the meantime received permission from the Secretary of War to settle in the Indian country. After consideration of two possible locations, one at the Miami Mississinewa villages, the other at Fort Wayne, he decided upon the latter place as more favorable. He was offered here the gratuitous use of public buildings and assured of the cooperation of William Turner, agent to the Miamis.
In May, 1820, therefore, the family removed to Fort Wayne. They were accompanied by two Indians, one white man-Johnston Lykins, teacher-fifteen head of cattle and forty-three swine. Their household goods were conveyed by a batteau, poled up the Wabash river by four men. School was opened on May 29 with ten English pupils, six French, eight Indian and one Negro (who, it was hoped, would in time find his way to Liberia).
Life here was marked by opposition from the Indians, difficulties attendant upon remoteness from supply stations, and steadily increasing financial problems. There was also criticism of his plans. To one critic, Samuel Dedman of Pike county, Indiana, McCoy announced his stand. It may be taken as an answer to all objectors.
McCoy's financial troubles at this time were due in part to the fact that the board placed no money in his hands for the purchase of supplies. Accounts were submitted for payment if approved. The distraught missionary lived in constant dread of the refusal of that body to settle for goods delivered to him by more optimistic merchants. He had learned indirectly of the surprise occasioned by some of his expenditures. The consumption of pork in the wilderness, for example, had seemed beyond reason to those sitting at Philadelphia. Throughout his journal for these dark months are expressions of despair. Debts piled up; he borrowed money with which to pay them; he then came to that financial extremity-borrowing money to pay back borrowed money that had gone to settle debts. In spite of discouragement and uncertainty, however, his mind leaped constantly to possibilities for fruitful work, and even in the shadow of the necessity to terminate his labor he made
plans for continuing. He wrote to John Kinzie  and Alexander Wolcott  at Chicago inquiring about the possibility of attracting Indian children of that region to the school at Ft. Wayne. Their replies are suggestive of obstacles to Indian reform.
that any of them can be prevailed on to send their children to Fort Wayne. I will however make the experiment and use my influence to effect that object when the Indians shall return in the spring from their hunting-grounds. At present there is not one in this neighborhood.
Acting upon a suggestion that. assistance might be obtained from the government, McCoy went to Detroit in February, 1821, and placed the details of his situation before Gov. Lewis Cass. He received aid in the form of food and clothing, and the promise of gratuitous work at the Fort Wayne smithery. At this meeting he told Governor Cass of his desire to settle farther in the Indian country. Cass thought permission of the Indians to do so might be obtained at the contemplated treaty. A single statement in Mc-
Coy's writings introduces the subject of this treaty, but it now became the point of concentration in his planning.While deeply thankful for assistance given by the government, McCoy realized that it would serve to alleviate only temporarily his great distress. He wrote on February 28, on the journey back to Fort Wayne:
"I am returning home with an aching heart. The mission never appeared to me to be in a more precarious situation. Unless we obtain pecuniary assistance in a short time from the Board or from some other source a few months will put a period to the Mission unless God almost miraculously preserve it." 
Immediately after his return from Detroit he formulated plans for having incorporated into the proposed treaty provisions for educational work among the nations. "In all this I was careful," he wrote, "to ascertain that I acted in accordance with the views of those who would be the principal agents of the U. S. in the negotiations."  He believed that a tour among the Pottawatomies would promote his ends. The specific objects of the tour were set forth in his journal entry for June 6, 1821. He wrote:
The objects of my journey are to convince the Indians that I am what I profess to be- To look out a suitable site for our Mission establishment when we shall wish to leave this, and to persuade the Indians to invite me on to it- To endeavour to persuade them to do something for the benefit of their children at the contemplated treaty- to encourage them to send their children to our school, and to adopt civilized habits, and especially to talk to them about the way of life & salvation thro. our Lord Jesus Christ. Hope had been fired by the intelligence that several of the Pottawatomie chiefs had determined to invite him to settle at St. Joseph of the Lake.
This tour took McCoy to the village of the Pottawatomie chief, Topenebee, where he had a talk with leaders of the tribe. He presented his plans with considerable caution, emphasizing the advantages of education and his desire to establish a school, but leaving other phases of his program unannounced. From this village he went to the shore of Lake Michigan where a stop was made at the residence of the Burnetts, relatives of the Indian, Abraham, who accompanied him. On the return journey he selected a site on the Elkhart river as suitable for the location of the mission.
The tour ended on June 19. Christians McCoy, expecting shortly the birth of another child, set out a few days later with her three young daughters for a journey down the Wabash to the settled
country. The trip was made in an open canoe, a distance of between three and four hundred miles. McCoy was thus left with the entire responsibility of the mission establishment. Farm, house and forty-seven pupils required his constant supervision and these manifold duties prevented him from attending the treaty. He formulated his plans carefully, however, and recorded them under date of July 18,1821, as follows:
I do not wish to thwart the plans of government, and I am confident that my plans must accord with the righteous course which it is hoped government will pursue with the Indians.
hands of men who would not promptly dispose of it to their advantage, and the whole might be squandered to no purpose. I would therefore propose that they say that the said money shall be laid out for their benefit at the time and place, and in the manner, that I, or a succeeding missionary in my place, should deem expedient for their welfare. I would of course be under the necessity of obtaining the approbation of the Prest. for every appropriation which I would wish to make. Government would keep the money in their own hands, and issue to me in such sums as they might think proper in order to avoid abuse, or extravagance on my part.
With detailed instructions regarding the best methods of obtaining desired ends, Robert Montgomery, teacher at the mission, was sent to represent McCoy at Chicago. Montgomery left Fort Wayne on August 2, but had proceded only a short distance when that enemy of the traveler in the wilderness, ague, struck him down and imperiled the entire cause. But he so far recovered as to reach the treaty grounds. Two letters addressed to McCoy from Chicago give details of his work there.
Chicago. Illinois State
ject of our business, his only reply was that they would council on the subject when they arrived at this place. I stop my narrative Topash, and chebas come into my room. After the usual salutations I quit writing, and holding your letter in my hand, told Mr. Bobia,  my Landlord to inform them, it was from you, that you thought often of them & c, was desirous to come nearer them, and hoped they would permit you to do so, that I would come out to their camps and see them, to which they replied that they would do every thing they could, that I would hear them talk to Govr. Cass & c. I gave them some tobacco and they went away. To continue. On thursday Mr Burnett and myself being better we set out for this place, though I was quite weak and still am. We arrived here on Saturday, which was yesterday, without any material difficulty, but the Journey fatigued me very much, in my weak State, and our horses are much Jaded indeed. I call'd at Mr Kinzie's, but his house being entirely occupied by the public he could not accommodate me, was very friendly, and permitted me to put my horses in his pasture, which is not very good and dispatched his son over to my present Lodging to request him to afford me every comfort in his power, as I was his particular friend. My accommodations are reasonably good, and quite high. Abraham went out to his brothers yesterday and has not since returned. my health is improving and hope, (unless a relapse) that it will soon be restored again.
The treaty had formally opened on August 17. For several days the Indians had been gathering upon the plain. Schoolcraft, returning from his tour of the Mississippi valley, arrived August 14 and recorded the total number encamped at the opening of negotiations as about three thousand.  The vast scene was one of moving color, rimmed by the blue splendor of Lake Michigan. Records of the talks indicate that the Indians were reluctant to deal, partly be-
cause of dissatisfaction over the outcome of the St. Mary's Treaty of 1919, and partly because of general aversion to disposing of the lands. Terms were finally arranged for the ceding of certain tracts, and the treaty was concluded on August 29.
Article 4 of the treaty specified that one mile square should be selected under the direction of the President, on the north side of the Grand river, and one mile square on the south side of the St. Joseph, within the Indian lands not ceded, upon which blacksmiths and teachers for the Ottawas and Pottawatomies, respectively, should reside. Immediately upon the return of Montgomery from Chicago with news of this provision, McCoy leaped into action. He addressed a letter to Governor Cass:
Details of his plans were placed before the Board of Baptist Missions in this communication to the secretary, William Staughton:
Fort Wayne, Sep. 6, 1821
permit me to go to Washington, perhaps they may instruct me to meet them before I return, that our plans may be more fully developed, and the best measures adopted. . . ,
The attitude of the board, as expressed by its secretary, was one of qualified encouragement. Mr. Staughton wrote on September 29: "The plan you propose seems a good one, but, I do not think the Board is favorable to frequent changes. Circumstances may sometimes require them, but in general the best rule, to use the words of Dr. Young is `in fixing, fix.' Or as Franklin expresses himself `a rolling stone gathers no moss.' " Another letter dated October 18 transmitted information that the board had declined to take action on McCoy's proposed move until he could appear before that body; nor was it deemed advisable that he solicit aid from the government before visiting the board. Frequent removals it was felt, were undesirable, having usually an ill effect upon the public mind. Mr. Staughton again recommended the axiom of Dr. Young.
Following instructions from the board to appear before the group, McCoy set out upon a journey by horseback to Philadelphia on December 4. On January 7 he made a statement of his work and plans. His entire program was approved, including three proposed missionary stations, one among the Pottawatomies, one among the Ottawas and one among the Miamis. He was given full authority to select workers and to remove from Fort Wayne when he deemed it expedient to do so. In view of the indifference of the board before his personal visit, it must be concluded that McCoy spoke with convincing fervor. Before his return to Fort Wayne, he visited the Secretary of War in Washington and obtained assurances of aid insofar as it could be given when the treaty should be ratified.
It must not be assumed that McCoy was
seeking the slightest pecuniary advantage for himself in asking the appointment
as teacher to the Pottawatomies, which position he expected to fill while acting
also as representative of the Baptist board. Although he should be drawing money
from two sources under that arrangement, all was to be applied to the work of the
mission. Two rules
from "General Rules for the Fort Wayne Mission Family" indicate the sincerity of these laborers in the wilderness:
2d. We agree that our whole time, talents, and labours, shall be dedicated to the obtaining of this object [to meliorate the condition of the Indians], and shall all be bestowed gratis, so that the mission cannot become indebted to any missionary for his or her services.
The treaty was ratified March 25, 1822. In July, following, McCoy visited Governor Cass at Detroit and subsequently received his appointment and full instructions. A small portion of an appropriation by Congress of $10,000 for the purposes of Indian reform was allotted to the new station.
The location finally determined upon was not exactly that desired by McCoy, but he yielded to the wishes of the Indians in the matter. The site was about one mile west of the present city of Niles, Berrien county, Mich., one hundred and eighty miles from a settlement and an even greater distance from a mill. The mission was called Carey, honoring a celebrated Baptist missionary.
Preparations were immediately started for removal. In August McCoy took workers to the new location where hay was prepared for the stock. In October a company left Fort Wayne and began the erection of buildings at Carey. And on December 9 the mission family departed from the old station. The train consisted of three wagons drawn by oxen and one by horses. There were thirty-two personsseven members of the McCoy family, one assistant, six work hands and eighteen Indians. Fifty hogs and five cows were driven with difficulty over the icy ground. The journey was completed in eleven days.
The concerns of life were altogether too serious and pressing to admit of any period of relaxation upon their arrival at the goal. The cabins were unfinished and the school not yet begun; it was necessary to butcher the hogs because there was no grain with which to feed them; the Indians immediately demanded work at the
smithery; and food stuffs had to be hauled from the settlement-a trip of four hundred miles for the wagons.
It was deemed expedient, however, to pause from labor at the beginning of the new year and extend a welcome to the neighbors of the region. McCoy wrote in his journal on January 1, 1823:
Chebass & Topenebee, chiefs, and others, men, women & children, about 40 in all, called in to congratulate us on the opening of the New Year. Shaking of hands and kissing are among the ceremonies which prevail among them on this day. In conforming to the former we felt no embarrassment. But we dispensed with the latter, as it was a perfor[mance] which we could not very well relish. Their observance of holidays is not an original custom among them, but is derived from the French traders among them. Smoked the pipe of peace and friendship together, after which we sat down together and partook of a dinner we had prepared for them. All appeared remarkably cheerful and well pleased. Some of the principal men expressed to our interpreter the greatest satisfaction in the manner we had received them. Said they could not think there were any more such good men among the whites, and that our kindness should be rewarded by presents of sugar, or something else by and by.
Life and work had begun at Carey mission. The story of the years that followed differs little from that of the years that went before. There were hardships, always, obstacles and discouragement. But there was also a new and stronger purpose-the removal of the tribes to the region beyond the Mississippi. And it was in his application to this purpose that McCoy became in time a leader in the movement to better the condition of the Indian.
1. Isaac McCoy was born near Uniontown, Pa., June 13, 1784. He died at Louisville, Ky., June 21, 1816. His published works include: Remarks on the Practicability of Indian Reform Embracing Their Colonization., 1827; The Annual Register of Indian Affairs Within the Indian (or Western) Territory, 1835-1838; A History of the Baptist Indian Missions, 1840.
2. Statement of the events of his life addressed to his brother-in-law, William Polke. Isaac McCoy's journals, correspondence and manuscripts referred to in this article are part of the McCoy collection of manuscripts belonging to the Kansas State Historical Society. The journal covers with some gaps, the years 1817-1841; the correspondence begins with the year 1808 and continues until McCoy's death.
4. Journal of Isaac McCoy, January 12, 1817. Hereinafter cited as Journal.
5. Letter, William Staughton corresponding secretary Baptist Board of Foreign Missions, to Isaac Mcoy, September 16, 1817.
6. Journal, January 24, 1818.
7. Ibid., March 7, 1818.
8. Ibid., March 30, 1818.
9. McCoy, Isaac, History of Baptist Indian Missions, p. 46.
10. Draft of letter, January 12, 1820.
11. Pioneer who settled at Fort Dearborn in 1804.
12. United States Indian agent at Chicago, 1820-1830.
14. History of Baptist Indian Missions, p. 100.
15. MS. statement.
16. Probably phonetic spelling of Beaubien.
17. Lewis Cass, governor of Michigan territory and ex officio superintendent of Indian affairs for that region, and Solomon Sibley, pioneer and jurist, acted as United States commissioners at the treaty.
18. William A. Trimble, U. S. senator from Ohio. Trimble visited McCoy at Fort Wayne on his way to the treaty and promised support of McCoy's program.
19. Schoolcraft Henry R., Travels in the Central Portions of the Mississippi Valley (New York, 1825), p, 336.
20. Draft of letter.
21. Draft of letter.
22. History of Baptist Indian Missions, p. 170.