Kancoll: The Kansas Historical Quarterlies

The Annual Meeting

by Kirke Mecham

February, 1936 (vol. 5, no. 1, pages 51 to 81
Transcribed by lhn; digitized with permission of
the Kansas State Historical Society.

     THE sixtieth annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society and board of directors was held in the rooms of the Society on October 15, 1935.

     The meeting was called to order at 10 a. m. by the president, Thomas F. Doran.

     The first business was the reading of the annual report of the secretary:


     The experience of this Society confirms reports from other historical agencies that the past few years have shown a material growth in popular interest in local and state history. The increased use of our facilities and the greater demand for information, which were noted in last year's report, have continued throughout the year. The study of local history was featured by many schools in small towns and rural communities, who wrote for detailed historical data about their towns and counties. The staff has been kept busy with routine work and much that should have been done in cataloguing and organizing books and other collections was postponed. The supervision of KERC workers took much time from regular tasks. This increase in the work of the Society is also reflected in the fact that the volume of our correspondence is nearly twenty-five percent greater than it was five years ago. This is a healthy and gratifying condition, but it emphasizes the statement, made last year, that the present staff is inadequate and that additional employees are needed.


     The executive committee, consisting of W. W. Denison, E. A. Austin, John S. Dawson, Thomas Amory Lee and T. M. Lillard, met regularly except during the summer months. Advice of the members was sought in all matters of consequence, and in accordance with the constitution and by-laws they approved all expenditures. The committee and the Society suffered a great loss on July 5 in the death of W. W. Denison. For many years he served on the executive committee and at the time of his death was its chairman. A memorial in the form of a resolution, written by Thomas F. Doran, was adopted by the committee at its September meeting, and a copy was sent to Mrs. Denison.


     Appropriations requested for the biennium beginning July 1, 1935, were filed with the budget director in September. Our requests included $1,800 for additional newspaper racks and an increase of $500 a year in the contingent fund, which had been reduced from $2,500 to $1,500 by the legislature of 1933. Restoration of salary cuts was not asked for and no additional clerks were requested, although much needed. In his recommendation to the legislature the budget director disallowed both requests. Fortunately, however, we were able to secure from the legislature $900 for new newspaper racks and an increase of $250 a year in the contingent fund.



     The reduction of $1,000 a year in the contingent fund, which became effective July 1, 1933, worked a hardship on the Society and made it necessary to apply the limited income from memberships on operating expenses. Due to increased demands on the Society and additional costs incident to supervising KERC workers these expenses have been greater than ever before. The income from memberships has naturally decreased during the depression years. While the restoration of $250 a year in the contingent fund will help, the full amount should be restored, and it is hoped also that it will be possible to increase the revenue from memberships.

     It will be noted in the treasurer's report that on April 11, 1935, bonds in the amount of $2,500 were sold and the proceeds placed in the membership fund. These bonds were called by the government and had to be sold or exchanged for others bearing a much lower rate of interest. This action was authorized by the executive committee after careful consideration. The Society possesses invaluable collections of manuscripts, pictures and other documents which must be catalogued, calendared and otherwise organized to be made useful. Part of the proceeds from the sale of the bonds will be applied on this work and part will be available for the purchase of books and other historical material. It must not be supposed that this fund will enable us to complete the organization of our collections; on the contrary this will require thousands of dollars and years of work. But much can be done now, and should be done, to make our collections serve the purpose for which they were intended.


     Application for a new project to continue the work begun under the Civil Works Administration project, which operated from January 15 to March 22, 1934, was submitted to the Kansas Emergency Relief Committee September 20, 1934. The committee approved the application, calling for an expenditure of $10,769 by the federal government in salaries for the equivalent of twenty-seven full-time workers for twenty-two weeks.

     Considerable freedom had been granted us under the CWA in selecting persons from other counties when the local county relief rolls could not supply the class of workers needed. Under the KERC regulations, however, it was specified that all project workers must be selected from the list of available relief clients on local county relief rolls. It was apparent from the start that this ruling was to interfere seriously with a successful operation of the project. No trained librarians were on the Shawnee county relief rolls; therefore the positions could not be filled. A further handicap was the fact that only a few days' time a month was allowed each worker, conditioned by the budget allowance set for the client by his case worker.

     At no time was the Society able to approach maximum employment. With the workers averaging from three to ten days' work a month, it would have been necessary to employ at least eighty persons to fill our quota. The county relief administration did its best to furnish suitable workers, but the total never exceeded twenty-two in any one month. Approximately $150 was expended by the Society for working materials and rental of typewriters.

     With the establishment of the Works Progress Administration in Kansas, relief work provided under the KERC was discontinued last month. Workers were called off the Society's project the evening of September 3. Of the original government grant of $10,769, $4,652.50 was actually spent. Since the


KERC seems to be definitely out of the picture as a project supervisor, the $6,116.50 balance probably has been wiped off the books.

     Tasks were assigned KERC workers in accordance with their abilities. The project typists were employed copying fragile documents and manuscripts needed for immediate use by the general public. They also copied indexes of the first fourteen volumes of the Kansas Historical Collections, a preliminary step necessary to the preparation of a general index of the seventeen volumes. Mention of other work started or accomplished by workers on this project appears in this report under the department headings. Due to the inability of relief headquarters to furnish persons with library experience the Society was compelled to abandon temporarily a catalogue of the picture collection and special cataloguing in the library annex begun last year.

     Through the courtesy of Dr. Philip C. King, president of Washburn College, the Society was permitted to use three Washburn students part time from September, 1934, through May, 1935. The students, working under a college-student employment project, were paid from KERC funds. Two students have been supplied the Society during the present college year through a similar project sponsored by Washburn under the National Youth Administration.


     Upon the advice of the Shawnee County Relief Administration the Society made application for a project to operate under the Works Progress Administration. It calls for the expenditure of $8,900 by the government in salaries for the employment of fourteen full-time persons for ten months. The application was submitted to the WPA first district office August 24. We have been informed that it has been approved by both the first district office and the state office and that it is now in Washington. To date we have had no information on Washington's disposition of the plans. Application was made in this project for two librarians to continue the work started under the CWA. If approved, work will be continued along the same lines as previously scheduled under the other setups.


     The library received over three thousand requests for information, the greatest number being for Kansas subjects, and next for family history. Information was supplied to schools throughout the state on the history of their communities, which was a phase of their study in history. This often required the compilation and copying of material, and took much time.

     The KERC workers assigned to the library were not trained librarians and it was impossible to continue the work of cataloguing and classifying taken up the year before. However, much was accomplished in the physical care of the library: 8,648 books were relabeled; 4,829 leather-bound volumes were oiled to preserve the leather; 280 pamphlets were inclosed in binders; 436 maps and broadsides were mounted; 150 books and pamphlets were repaired; 200 pamphlet boxes and 37 adjustable binders were made; 331 pages of clippings were pasted, and 6,000 cards cataloguing the biographies in Andreas' History of Kansas were typed.

     Under the college-student employment project two Washburn students were received. Their work consisted of arranging and filing Kansas supreme court briefs, and filing cards in the Library of Congress depository catalogue.



     The limits of this report prevent a detailed statement of the variety and number of requests for information received by the Society. The public considers it the depository of facts and relics pertaining to every conceivable subject. We are offered accessions ranging from live, two-headed snakes, as was the case only last week, to collections of current newspapers from every foreign country, as was the case only last month. To refuse material often incurs hostility, but it is obvious that the policy of confining the scope of the Society principally within the limits of Kansas and the Mid-west and their related subjects is a necessary one. In its field the holdings of the Society are not excelled by those of any other state association, and it is a constant source of gratification, and often of surprise, to be able to meet the thousands of demands for out-of-the-way information.

     The Society is used principally by students and writers of history, newspaper men, lawyers, students of genealogy and writers on general subjects. During the past year researchers for the Kansas State Planning Board and representatives of investment companies made much use of the collections for special studies. A list of the subjects on which extended research was made include the following: Early literature in Kansas; Jotham Meeker; county histories; blue-sky legislation; Holladay stage-coach lines; forts of Ford county; early missions; Union Pacific Railroad; Jedediah Smith; United States Indian Superintendency, St. Louis; John Brown; Pony Express; William Allen White; Cyrus K. Holliday; Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad; Populist uprising; primary elections; Kansas Industrial court; John A. Anderson; Cherokee strip; early history of telephones in Kansas; early mail routes; Robert J. Walker; state agricultural department; population studies; history and development of schools in Doniphan county; histories of academies in Kansas; Kansas poetry; Methodist Indian missions in Kansas; James H. Lane; Baptist church; Beadle's Dime Library; Kansas landmarks; Osawatomie; events in Topeka history for cartoons; historic pictures; Indian art.


     In this department 665 manuscripts and 53 manuscript volumes were accessioned, in addition to two large collections-those given by Miss Bessie Boughton and the Rev. J. E. Bartholomew-which have not yet been completely inventoried. Of particular interest are:

     The papers of Thomas C. Stevens, obtained from Mrs. Frank McIntire. Stevens was at one time a partner of Thomas Carney in the merchandising business in Leavenworth. The papers contain some references to this partnership and cover later business activities of Stevens. Also there are letters and telegrams to and from Carney on military matters in Kansas during the period 1863-1864. An interesting group of papers in the collection is that composed of statements of the steamboat Mollie Dozier which plied the Missouri river in 1865.

     The Elam Batholomew collection containing letters from leading scientists in all parts of the country on the subject of fungi. Doctor Bartholomew was an authority in this field. For many years he conducted experiments on his large farm in Phillips county. In 1929 he became curator of the mycological museum at the Fort Hays State College. His death occurred in November 1934.


     The collection given by the Wilder S. Metcalf estate containing twenty-eight diaries of General Metcalf, three of them covering the period of his service in the Spanish-American War.

     The sixteen scrapbooks of John Pierce St. John, governor of Kansas, 1879-1883. These contain clippings and letters relating largely to his activities in public life.

     The papers of John C. McCoy and Woodson McCoy, a gift of Spencer McCoy. In the collection are 158 documents--deeds, mortgages, contracts, etc.-relating to land matters in Jackson county, Mo., and Johnson county. Kan., 1836-1905; and account book of the firm of McCoy & Martin, Kansas City, Mo., 1847-1848.

     Work done in the manuscripts division by FERA help includes 11,900 manuscripts chronologized and 1,750 manuscripts cleaned and pressed.

     Donors of manuscripts during the year were: The Rev. J. E. Batholomew, George F. Beezley, Bessie Boughton, Mrs. Thomas R. Bowman, James B. Brinsmaid, Dr. Edward Bumgardner, Harvey Myers Cary, F. F. Clinger, S. N. Dudley, Edward T. Fay, Lulu R. Fuhr, W. W. Gear, I. D. Graham, Mrs. Almira Belden Hall, Eusebia Mudge Irish, Mrs. Samuel J. Kelly, Davis Harold McCleave, Spencer McCoy, Mrs. Frank McIntire, the Wilder S. Metcalf estate, Martie Millikan, Mrs. Emma Wattles Morse, Effie Parker, Paul Parrish, F. C. Penfield, H. C. Raynesford, W. P. Reese, J. C. Ruppenthal, Floyd B. Streeter, Harriet Thurman, William Allen White, Wichita City Library, Neale Wright, Walker D. Wyman, Lillian Way.


     There were no accessions in this department during the fiscal year. This month, however, we received the statistical rolls of the counties for the years 1924 to 1928 consisting of approximately 8,500 manuscript return books. These were prepared under the supervision of the State Board of Agriculture and include the decennial state census returns for Kansas, 1925. This is the last state census which will be taken, the 1935 legislature having repealed the law that provided for it. These returns were received from the Kansas State College at Manhattan, where they were used by the federal government in estimating farm allotments. According to a recent agreement between the Board of Agriculture, the Kansas State College and the Historical Society, all statistical rolls in the future will be deposited with the Society after they have been used five years by the State College. Heretofore there had been no definite agreement as to the permanent disposition of these valuable records.


     The usual recommendation was made in our 1934 budget estimate for adequate shelving for the out-of-Kansas newspaper collection which has been stored on boxes and benches in our basement for nearly two decades. The state budget director did not include the request in the revised budget he submitted to the legislature. Three members of the house ways and means committee visited the building, however, saw the need for the shelving, and wrote an item for $900 into the appropriation bill to permit the Society to make a start toward a proper storage of these newspaper volumes. The appropriation was allowed and the fixtures were installed in July of this year. Room was provided in these shelves for nearly half of the volumes previously


stacked on boxes and benches. KERC workers assisted in the reassembling of this collection in the new shelving.

     The 1935 annual List of Kansas Newspapers and Periodicals received by the Kansas State Historical Society was published in September. The edition fisted 741 newspapers and periodicals which were being received regularly for filing. Of these, 60 are dailies, 11 semiweeklies, 512 weeklies, 21 fortnightlies, 15 semimonthlies, two once every three weeks, 73 monthlies, nine bimonthlies, 23 quarterlies, 12 occasionals, two semiannuals and one annual, coming from all the 105 Kansas counties. Of the 741 publications, 181 are listed republican, 42 democratic, 294 independent of politics, 76 school or college, and 148 miscellaneous. In this list were included 452 weekly community newspapers. On January 1 the collection of Kansas newspapers totaled 42,783 bound volumes.

     Ninety issues of the Squatter Sovereign, Atchison's first newspaper, were acquired by the Society in February, one of the most important newspaper accessions in recent years. These issues, obtained from Howard F. Kelley, of Seattle, Wash., a son of one of the editors of the paper, date from the founding of the newspaper on February 3, 1855, to March 3, 1857, and represent most of the period during which the Sovereign was proslavery in politics. A volume of The Democratic Platform, of Liberty, Mo., dating from March 23 to October 5, 1854, and a volume of the Herald of Freedom, of Lawrence, from January 13, 1855, to February 2, 1856, were also received from Mr. Kelley.

     Included among other newspaper accessions for the year were: The Madisonian, Washington, D. C., October 12, 1837, to September 21, 1841, from Mrs. E. L. Holmes, of Lawrence; Columbus (Miss.) Press, November 1, 1873, to April 15, 1876 from Mrs. Hiram Lewis, of Wichita; The National Tribune, Washington, D. C., August 20, 1881, to October 4, 1888, from Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Carrie, of Topeka; a large assortment of miscellaneous southeast Kansas newspapers dated in the latter 1870's to 1909, from H. M. Sender, of Kansas City, Mo.; copies of the Hampden Expositor, July 9, 1864, and The Neosho Valley Register, Burlington January 3, 1860, October 17 and 24, 1861, from Mrs. Marian Kent Race, of Chicago, Ill.; miscellaneous national agricultural and livestock journals, 1928 to 1933, from the Kansas State Board of Agriculture; miscellaneous newspapers (mostly Kansas) from Mildred Berry, of Topeka, Anna Meluish, of Ottawa, and Mrs. E. L. Holmes, of Lawrence. Camp newspapers of several Civilian Conservation Corps companies located in the state have been furnished the Society by the corps area educational adviser of Omaha.


     The attendance in the museum for the year ending July 1, 1935, was 30,392. Among the interesting accessions of the year were a physician's saddle bag belonging to Dr. Charles W. Hardy, of Ottawa, who came to Kansas in 1886 and used the bag until 1892, when he began using a horse and buggy in his country practice. Lloyd Hill, Topeka, gave a censor's stamp which was used by officers in censoring soldiers' mail in the 137th (all-Kansas) infantry in France. A silver watch which had belonged to the Rev. Isaac McCoy, Baptist Indian missionary who came to Kansas in 1829, was donated by his greatgrandson, Spencer McCoy.

     With the help of two FERA workers much cleaning and renovating was done. Five hundred labels and signs were made with pen and brush, seventy-nine display cases and more than 30,000 relics were cleaned, a number of


     pieces of furniture were repaired, many pictures and frames were restored, and the contents of three storerooms were cleaned and checked with the records. Through the courtesy of Dr. Chas. D. Bunker, of the University of Kansas, the birds in one of the largest cases belonging to the Goss collection were repaired and cleaned.


     Total accessions to the Society's collections for the year ending June 30, 1935, were as follows:

Books (volumes)1,180
Magazines (bound volumes) 539
Printed maps, atlases and charts 160
Newspapers (bound volumes) 935
Museum objects 20
Private manuscripts:
Separate manuscripts 665
Volumes 53

     These accessions bring the totals in the possession of the Society to the following figures:

Books, pamphlets, bound newspapers and magazines 361,066
Separate manuscripts (archives)924,795
Manuscript volumes27,223
Manuscript maps501
Printed maps, atlases and charts10,525
Museum objects32,800


     The Quarterly, now completing its fourth year, has established itself among the leading state historical magazines of the country. The fact that more articles are being submitted than can be printed gives the editors a wider selection of material and enables them to maintain an increasingly higher standard of scholarship. One of the most popular features of the magazine is the department headed, "Kansas History as Published in the Press," edited by Nyle H. Miller, the Society's newspaper clerk. These items consist of a quarterly review of articles on Kansas history appearing in the state's newspapers. Heretofore no record of this valuable material had ever been made.


     This property, consisting of twelve acres of ground and three large brick buildings now nearly one hundred years old, was purchased by the state in 1927 at an expense of about $50,000. The caretaker receives a salary of $1,000 a year and $750 a year is allowed for maintenance. This sum is inadequate, but it has been impossible to secure an increase from the legislature. Our request for 1936-1937 called for $4,000 a year for maintenance, but it was disallowed.

     The secretary and the state architect prepared a project request for the restoration of the north building, calling for an expenditure out of federal funds of $30 000. No action was taken on this request by the authorities and presumably it was not allowed. Until money can be secured to restore this building all that can be done is to prevent further deterioration.


     There are five organizations cooperating with the Society at the mission the Daughters of the American Revolution, the Colonial Dames, the Daughters of American Colonists, the Daughters of 1812 and the Shawnee Mission Indian Historical Society. These organizations have done much to improve the east building. At their own expense they have repaired and redecorated the rooms which were assigned to them. Only a personal inspection can give an adequate idea of the debt this Society owes them for this assistance.

     Last summer the unsightly frame garage was torn down and a brick garage and workshop was erected in its place. The state architect prepared plans which harmonized with the existing buildings and helped to supervise the work of construction. Brick from an old building in Olathe were used in an effort to match the other buildings. Despite the drought the grounds present a better appearance than they have since the state acquired the site.


     More persons visited the first capitol building than at any time since it was restored by the Union Pacific Railroad Co. and placed under the supervision of the Historical Society. During the year ending September 30, 1935, there were 15,142 visitors, as compared with 6,647 last year and 11,546 the preceding year. approximately forty percent were from other states.

     The 1935 legislature appropriated only $75 a year for the maintenance of this building. Last summer it was necessary to repaint the exterior woodwork and the box car which the caretaker uses when the weather is cold. This exhausted the fund for the year and it will now be necessary to pay maintenance costs for the balance of the year out of the Society's membership fund. The salary of the caretaker, who is required to be in attendance every day, including Sundays, was reduced by the legislature of 1933 to $37.50 a month. A request for increases in these wholly inadequate appropriations was turned down by the 1935 legislature.


     The monument commemorating the visit of Zebulon M. Pike to the Pawnee Indian camp at this site in Republic county was blown down during a storm in 1934. A bill appropriating $1,600 for its replacement was allowed by the 1935 legislature. Bids under plans drawn by the state architect were received by the Society this month and it is hoped the repairs will be completed within the next sixty days.


     County historical societies have done good work during the year in gathering and preserving historical documents and relics. An exceptional record was made by the newly organized Chase County Historical Society. In December of 1934 their first meeting was held with 154 charter members. Last July they sponsored the first annual picnic of Chase county pioneers and invited the secretary to make an address on the work of the state society. More than one thousand were in attendance.


     The Society this year began the work of locating all the historic sites in Kansas. More than 300 have been tentatively listed, and as soon as possible they will be indicated by colored pins on a large mounted map of the state. The sites in each county will be numbered, and pins bearing these numbers


     will appear on the map. A loose-leaf book attached to the map will explain the significance of each site. Red pins will indicate that the site is unmarked, and yellow pins will show that there is a marker of some kind already in place. In this way the map will serve as a progress report of the marking of these sites throughout the state.

     The task of erecting markers on the sites must be the duty of the counties and communities in which they are located. The Kansas Chamber of Commerce, the Woman's Kansas Day Club and the Kansas department of the D. A. R. are cooperating with the Society in encouraging local communities and individuals to place suitable tablets or monuments on their sites. When a sufficient number have been marked it is hoped that the state highway commission will install highway signs directing motorists to the sites. When this is done the Kansas Chamber of Commerce expects to publish a map that will be a valuable guide to all the places of historic interest in the state.

     This report must not be concluded without an expression of appreciation for the services of the members of the staff of this Society. They are uniformly courteous, loyal and conscientious. The secretary acknowledges his indebtedness to them for what has been accomplished in the past year.

Respectfully submitted,
KIRKE MECHEM, Secretary.

     Upon the conclusion of the reading of the report of the secretary it was moved by E. A. Austin that it be approved and accepted. Seconded by John S. Dean. Carried.

     The president then called for the report of the treasurer, Mrs. Mary Embree, which follows:


From October 12, 1934, to October 15, 1935

Balance, October 12, 1934 $486.83
Treasury bonds bearing 3 1/4 percent3,500.00
Proceeds from sale of 4 1/4 percent Liberty bonds placed in membership fee fund2,500.00
Life membership fees180.00
Annual membership dues161.00
Interest on bonds 277.56
Refund of money advanced for postage170.00
Refund of overpayment of bills3.23
Postage sent in for Quarterly0.25
Books purchased from the Society5.00
Refund to Society of money advanced
to pay for clerk hire
Total receipts
Traveling expenses207.10
Extra clerk hire321.00
Purchase of old books, newspapers, etc.185.00
Filing reports with secretary of state2.00


Transferred to State Savings Bank funds which had by mistake been deposited in
Miscellaneous expenses$46.25
Elliott Addressing Machine Co118.30
the National Bank of Topeka20.39
Balance on contract for painting at First Capitol14.50
Gifts to janitors13.50
Rent of safe-deposit box3.30
Expenses of annual meeting19.30
Premium on bonds of secretary and treasurer10.00
Money advanced for postage247.00
Premium on treasury notes24.78
Total expenditures$1,334.37
Balance, October 15, 19355,970.30
Balance consists of
Treasury bonds $3,500.00

Principal, Liberty bonds, $950, exchange for 2 7/8 percent treasury bonds$950.00
Balance, interest, October 12 1934 $41.34
Interest from October 12, 1934, to October 15, 1935 36.90
Total amount received$78.24
New Hampshire Historical Society, for vols. 33 and 34 of Provincial and State Papers9.00
Balance on hand October 15, 1935$69.24

Principal, Liberty bonds, $500, exchanged for 2 7/8 percent treasury bonds$500.00
Balance, interest, October 12, 1934$0.53
Interest from October 12, 1934, to October 15, 1935
Total amount received $19.47
No expenditures for the year.


Principal, Liberty bond for $1,000, converted into treasury bonds bearing 2 7/8 percent. Interest included in membership fund.
Respectfully submitted,
MARY EMBREE, Treasurer.

On motion of F. H. Hodder, seconded by John S. Dean, the treasurer's report was approved.

The president called for the report of the executive committee. In the absence of E. A. Austin, who had been appointed to act for the committee, the secretary was asked to read the report:



To the Board of Directors, Kansas State Historical Society:
OCTOBER 15,1935.
Having been appointed to examine the accounts of the treasurer, I find that her accounts agree with the state accountant's report and same is hereby approved.

EDWIN A. AUSTIN, Member of Executive Committee.

On motion of J. M. Challiss, seconded by F. H. Hodder, the report of the executive committee was approved and accepted.

In the absence of Mrs. Henry F. Mason, chairman of the nominating committee, the report of the committee was read by the secretary as follows:


October 15, 1935.
To the Board of Directors, Kansas State Historical Society:

Your committee on nominations beg leave to submit the following report for officers of the Kansas State Historical Society:

For president, F. H. Hodder Lawrence;
first vice-president, E. E. Kelley, Garden City;
second vice-president, E. A. Austin, Topeka.

Respectfully submitted,
ERNEST A. RYAN, Committee.

On motion of Thomas A. Lee, seconded by Mrs. Flora I. Godsey, the report of the nominating committee was accepted.

There being no further business for the board of directors, the meeting adjourned.



The annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society convened at 2 o'clock p. m. The meeting was called to order by the president.

The secretary read telegrams and letters from members who were unable to be present.

Thomas F. Doran gave the annual address of the president, which follows:


     I wish to thank the Kansas State Historical Society for permitting me to act as its president during the year now closing. I would indeed be lacking in gratitude should I fail to express my appreciation of the distinct honor thus conferred upon me.

     The Territory now comprising our state was carved from the plains sloping eastward from the Rocky Mountains, formerly known as the Great American desert. I fear that it is still so considered by many untutored people living east of the Allegheny mountains who read only the headlines of the daily papers, magnifying blizzards, grasshoppers, drought and dust storms, forgetting that their daily bread comes largely from the wheat fields of Kansas and that a substantial portion of their best beef and pork comes from the feed lots and pastures of this state.

     Until the first half of the nineteenth century, this land had been inhabited by Indians and by countless millions of buffalo, deer, antelope and other wild life, furnishing a happy hunting ground for these nomadic tribes who pitched their tents in its wooded valleys and roamed its boundless prairies at will. However, about the middle of the last century trappers, adventurers and pioneer settlers seeking homes, drifted into this plethoric but untried land. They began the struggle, encountered by all pioneers, against the loneliness and deprivations of the wilderness and the desert; against the brassy skies, burning droughts and hot winds of summer; against the blizzards and bleak and dreary death of winter; and, both winter and summer, living in terror of attacks from savage Indians.

     The trials of such a life can be comprehended only by those who have endured its bitterness and enjoyed its luxuries. The freedom and charm of such a life lured the pioneer and gave him a feeling of independence and happiness found nowhere else on earth. Its memory is his heritage.

     Kansas came into existence as one of the United States in 1861. Its birth was almost coincident with the beginning of the greatest and most sanguinary civil war of all history.

     The admission of Kansas into the Union and the Civil War followed a bitter and bloody border war between the forces and factions of slavery from the South and the forces and factions of antislavery from the North. They met along the border line between Missouri and Kansas in their struggle to determine by squatter sovereignty whether this state should be free or slave.

     The geographical location of Kansas and the character and conflicting ideas of its pioneer settlers made it the pivotal point of conflict between the North and South over the extension of slavery. The record of the struggles and


tragedies of the period of the Kansas-Missouri border war presents one of the most absorbing and thrilling chapters of our nation's history.

     The names of John Brown, James Montgomery, James H. Lane, George W. Brown, Gaius Jenkins, Charles Robinson, William A. Phillips, Amos A. Lawrence, Eli Thayer, and countless other Abolitionists from the North, with David R. Atchison, Benjamin F. Stringfellow, the Andersons, George W. Clarke, and C. A. Hamelton, leader in the cold-blooded massacre of eleven FreeState settlers on the Marais des Cygnes; the massacre of five Proslavery settlers at Dutch Henry's crossing of the Pottawatomie by John Brown; the marauding bands known as the "Jayhawkers," the "Red Legs" and "Bushwhackers"; the Battles of Blackjack, Hickory Point, Osawatomie, and a score of others, and in 1863 the burning of Lawrence by Quantrill and his men-all these incidents of the Border War bring up a flood of historic memories so thrilling and tragic as to constitute a story of real life unequalled in fiction. This often written and rewritten story is preserved in many forms in the records of this Society and should be read by all who are not familiar with it.

     Following the Civil War came the building of our state, physically and politically. We started with the ox wagon. We now have stream-line railroad trains, automobiles and airplanes. In the beginning, our folks had to travel six miles on foot to summon a doctor. There were no telephones. We now have telephones and radios in almost every home. In those early days, the mention of a radio would have been a just cause for the execution of the mentioner as a witch.

     In the development of this state, there have been seasons of drought and seasons of flood; years of famine and years of abundance. We have tried Republicans and Democrats; Pops and pretenders; rags and riches; Jerry Simpson and Mary Ellen Lease; poverty and Peffer. We tried whisky in the original package and then fell for absolute prohibition. Violations of this law were rigidly prosecuted for a generation, aided by Carrie Nation and her hatchet, but, despite our efforts to redeem the world Kansans still indulge in an occasional glass of 32 beer.

     Through the cycle of the seasons Kansas always has produced, and always will produce, an abundance. Indeed, the present federal administration says we produce too much, and is now paying us fabulous sums of money for what we could, but are forbidden to produce. We are told that scarcity of products will give us abundance, and that poverty will make us rich; that prosperity and happiness are found, not in economy and thrift, but in extravagance and debt. Senator Ingalls once said: "Kansas can come nearer going to Hell than any country on earth, and then redeem itself." It may even recover from this.

     We are anxious to learn, however, what Alf Landon will do if and when he becomes President of the United States. His slogan now is: "Balance the budget and don't spend what you haven't got."

     What is the answer? We are just sticking around to find out. The Historical Society is keeping the minutes and will correctly record the result.

     Following the reading of his address, the president called upon the secretary to introduce W. R. Honnell, of Kansas City, who spoke on the "Pony Express."

     In his introduction Mr. Mechem said:


     Mr. Honnell used to live in a neighborhood on the route of the Pony Express. For the past several years he has been collecting data for the preparation of this map which we have on display here. You will note that it traces the entire route covered by the Pony Express, gives the names of rids, locates all the stations and gives other pertinent information. This map has been in such demand since Mr. Honnell prepared it that he has already bee: repaid for the many hours he spent in research. He has made a most valuable contribution to the recorded history of one of the most romantic phases of the story of Kansas. It gives me pleasure to introduce Mr. Honnell.

I am not indifferent for the invitation and this opportunity of speaking to this group of men and women representing the intellectuals of Kansas. I am especially pleased with my place on the program just before Tom McNeal, for I know you will all stay to hear his address on "The Governors of Kansas," and you might all leave when he had finished.

     In northeastern Kansas twenty-five miles west of the Missouri river is the location of one of the lost towns of Kansas; a town that in the territorial days was known from the Missouri river to the Rocky Mountains. It derived its name from an Indian who was known as Kennekuk, for many years chief of the Kickapoo tribe of Indians. At this town three overland trails came together-a stagecoach and Pony Express trail from St. Joseph, Mo.; an overland freighting and stagecoach road from Atchison; and a military road from Fort Leavenworth over which Gen. Sidney Johnston moved an army of 5,000 soldiers in 1857 to quell the Mormon uprising in Utah. There were located here at this time a United States Indian agency for the Kickapoo tribe of Indians; an Indian mission, at which my parents were married in 1855; two rather commodious hotels, a large livery barn, a blacksmith shop, a wagon shop, two stores, and a post office. It is said that Abraham Lincoln stayed all night at the Baldwin House when he visited Kansas in December, 1859, so you see that Kennekuk was a place of some historical importance besides the fact that I was born there.

     On New Year's day I received an invitation from an old Kennekuk Anti-Horse Thief Association to speak at a celebration of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Pony Express. This association has degenerated from its former noble purpose of holding necktie parties into an old settlers' reunion. At this meeting were a number of people from Kansas City, Mo., among whom was Ben Majors, a son of Alexander Majors, who, with his associates, built and operated the Pony Express. He is ninety years of age, and he brought with him some of the original records kept by the Pony Express officials. I was interested in reading from a printed page the rules and regulations governing the conduct of their employees which said that they must not drink, swear, quarrel, or fight with other employees of the company. Mr. Majors now lives on the state line in a rather palatial old home built by his father in 1855. It has seven fireplaces and seven gables. Mr. Majors frequently crossed the plains with the overland freight trains of his father and was present when the golden spike was driven into the mahogany tie that linked the eastern and western divisions of the Union Pacific.

     There are three things that make a nation great-fertile soil, busy work

shops, and easy means of transportation for men and goods. The years preceding and those immediately following the Civil War were the years of the greatest activity in transportation, and no means of transportation was more romantic or more spectacular than the Pony Express which carried the mail on horseback from St. Joseph, Mo., to Sacramento City, Cal., a distance of 2,000 miles on a schedule of ten days. This reduced the time of the Butterfield stagecoaches through the south, and the Overland stagecoaches through the north by more than one half. At this time there were more than half a million people west of the Rocky Mountains isolated from all communication under thirty days, which brought about the demand and necessity for the Pony Express. It was a privately owned concern, built and operated by Russell, Majors & Waddell one of the most outstanding firms of their day, at an expense of $750,000. No firm had a higher or more deserved reputation for integrity in the fulfillment of their contracts. It operated eighteen months, and the total receipts did not exceed $500,000.

     On this trail there were 190 stations on an average of ten or twelve miles apart. It took approximately 450 horses, and 400 station keepers and helpers, of which 80 were riders, 40 always going east, and 40 always going west. All the equipment, supplies, grain and food had to be transported from the Missouri river to the various stations by ox teams. Hay cost from fifty to eighty dollars per ton, and grain cost from ten to twenty-five cents a pound. The charge for carrying mail was five dollars per one half ounce, so there weren't many love letters written at that time. The riders were chosen with the greatest care from among young lads reared on the frontier, and known to be expert horsemen, capable of thinking and acting quickly in moments of great personal danger. Their mounts were selected with no less care than the riders. Most of them were cayuses and bronchos, the same breed of horses only under a different name-a distinction without a difference. They were descendants from the horses brought to this country by Cortez and Coronado and their ancestors grazed on the steppes of Arabia. They were clean of limb, deep of chest, and outlaws in disposition, and had to be broken each time they were ridden.

     These horses were the fleetest mounts the company could buy, and were groomed and cared for, thus giving the rider an advantage over the Redskins, with their horses that subsisted entirely upon the grass. The horses of the Redskins could not maintain a long pursuit, and would soon be outdistanced by the company's horses. The riders were instructed to outrun the Indians wherever possible, and only give battle where there was no other alternative. Each rider was armed, usually carrying two revolvers, a knife and extra cartridges. The whole equipment, including saddle and bridle, did not exceed thirteen pounds. They carried the mail in what was known as a "mochila," which was a leather blanket about four feet square, to which were sewed four small mail sacks about nine by twelve inches. Two of these were in front of the rider's legs and two behind, so he was always sitting upon his mail sack.

     When arriving at a station the rider found his change of mount ready and waiting.

He quickly changed his mail sack to the fresh horse, and was on his way. These riders received salaries ranging from $80 to $125 per month,

and the station keepers and helpers received from $50 to $100 per month, including their board.

     Alex Carlisle was the first rider out of St. Joseph, Mo. He was a consumptive and the pace was too much for him, so he soon resigned. The neat rider was Johnnie Frye, who was a little Irish boy raised in Buchanan county, Missouri. He was an expert horseman before he entered this greatest school of horsemanship. The third station west of St. Joseph was Cold Springs ranch, kept by a homesteader who had three daughters, young, good-looking and vivacious. They would bake cookies, pie, and good things to eat and hand them to Johnnie Frye when he went by. They say Johnnie, on his three days' lay-over, used to go out to Cold Springs ranch to fish (I suppose that's what he went for). These girls were engaged in making a log-cabin quilt, and they desired to have Johnnie's red necktie to use as a pattern in their quilt. But Johnnie declined to accommodate them. Then the oldest girl, who was a good horsewoman, decided she would waylay Johnnie, and with her fresh horse ride along the trail beside him and grab his red necktie. After a few efforts, she was unsuccessful, and Johnnie's horse began to show greater speed than hers, so she made a last lunge at the necktie, and tore off apart of Johnnie's shirt. If you would visit today the descendants of this romantic girl, they would take great pleasure and delight in showing you the old log-cabin quilt, and indicating that a certain pattern was a part of Johnnie Frye's shirttail.

     Among the more famous riders of this trail was Jack Keetley, who rode from Rock Creek, the first station in Nebraska, to St. Joseph, Mo., and then doubled back to Rock Creek and returned to Seneca, without taking time out. He covered mere than three hundred miles of continuous riding. Another rider by the name of Jim Moore rode from Midway station in Nebraska to Old Julesburg in the northeast corner of Colorado, and returned to Midway, covering a distance of 280 miles.

     One of the longest authenticated rides was made by "Buffalo Bill," whose regular run was from Red Butte to Three Crossings, in Wyoming. When he arrived at Three Crossings the rider who should have taken the mail west had been killed, and the division superintendent sent him on to Rock Ridge, 85 miles farther. This rider who should have returned with the mail had gone out hunting during his lay-over and the Indians had raised his hair, so "Buffalo Bill" had to double back to Red Butte, a distance of 322 miles without rent, through a very rough, lonely and dangerous region.

     Another of the old pioneers in this western country, who was in the employ of the Pony Express, was "Wild Bill" Hickok, who had charge of the station at Rock Creek, Neb. During the time he worked there he and his helper engaged in a fight with one of the local bad men and his associates, and are alleged to have killed four of them. They were tried for murder, but were later acquitted. Hickok was a remarkable marksman, and is alleged to have already killed forty-three men when he was appointed marshal of Abilene, these killings, however, being in the line of duty.

     Another interesting story concerning "Buffalo Bill" was this: On one of his rides he had to carry a large amount of money, and being fully aware that numerous outlaws and thieves lurked in the region through which he had to pass, this courageous rider used two "mochilas," placing the one containing the valuables under his saddle, and the other, containing nothing but worth


     less paper, over the saddle. After he had gone but a few miles, two men jumped out from ambush and demanded the sack, covering him with their guns. "Buffalo Bill" gave them the worthless sack, and as they relaxed their watch on him, he shot and killed one of the men and the other ran away. He got back the other "mochila," although its contents were valueless.

     There are many others who performed feats of great courage and endurance in getting the mail through on time, which had become to these young riders a religious duty.

     Some of the beneficial results of this romantic and thrilling enterprise are as follows. It saved California to the Union, and proved that a line of communication could be maintained during all seasons of the year from the Missouri river to the Pacific coast. It encouraged the building of a telegraph line and hastened the completion of the Union Pacific Railroad.

     The Pony Express started on the evening of the third of April, 1860, from St. Joseph, Mo., going west, and from Sacramento, Cal., going east. It continued until the completion of a telegraph line eighteen months later, which put the Pony Express out of business, for as swift as they were, they were not able to compete with lightning. This romantic and spectacular event in the early transportation and development of the great new West has increased in interest through the passing years. Having been born and reared on this trail, I have always had a sympathetic interest in its events, which led me to endeavor to reproduce this trail on a map, 24" x 48". This map gives the names of all the riders, alphabetically arranged, practically all of the 190 stations, as well as the Oregon trail from South Pass to the Northwest. It shows numerous illustrated incidents of the trail and a correct location of the Santa Fe trail as taken from the original survey by the government in 1825. Their field notes say that they crossed into Kansas nine miles south of where the Kaw river empties into- the Missouri river. The map shows the location of Council Grove, Fort Zarah, Fort Dodge, Cimarron crossing, Bent's fort, and old Pawnee Rock, the cornerstone of many of the tragedies of the plains. Many of the public schools, libraries, universities and historical societies have availed themselves of this map for the information it contains.

     These ponies and their riders were the air mail of 1860 and 1861. They traveled 650,000 miles, or twenty-six times around the world. They rendered faithful service to the people on the far Pacific coast, bringing them tidings from their friends and loved ones far away; tidings of the nation's struggle for freedom, and of battles won and battles lost.

     Like a weaver's shuttle, they glided to and fro until the task was done. Through winter and summer, sunshine and storm, day and night, they pressed on across swollen streams, wind-swept plains, and desert waste, through warring bands of blood-thirsty savages, renegade outlaws, stampeding herds of buffaloes, and droves of hungry coyotes, the ghouls of the prairie, always seeking whom they might devour. On they went, through the dark and stormy nights, without even a friendly star to guide them on their lonely way, singing their love songs to the rhythm of their galloping ponies, with the ever-present danger of their ponies stepping into badger holes or prairie dog dens, throwing both horse and rider, often crippling the ponies. Then it became the painful duty of the rider to dispatch his pony as a friendly act, rather than to leave him to be devoured alive by the hungry coyotes. Quickly removing his "mochila"

containing its precious burden, he trudged on afoot to the next station where a fresh mount sent the mail on towards its destination.

     When the full-blooded Indian historian writes the story of the swift decline of his people and of the civilization that he loved and was centuries in building, he will date it from the advent of the Pony Express and the completion of the telegraph line and the Union Pacific Railroad.

     The principal address was made by Thomas A. McNeal, of Topeka. He was introduced by President Doran, who said:


Now, members and friends, I wouldn't be unkind enough to our preceding speaker to say that the best always comes last, but we have with us the greatest reporter and finest story-teller in Kansas, and probably the most beloved citizen of our great commonwealth. I know that is a very broad statement, but had you been with us last night, with the other gentlemen who attended the eighty-second birthday meeting held in honor of the next speaker, you would realize the truth of what I have just said.

     I am now living on borrowed time. The Scriptural span of life, which would have ended my career three years ago, has passed, and in all that time I have never seen such whole-hearted, honest and moving tribute paid to any man as was paid to the next speaker at that meeting. I want to say to him that, like Cleopatra, "age cannot wither him, nor custom stale, his infinite variety."

     It is with the greatest pleasure that I introduce to you our most wonderful story-teller, greatest writer, and most beloved and honored citizen, Tom A. McNeal.

According to the old theological concept you can divide humanity into two groups-the sheep and the goats, yet I have known quite a lot of goats who got mixed in with the sheep, and a few sheep who were mingled with the goats. No man I have ever known was absolutely honest, and, on the other hand, while I have known a number of damned scoundrels, I knew none who was wholly dishonest. I have never known any man who was wholly truthful, nor any man who was entirely a liar. There is no such thing as living up to an oath to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. Nobody ever did that on all occasions and under all circumstances and if he did he would be a damned fool, and would very likely get himself into a lot of trouble.

     I was put down on your program to talk on "Governors of Kansas."

     Now, I don't know that there is so very much inspiration or interest in that particular subject, but it so happens that I have met, shaken hands with and talked a little with every governor of the state of Kansas. It happened in this way. In 1886, Kansas held a twenty-fifth anniversary celebration of the admission of Kansas into the Union. Gov. John A. Martin was then the chief executive. All the governors who had served up to that time were still alive. They met here in Topeka, and I happened to be in Topeka as a member of the legislature, so I met all of these governors, and I have known all of the governors serving since that time.

     The first governor of Kansas was Charles Robinson. He was born in the state of Massachusetts in 1818, was educated to be a doctor, but his eyes failed him and he was terribly discouraged-thought his life was going to be a failure. In 1949 there was tremendous excitement throughout the country, because a

miller by the name of Sutter discovered gold in his mill race near Sacramento, Cal. Immediately men of all classes and conditions began a race toward that land of promise, hoping to get a share of the precious yellow metal. They went by horseback, by boat, by wagon, and by stage; some crossed the Rocky Mountains and some sailed around Cape Horn. Many of them died, but a good many of them got to California, and so Doctor Robinson decided he would go to California.

     He took what was the easiest but the longest way 'round, going by boat around Cape Horn to San Francisco. When he arrived at San Francisco a marvelous physical change had taken place in Doctor Robinson. He had gained much weight, and being a large man, standing about 6 feet, 2 inches in height, he was really a magnificent looking fellow.

     In fact, he had changed almost as much on that sea voyage as did an old man I heard of who came out to Kansas, and let our wonderful climate work on him. I am going to relate that particular instance because it shows what Kansas can do.

     There was an old gentleman in my native state who was ninety years of age; he had lost his sight couldn't hear any too well, had lost all of his teeth, and didn't have enough hair left to make a collarette for a katydid. He had the rheumatism terribly bad, in fact he was stove up in every way, shape and form. He had a son who had settled out in western Kansas, and the old man took a notion that he would like to see his son before he died, and, as the old man had considerable property, the son was rather anxious to see him before he died. Well, the old man went out to see his son, and his people began to hear from him. In six months he had entirely recovered from his rheumatism, and in a year he had recovered his hearing and eyesight, and raised a new set of teeth had a new crop of hair, and had joined the Boy Scouts, and a year and a half later had become the most proficient buck and wing dancer in the whole country roundabout. Then his folks didn't hear from him any more, and the son had apparently moved away from there, so they wrote to the postmaster, and asked him to tell them what had become of old man Badger. The postmaster answered that he regretted to tell them that the old man was dead. He had gone out with the Boy Scouts and taken an active part in most of their youthful sports, had contracted infantile paralysis and died as a result.

     Going back to Doctor Robinson; when he arrived there it was to find that there was almost a war going on in California. The lands there were held almost altogether under Spanish grants. And all this influx of gold seekers took gold digging without having leases from those holding the land, and went to digging gold, or panning rather than digging. The authorities of California tried to arrest these squatters; to eject them from their diggings. Doctor Robinson joined the squatters, led them against those who sought to eject them, and there was a battle. So, while the landholders had a semblance of authority, they could not enforce it, but they indicted our first governor for treason. He stayed there for two or three years, and then went back home, where he became interested in any question arising which appealed to his sense of adventure. About that time there was a tremendous struggle going on between the forces of freedom and slavery. Massachusetts had an emigrant aid

society, and he entered heart and soul into the struggle which was eventually to lead to the Civil War.

     He came to Kansas, with his young wife, in 1854, and became a leader in that movement. He was a natural born leader, but the forces of slavery were too strong for him, and so again Doctor Robinson was arrested, charged with treason, put in jail at Lecompton, and kept there for, I think, four months. He regained his freedom when there came a change in the administration, the Free State forces having the upper hand.

     Then came the Wyandotte constitutional convention, with its constitution, still our constitution, which was ratified by a considerable majority of the citizens of Kansas. This seemed to be admitted at Washington to be a fair election, but Kansas was not yet admitted to the Union. The Southern senators had not withdrawn from the senate, and they did not propose to ratify the admission of a free state into the Union, so Kansas was left hanging in the air. An election had been called under this new constitution, and Governor Robinson was the first governor elected. He was elected for a two-year term, but it was almost a year before the Southern senators got out of the senate. Buchanan was still sitting in the presidential chair, apparently not knowing what to do. I never believed that James Buchanan was a traitor to his country, but he might just as well have been, so far as results were concerned.

     On the 29th day of January, 1861, Kansas was made a state. Robinson had been elected more than a year before that time, but when the word came from Washington that Kansas was finally admitted to the Union, he, as governor, called the legislature into session on the 26th day of March, 1861. Already the skies were overcast with the dark clouds of war. On account of this delay in taking the oath of office by Governor Robinson, there resulted one of the first and greatest cases in our supreme court. It was claimed that his term had expired at the close of the two-year term for which he was elected, although he had not actually been inducted into office until more than a year after his election. The case was decided in favor of Robinson, and he served out his full two years. He had trouble all the time. There was the Robinson faction and the Lane faction. The state was poor, and bonds were issued with a provision that they were not to be sold for less than eighty cents on the dollar. It was claimed that the governor, secretary of state, also named Robinson, through a man named Stevens, and the state auditor sold these bonds for about fifty cents on the dollar defrauding the state out of thousands of dollars. It finally resulted in the impeachment of the governor, the secretary of state, and the auditor.

     One of the members of the committee on impeachment became the second governor of Kansas. They were all tried before the senate. Robinson was acquitted on all counts. The secretary of state and auditor were convicted, but these proceedings ruined Robinson's career, so in 1863 a groceryman named Thomas Carney, more often called Tom Carney, became governor. He was born in my own state of Ohio in 1827. There was nothing striking about him. I guess he was a pretty good business man. His administration was troublous, of course, but along with his many enemies he had many friends. He tried to be renominated but failed, and in 1865 Samuel J. Crawford became the third governor of Kansas.

He was born on the 15th day of April, 1835, and came to Kansas in 1858 settling at Garnett. When the war broke out he became a captain in the Second Kansas infantry, and fought with Lyon at Wilson's creek. He was a great soldier, and his book, Kansas in the Sixties, would indicate that he had a fine sense of military strategy. He was afterwards commissioned colonel of the U. S. Eighty-third Colored infantry. At that time it was a very unpopular thing for a white man to officer a colored regiment. The South had raised the black flag against them, and issued an order that no quarter was to be given to officers or men of colored regiments. When Colonel Crawford learned of that order it so happened that he had captured quite a number of officers belonging to the Southern army. He sent word to General Hindman, of the Southern army, saying, "I wish to respectfully tell you that I have (I have forgotten how many) men and officers of your command here as my prisoners, and unless that order that no quarter be given officers or men of colored regiments is rescinded, I intend to stand these men up and shoot them."

     These officers and men didn't want to be shot; the Southern army didn't want these prisoners shot, and after a great deal of blustering, the order of no quarter was canceled. It was said that Governor Crawford had the best trained regiment in the western army. How true that was I do not know.

     Came 1864, and the country was still in a state of war. In the fall of that year, September, the time was approaching for the election of another governor. The war was pretty nearly over, and without his solicitation, possibly without his knowledge, Colonel Crawford was nominated by the Republicans for governor, and was elected in the fall of 1864, as the third governor of Kansas. He was the youngest governor that ever served in this state, being only twenty-nine years of age.

     He was a magnificent looking soldier; a man of great courage and intelligence. The state was in a chaotic state financially, the people were poor; few crops had been raised, hardly more than enough to keep the people alive. Armies had marched across the state cleaning up everything as they went; in addition to that, heretofore peaceful tribes of Indians went on the warpath, with the result that more than 100 peaceful citizens in western Kansas were slaughtered in a most barbarous manner. The war was not yet over, and as I have said, the state was poor and ravaged, and yet out of it all Governor Crawford must be given credit for laying the foundation of all the great institutions of the state which have become so efficient and powerful in Kansas. He founded the university, the penitentiary, and the beginnings of our great agricultural college. In addition to that he did a great work in bringing peace to the border. He was continually after the government to help him to bring about peace. Sherman and Sheridan helped him, and he gave himself heart and soul to bringing about peace between the Indians and settlers.

     In 1868, near the close of his second term, he resigned to take the position of colonel of the Nineteenth Kansas and led it to the border in one of the most thrilling campaigns ever made. Governor Crawford always felt that he was not. given the credit he should have had for bringing an end to the Indian troubles, and in the calling of the great peace council, near where my old town of Medicine Lodge was afterward located, where 15,000 Indians gathered, all full of hostility and treachery. The story goes, and I suppose it is true, that Governor Crawford noticed that the Indians far outnumbered the government troops and he didn't like the way the Indians were behaving. He sug-

gested that the whole command form a hollow square as the best means of repelling any attack, and that when the Indians saw that they decided they wouldn't try to attack.

     Along with Crawford there was elected a Methodist, or he may have been a Presbyterian, preacher named Nehemiah Green, as lieutenant governor. You know people do not pay much attention to a lieutenant governor-hardly anybody knows who he is. I once asked one of our former lieutenant governors whether he had heard about that mysterious case near Buffalo, N. Y., and he said he hadn't, so I said, "Well, they found a man dead up there, and they couldn't find a thing upon him to identify him, so they said that probably he was a lieutenant governor of some state." I think he didn't like that story a bit.

     That was the only case in Kansas where a lieutenant governor became a governor during the term of the man who was elected governor, and he was the only preacher who became a governor.

     After him came James M. Harvey. He was elected in that year, 1868. He served four years, and then he was elected to the United States senate. He was the first governor to go from the governor's chair to the United States senate. He stayed there three years and then he was knocked out by Senator Plumb, who served about seventeen years.

     Governor Harvey was born, I think, in the state of Virginia. He was a farmer and lived, I believe, in Riley county. He was succeeded by Thomas A. Osborn, who was born in Pennsylvania in the year 1836. He moved to Doniphan county and was elected to the state senate from there. I don't know how he got into Leavenworth, but he was there in 1872. He served for four years as governor, and was succeeded by George T. Anthony. Anthony had everything that it takes to make a great governor except diplomacy and tact. He was a man of great ability. I loved him. He was one of the greatest men I ever knew, but he would offend a politician by too plain speech. The result was that he served only one term. He was born in New York in 1824. He served two years and then his enemies, led by his own cousin, Col. Dan Anthony, defeated him for renomination. There was a bitter feud between these two powerful cousins. They hated each other as long as they lived, and how much longer I don't know, but anyway they hated each other. Col. Dan Anthony, as editor of the Leavenworth Times, marshalled his forces for John A. Martin, but he didn't have quite enough force to succeed in getting the nomination, so George T. Anthony, after battling for several days, threw his influence behind John P. St. John and nominated him.

     Then started a new page in the history of the state. John P. St. John was called by his enemies "the man with the painted mustache:" He had what was called a walrus mustache and they claimed he dyed it. Maybe he did. It was his mustache and I suppose it was his right and privilege to dye it if he wanted to. He was a stalwart, rugged man, six feet or more in height, and a man of great courage and uprightness. He had a son who had been ruined by liquor and he was bitterly opposed to its sale.

     He intended when he took the governor's chair to seek the strengthening of the liquor law, but did not ask for constitutional prohibition. His enemies thought they could checkmate him by proposing a prohibitory amendment to the constitution, passed the resolution in the senate but expected to defeat it


in the house. They didn't think that the people would vote for a prohibition amendment if submitted, nor did they believe that the lower house of the legislature would vote to submit such an amendment to a vote of the people. They were fooled on both counts. After an intense campaign, John P. St. John was reelected as governor, and the liquor amendment carried by about 8,000 majority, so St. John became the head of the prohibition movement, not only in Kansas, but in the United States. The bolt that had been launched to kill his political career was like a boomerang in its reaction on his enemies. However, he had raised up a mighty flock of enemies and they were not idle. When St. John was foolish enough to aspire to a third term they raised the cry of usurpation-claimed that he was disrupting the state, with the consequence that George W. Glick became the first Democratic governor of Kansas.

     Glick served two years and then the state swung back to the Republican party, and John A. Martin achieved the ambition of his life by being elected governor. He was secretary of the Wyandotte convention when only twenty years of age. When the war broke out he became the colonel of the Eighth Kansas infantry, and made a magnificent record in the war. He was only twenty-two years old when he and his regiment made a record at Chickamauga, and in many other battles he proved his valor and courage as a soldier and leader of men. When he became governor he rather leaned to the antiprohibition side, but before he got through with his four years of service he was one of the most intense prohibitionists I ever saw. He always felt, however, a little disappointed; he felt that he was through-that life was over for him. He had tasted the intoxicating wine of power and life seemed very flat and tasteless afterwards. I think he died long before his time, as he was a comparatively young man.

     He was succeeded by a lawyer from Independence, Lyman U. Humphrey, elected by a large majority, about 80,000. Before he got through his first term it was nip and tuck whether he would ever get a second term, and his enemies claimed that tuck had it. Humphrey was reelected by a small plurality. The first governor of Kansas, Charles Robinson, had left his party and became the leader of the independent party which called themselves the "Free Silver and Anti-Prohibition Party." He was nominated for governor by a coalition of antiprohibition Republicans and Democrats who wouldn't go with the Populists. He received about 90,000 votes, most of which would have gone to Willets, so Humphrey was reelected.

     To show you how complete was the political revolution of 1890, in 1889 there were not enough Democrats to hold a caucus in the lower house of the legislature and two years afterwards there were hardly enough Republicans left in the lower house to hold a caucus. The house was overwhelmingly Populist. In 1892 L. D. Lewelling, a school teacher from Iowa, was elected governor by a small majority. Then came the legislative war when the question was raised as to whether we had a Populist legislature under the rule of J. M. Dunsmore or a Republican legislature under the rule of George L. Douglass of Wichita. Well, that is all history and you know that eventually the "Bald Hornet" Dunsmore and his crowd were ousted.

     In 1894 the Republicans nominated Edmund N. Morrill, of Hiawatha. He was born in Maine in 1834, and was a fine man, but he lacked the chief qualification for a governor, he couldn't say no. A man would come to him and

ask for a job, and he would put his arm around his shoulder and tell him that he was a mighty good fellow and he didn't know any one he would rather give a job to than him. And the man would go away, sure that he had it, and the next day he would learn that some one else had the job. Well, of course, Morrill got to be known as something of a hypocrite, and although most of us are hypocrites to some extent, we don't like the other fellow to be one. So the result was that the governorship in 1896 was in the name of John W. Leedy, of Coffey county. He was nominated for governor at the Abilene convention and one of our most eloquent speakers of that day, Ed. C. Little, made a stirring speech pledging his support after the manner of Ruth to her mother-in-law, "Whither Thou goest I will go; where Thou liest I will lie; Thy people shall be my people and where Thou diest there will I be buried." However, Ed didn't lie with the Populists very long and I know he didn't die with them. John W. Leedy served two years and was defeated by W. E. Stanley, of Wichita. He was a fine chap, able to trim his sails and make himself popular with the church people and with the politicians, better than any other man I have known. He could talk to the Sunday schools and they believed he was a prohibitionist, and when he spoke officially he kept on both sides of the question.

     Following him came Willis J. Bailey. After serving two years Bailey was defeated for renomination by a newspaperman, E. W. Hoch, who was a native of Kentucky, born in 1849. I happened to be for a while his secretary and I know he had plenty of troubles.

     After him came the misnamed redheaded governor. He was not a redhead, he was flaxen polled, but he acted like a redhead most of the time, Walter Roscoe Stubbs. Just about that time along came the Bull Moose movement, led by the immortal Teddy Roosevelt, and this division in the Republican party resulted in the defeat of Stubbs for the U. S. senate.

     George H. Hodges, the second Democrat to be elected governor, served two years, and was defeated by Arthur Capper, who served four years, and then went to the United States senate and is now serving his third term there.

     After Capper came Henry J. Allen, who managed to stir up among labor unions a very intense hatred. He served four years, and then came a farmer from Bourbon, Jonathan M. Davis, a Democrat, who defeated our Republican candidate, W. Y. Morgan, by about 20,000 votes. Davis served two years and was succeeded by Ben S. Paulen, who served four years. He was not born in Kansas, but he told me that if he had it to do over again he would have waited and been born in Kansas. He went out just as popular as when he became governor.

     And then came Clyde M. Reed, an able man, but one who could make more men mad without half trying than any one I have ever known. Reed served two years and then was defeated by Harry H. Woodring, a Democrat who is now our present assistant secretary of war.

     And last, but far from least, we have our present governor, Alf M. Landon, who actually has a chance to be elected president of the United Staten.

     Of those twenty-six men I have mentioned, all are dead except Hodges, Capper, Allen, Davis, Paulen, Reed, Woodring and the present acting governor. Eighteen of them have passed away. Of those that are left Sen. Arthur Capper leads in point of age, being seventy years old last July; Hodges will be seventy

next February; Allen sixty-eight next September, Paulen sixty-seven next July, and the others are just kids.

     I don't know, ladies and gentlemen, whether this has bored you or not. It may have seemed to you more like a somewhat remarkable feat of memory than anything else. The governors I have known have been nearly all good men who did, I think, the best they knew, and guided the state through troublous times to the best of their ability. And through those troublous times and good times our state has grown, but it has grown through many hardships and vicissitudes. I have lived here for fifty-six years and have seen it in all its phases. I have seen it dry, so dry that you had to prime the mourners at a funeral so they could shed tears for the departed. I have seen the wind blow so hard that any intelligent dog when he wanted to bark turned away from the wind because if he turned the other way it would have turned him inside out. In fact, I knew of this kind of an accident. In the midst of a terrific wind storm a dog which loved to bark, forgot his caution and turned and barked right into the wind, and the wind went down his throat and promptly turned him inside out, and one of his enemies got at him and chewed up his insides. That dog didn't get over it for months, even when he was turned back the right way, and he never seemed quite the same dog afterwards.

     This is Kansas, the poorest state when it is poor, and the richest when it is rich; whose people are, as a rule, brave and loyal citizens. There is no state in the Union that comes nearer being inhabited by simon pure Americans than this our own state of Kansas. This fact gives me new faith in humanity-new faith in our country, faith that this republic of ours is not going down but will go on and on and our children's children will still live under its starry banner, enjoying the blessings of its freedom and its opportunities.

     At the conclusion of Mr. McNeal's address Mr. Doran said:

     After listening to Mr. McNeal's address I know you feel that it justified every word I said about Tom, and inspires me to make another speech.

     It is from such men as Tom McNeal, and our early pioneers, from the worthy men who have governed this state, who have been a part of its history and have added luster to its already bright name, that we learn to appreciate, to know the truth of the motto on our great seal of the state, "Through difficulties to the stars."

     I would like to go on and on forever, telling you about the progress of Kansas; about its wonderful people; about its wonderful climate, about the joy of living in this unique state, and I want to say here and now that one of the greatest joys of my life is to have known and loved Tom McNeal, and I am glad to have this opportunity of saying it to him, before the hand of death has been laid upon our lives. Praise of the dead is most fitting, but falls on deaf ears; praise of the living finds willing and open ears, and brings a glow to the heart of the giver.

     President Doran then called for the report of the committee On nominations for directors. In the absence of the chairman, Mrs. Henry F. Mason, the secretary, read the report as follows:

OCTOBER 15, 1935.
To the Kansas State Historical Society:

Your committee on nominations beg leave to submit the following report and recommendations for directors of the Society for the term of three years ending October, 1938:

Aitchison, R. T., Wichita.Malin, James C., Lawrence.
Capper, Arthur, Topeka.Mason, Mrs. Henry F., Topeka.
Carson, F. L., Wichita.Moore, Russell, Wichita.
Challiss, J. M., Atchison.Morehouse, Geo. P., Topeka.
Dawson, John S., Hill City.Price, Ralph R., Manhattan.
Doerr, Mrs. Laura P. V., Larned.Raynesford, H. C., Ellis.
Doran, Thos. F., Topeka.Russell, W. J., Topeka.
Ellenbecker, John G., Marysville.Smith, Wm. E., Wamego.
Hobble, Frank A., Dodge City.Solander, Mrs. T. T., Osawatomie.
Hodder, F. H., Lawrence.Spratt, O. M., Baxter Springs.
Hogin, John C., Belleville.Stevens, Caroline F., Lawrence.
Huggins, Wm. L., Emporia.Thompson, W. F., Topeka.
Johnston, Mrs. W. A., Topeka.Van Tuyl, Mrs. Effie H., Leavenworth.
Knapp, Dallas W., Coffeyville.Walker, Mrs. Ida M., Norton.
Lilleston, W. F., Wichita.White, William Allen, Emporia.
McLean, Milton R., Topeka.Wilson, John H., Salina.
McNeal, Thos. A., Topeka.

Respectfully submitted,
E. E. KELLEY, Committee.

     On motion of J. W. Berryman, seconded by E. A. Austin, these directors were unanimously elected for the term ending October, 1938.

     President Doran then called for the report of the Shawnee Mission Indian Historical Society. The report was read by the secretary. On motion of J. W. Berryman, seconded by E. A. Austin, it was voted to accept and file the report.

     Mr. Doran called for the report of the Chase County Historical Society, which was given verbally by its president, C. W. Hawkins. President Doran said, "This splendid report will be accepted and approved and filed in the records of the state Society, and it is so ordered."

     President Doran called for the report of the Riley County Historical Society. Mrs. Caroline A. Smith of Manhattan responded and read the report which had been written by Mrs. George Failyer. At the conclusion of the reading of the report President Doran said, "We are very glad to have this excellent report. It is accepted and will be filed in the records of the state Society."


     President Doran called for the report of the Pawnee County Historical Society. This report was given verbally by Mrs. Laura P. V. Doerr of Larned. At the conclusion of Mrs. Doerr's report President Doran said, "We thank you, and your report, when written, will be filed in the records of the state Society."

     There being no further business, the annual meeting of the Society adjourned.


     The afternoon meeting of the board of directors was called to order by the president. He asked for a re-reading of the report of the nominating committee for the officers of the Society. The following were then unanimously elected:

For a one-year term:
F. H. Hodder, president;
E. E. Kelley, first vice-president;
E. A. Austin, second vice-president.

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned.

KIRKE MECHEM, Secretary.

Beeks, Charles E., Baldwin.Morrison, T. F., Chanute.
Beezley, George F., Girard.Norris, Mrs. George, Arkansas City.
Bonebrake, Fred B., Topeka.O'Neil, Ralph T., Topeka.
Bowlus, Thomas H., Iola.Philip, Mrs. W. D., Hays.
Browne, Charles H., Horton.Rankin, Robert C., Lawrence.
Dean, John S., Topeka.Ruppenthal, J. C., Russell.
Embree, Mrs. Mary, Topeka.Ryan, Ernest A., Topeka.
Gray, John M., Kirwin.Sawtell, James H., Topeka.
Harger, Charles M., Abilene. Simons, W. C., Lawrence.
Harvey, Mrs. Isabelle C., Topeka.Soller, August, Washington.
Haucke, Frank, Council Grove.Stanley, W. E., Wichita.
Kagey, Charles L., Wichita.Stone, Robert, Topeka.
Kinkel, John M., Topeka.Trembly, W. B., Kansas City.
Lee, Thomas Amory, Topeka.Walker, B. P., Topeka.
McFarland, Helen M., Topeka.Woodward, Chester, Topeka.
McFarland, Horace E., Junction City.
Malone, James, Topeka.



. .
Austin, E. A., Topeka.Lillard, T. M., Topeka.
Berryman, J. W., Ashland.Lindsley, H. K., Wichita.
Brigham, Mrs. Lalla M., Council Grove.McCarter, Mrs. Margaret Hill, Topeka.
Brokaw, C. L. Kansas City, Kan.Mercer J. H., Topeka.
Bumgardner, Edward, Lawrence.Oliver, Hannah P., Lawrence.
Correll, Charles M., Manhattan.Patrick, Mrs. Mae C., Satanta.
Davis, John W., Dodge City.Reed, Clyde M., Parsons.
Devious, Jess C., Dodge City. Fay,Rupp, Mrs. W. E., Hillsboro.
Mrs. Mamie Axline, Pratt.Scott, Charles F., Iola.
Frizell, E. E., Larned.Schultz, Floyd B., Clay Center.
Godsey, Mrs. Flora R., Emporia.Shirer, H. L., Topeka.
Hall, Mrs. Carrie A., Leavenworth.Van de Mark, M. V. B., Concordia.
Hamilton, Clad, Topeka.Wark, George H., Caney.
Haskin, S. B., Olathe.Wheeler, Mrs. B. R., Topeka.
Hegler, Ben F., Wichita.Woolard, Sam F., Wichita.
Jones, Horace, Lyons.Wooster, Lorraine E., Salina
Kelley, E. E., Garden City

. .
Aitchison, R. T., Wichita. Malin, James C., Lawrence.
Capper, Arthur, Topeka. Mason, Mrs. Henry F., Topeka.
Carson, F. L., Wichita. Moore, Russell, Wichita.
Challiss, J. M., Atchison. Morehouse, Geo. P., Topeka.
Dawson, John S., Hill City. Price, Ralph R., Manhattan.
Doerr, Mrs. Laura P. V., Larned. Raynesford, H. C., Ellis.
Doran, Thos. F., Topeka. Russell, W. J., Topeka.
Ellenbecker, John G., Marysville. Smith, Wm. E., Wamego.
Hobble, Frank A., Dodge City. Solander, Mrs. T. T., Osawatomie.
Hodder, F. H., Lawrence. Spratt, O. M., Baxter Springs.
Hogin, John C., Belleville. Stevens, Caroline F., Lawrence.
Huggins, Wm. L., Emporia. Thompson, W. F., Topeka.
Johnston, Mrs. W. A., Topeka. Van Tuyl, Mrs. Effie H., Leavenworth.
Knapp, Dallas W., Coffeyville. Walker, Mrs. Ida M., Norton.
Lilleston, W. F., Wichita. White, William Allen, Emporia.
McLean, Milton R., Topeka. Wilson, John H., Salina
McNeal, Thos. A., Topeka

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