Kansas: Its Interior and Exterior Life by Sara Robinson



Aug. 10. -- "All day the low hung clouds have dropped their garnered fullness down."

People begin to come in from the country, miles distant, to the Convention, which is to be held on the 14th and 15th.

On the 2d of July, the Legislature, elected by Missourians, assembled, as ordered by Gov. Reeder, at Pawnee, more than one hundred miles from the border. Mr. Conway, of the sixth district, resigned his seat in the council, on the ground that, having been elected by illegal votes, this pretended Legislature had no claim to that character. The members of the House chosen at the new election, ordered by Gov. Reeder, were deprived of their seats.

On the 4th, the Legislature passed an act, removing the seat of government to the Shawnee Mission, two or three miles from Westport. Gov. Reeder vetoed it, as inconsistent with the organic act.

On the 16th, the Legislature re-assembled at that place, and on the 22nd, D. Houston, the only free-state member of the Assembly, resigned his seat, not only on the ground that the Legislature was an illegal body, but that, by its removal from Pawnee, it had nullified itself.

The laws passed by the Shawnee Legislature are of an intolerant, Draconian character, allowing to the people of this territory no rights. They are copied from the Missouri statute book, with the exception of those relating to the qualifications of voters of the Legislative Assembly, and the slave code, which are made especially to crush the people of this territory. They allow them no voice in those matters of government which most concern them.

The following is taken verbatim from the "Laws of the Territory of Kansas," furnished to Congress, on its requisition, by President Pierce, and printed as "Exec. Doc. 234."

1. Persons raising insurrection punishable with death.
2. Aider punishable with death.
3. What constitutes felony.
4. Punishment for decoying away slaves.
5. Punishment for assisting slaves.
6. What deemed grand larceny.
7. What deemed felony.
8. Punishment for concealing slaves.
9. Punishment for rescuing slaves from officer.
10. Penalty on officer who refuses to assist in capturing slaves.

11. Printing of incendiary documents.
12. What deemed a felony.
13. Who are qualified as jurors.
"Be it enacted by the Governor and Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Kansas, as follows:
"SECTION 1. That every person, bond or free, who shall be convicted of actually raising a rebellion or insurrection of slaves, free Negroes or mulattos, in this territory, shall suffer death.
"SECTION 2. Every free person who shall aid or assist in any rebellion or insurrection of slaves, free negroes or mulattos, or shall furnish arms, or do any overt act in furtherance of such rebellion or insurrection, shall suffer death.
"SECTION 3. If any free person shall, by speaking, writing or printing, advise, persuade or induce, any slaves to rebel, conspire against or murder any citizen of this territory, or shall bring into, print, write, publish, or circulate, or cause to be brought into, printed, written, published or circulated, or shall knowingly aid or assist in the bringing into, printing, writing, publishing or circulating, in this territory, any book, paper, magazine, pamphlet or circular, for the purpose of exciting insurrection, rebellion, revolt or conspiracy the part of the slaves, free negroes or mulattos, against the citizens of the territory or any part of them, such person shall be guilty of felony, and suffer death.
"SECTION 4. If any person shall entice, decoy or carry away out of this territory any slave belonging to another, with intent to deprive the owner thereof of the services of such slave, or with intent to effect or procure the freedom of such slave, he shall be adjudged guilty of grand larceny, and, on conviction thereof, shall suffer death, or be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than ten years.
"SECTION 5. If any person shall aid or assist in enticing, decoying, or persuading, or carrying away, or sending out of this territory, any slave belonging to another, with intent to procure or effect the freedom of such slave, or with intent to deprive the owner thereof of the services of such slave, he shall be adjudged guilty of grand larceny, and, on conviction thereof, shall suffer death, or be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than ten years.
"SECTION 6. If any person shall entice, decoy or carry away out of any state or other territory of the United States, any slave belonging to another, with intent to procure or effect the freedom of such slave, or to deprive the owner thereof of the services of such slave, and shall bring such slave into this territory, he shall be adjudged guilty of grand larceny, in the same manner as if such slave had been enticed, decoyed or carried away out of this territory, and in such case the larceny may be charged to have been committed in any county of this territory, into or through which such slave shall have been brought by such person, and, on conviction thereof, the person offending shall suffer death, or be imprisoned at hard labor for not less than ten years.
"SECTION 7. If any person shall entice, persuade or induce any slave to escape from the service of his master or owner in this territory, or shall aid or assist any slave in escaping from the service of his master or owner, or shall aid, assist, harbor or conceal, any slave who may have escaped from the service of his master or owner, he shall be deemed guilty of felony, and punished by imprisonment at hard labor for a term of not less than five years.
"SECTION 8. If any person in this territory shall aid or assist, harbor or conceal, any slave who has escaped from the service of his master or owner, in another state or territory, such person shall be punished in like manner as if such slave had escaped from the service of his master or owner in this territory.
"SECTION 9. If any person shall resist any officer while attempting to arrest any slave that may have escaped from the service of his master or owner, or shall rescue such slave when in custody of any officer or other person, or shall entice, persuade, aid or assist, such slave to escape from the custody of any officer or other person who may have such slave in custody, whether such slave have escaped from the service of his master or owner in this territory, or in any other state or territory, the person so offending shall be guilty of felony, and punished by imprisonment at hard labor for a term of not less than two years.
"SECTION 10. If any marshal, sheriff or constable, or the deputy of any such officer, shall, when required by any person, refuse to aid or assist in the capture of any slave that may have escaped from the service of his master or owner, whether such slave shall have escaped from his master or owner in this territory, or any state or other territory, such officer shall be fined in a sum of not less than one hundred nor more than five hundred dollars.
"SECTION 11. If any person print, write, introduce into, publish or circulate, or cause to be brought into, printed, written, published or circulated, or shall knowingly aid or assist in bringing into, printing, publishing or circulating within this territory, any book, paper, pamphlet, magazine, handbill or circular, containing any statements, arguments, opinions, sentiment, doctrine, advice or innuendo, calculated to produce a disorderly, dangerous or rebellious disaffection among the slaves in this territory, or to induce such slaves to escape from the service of their masters, or to resist their authority, he shall be guilty of felony, and be punished by imprisonment and hard labor for a term not less than five years.
"SECTION 12. If any free person, by speaking or by writing, assert or maintain that persons have not the right to hold slaves in this territory, or shall introduce into this territory, print, publish, write, circulate, or cause to be introduced into this territory, written, printed, published or circulated in this territory, any book, paper, magazine, pamphlet or circular, containing any denial of the right of persons to hold slaves in this territory, such person shall be deemed guilty of felony, and punished by imprisonment at hard labor for a term of not less than two years.
"SECTION 13. No person who is conscientiously opposed to holding slaves, or who does not admit the right to hold slaves in this territory, shall sit as a juror on the trial of any prosecution for any violation of any of the sections of this act.
"This act to take effect and be in force from and after the fifteenth day of September, A.D. 1855."

Several meetings have been held, taking this matter into consideration, and much talk had in reference to holding a general convention, with the view of forming a state government, and asking for admission as a state at the next Congress.

12th. -- It rained pouringly all last night, and without ceasing to-day. Mr. D.'s house, down on the street, was struck by the lightning last night, and one corner of the roof torn off by the fluid. Mrs. D. was alone, save two little children. These were stunned by the shock so that they returned no answer to the mother's repeated call upon them to speak. The wind came in so furiously through the open dwelling, that she was not able to keep a light long enough to assure herself whether they still lived. Thus the weary night passed away; the storm raged without, and many conflicting fears and anxieties within.

The officials at Washington, with President Pierce as their nominal head, have seen that in Gov. Reeder the whole people of the territory have an impartial friend -- have seen, too, that he follows to the letter the law under which he acts as governor. They are no less determined now, than at the time of the repeal of the Missouri compromise, to force slavery upon this fair land, and have, therefore, resolved to remove him upon a false charge of speculating in the Kaw lands. He has repudiated the acts of the Legislature because of their holding their session in violation of the organic act. Now a creature will be sent here in the form of a man, but ignoring all manliness, and selling body and soul to do the infamous work of the slave power. No man of integrity and sterling honesty can long hold this office, as he will displease both the people of Missouri and the federal head.

13th. -- It was beautifully clear this morning, but rain was soon falling. Friends from Boston arrived in the evening, after a long ride from Kansas City, through the treacherous mud and drenching rain. People for the convention are still gathering from all parts of the territory. They feel themselves a wronged and oppressed people. Thousands of men, from another state, armed with instruments of death, and maltreating our citizens, have thus elected men to make our laws. They are men, for the most part, so ignorant, that in any other country they would not be considered eligible to the most unimportant office. It is stated, upon good authority, that some of them can neither read nor write. Such ignorance is not strange when we consider the fact of the scarcity of schools through the border counties of Missouri -- one of the most populous boasting only one within its entire limits. Such destitution is one of slavery's trophies. While the Richmond Enquirer comes out in wordy tirades upon common schools, why should Western Missouri do more than feed the brutal passions, leaving the mind uncultivated and rough as the shores of her great river?

These men have enacted laws worthy alone of the dark ages. Those of Draco were humane in the comparison, and Nero's blood-thirstiness is transformed into the milk of human kindness before this new light of the nineteenth century. We have looked to him who has sworn to protect the whole people, the executive of the nation. We might sooner look to the granite hills of his own state with hope of sympathy; for, given over to the minions of slavery, to do their bidding, no thunders save those of a long outraged, indignant people will ever awaken him.

14th. -- Twelve strangers dined with us today. They came from one hundred miles back in the territory, and there, as here, they represent the feeling of the people strong against these unheard-of outrages and frauds. We are struggling for our own freedom against a tyranny more unjust than that which King George exercised over the colonies. Though a war, a conflict like that, even of seven years' duration, be the result of it, the end, bringing in the glorious reign of freedom, will be a final triumph.

These gentlemen speak of the good appearance of the crops. Corn near the river called the Big Blue is very high. Some of the stalks measure eighteen feet and some inches.

16th. -- The "windows of heaven" seem literally to be opened, for the rain still pours down in torrents; but it does not in the least dampen the ardor of our people; and they, considering the facts of their want of protection from the government, and being without any law-making power, resolve to act in view of such state of things. A large and enthusiastic meeting was held in the evening to take the matter into consideration of forming a government of their own.

18th. -- The quiet citizens of Lawrence are continually annoyed by the street broils in our midst. Four brothers, by the name of Hopper, living a few miles out, by insult and indignity have endeavored to get our people to that spot where forbearance would cease to be a virtue; where, acting upon the first law of nature, they would give blow for blow. A man, ignorant to the last degree, whose identity is recognized by all our people under the cognomen of "Sam Salters," and who holds an office of deputy-sheriff under the Shawnee Legislature, has also acted with them. Scarcely a day has passed for weeks that the long-sufferance of the people of Lawrence has not been wantonly trifled with. The apparent object has been to get some one to retaliate, and then word would be given to the border counties of Missouri. On the wings of the wind expresses would be sent. By falsehoods and inflammatory rumors, they would so inflame the passions of the people, until, like an avalanche, they would pour in upon us, and a plea be given for the war of extermination they are continually threatening. The border papers are full of threats against the Yankees. An extract from the Leavenworth Herald is a sample of all: "Dr. Robinson is sole agent for the underground railroad leading out of Western Missouri, and for the transportation of fugitive 'niggers.' His office is in Lawrence, K. T. Give him a call."

19th. -- Two large carriage loads went from our house to attend a camp-meeting on the Wakarusa. It was holden in the woods on the bank of the river, and while seats were provided for the audience in front of the high broad platform used by the speakers, the tents for the night were at a little distance in the back-ground. The carriages, of every possible description, and of every grade of beauty, from a rockaway to a rough, springless cart with board seats, were fastened around the entrance to the grove, and gave to the whole a most novel appearance. There was a large gathering of people, and the services would be impressive were it not for the continued "Amens," in shrill as well as deep guttural tones, which the zealous worshippers are sounding in one's ears from all quarters.

A large proportion of the western emigrants to Kansas are Methodists, and many of them are very fine people. The presiding elder here is a mild, benevolent-looking man, to whom a stranger would at once feel attracted. He came from Georgia, formerly, and for years has been a resident of Missouri. No one more than he can have seen the evils of slavery, and, by his firm adherence to the principles of liberty, he attests his abhorrence of it. There are several clergymen in the territory, who hare been residents of Missouri over twenty years, whose souls are strong in their love of freedom.

21st. -- The little steam ferry-boat, Lizzie, was here to-day. How we wish some enterprising capitalist would build some boats with a draft of only ten or twelve inches without load, such as are used upon the California waters! Every day we might hear the shrill steam-whistle, telling of active business life, and a means of communication between us and the rest of the world. Then the freights which have to be brought forty-five miles by land, on wagons, could more easily be transported into the territory, and passengers would find the journey much less tedious. Now, if a mill gives way, any part of the machinery breaking, nothing in all Missouri, this side of St. Louis, can be found for repairs; and all these heavy freights have to be brought by land from Kansas City. A boat briskly plying on the river would add much to the growth and prosperity of the territory.

22d. -- I have little leisure for reading and writing. This afternoon I took Mrs. W. to ride, and she acknowledges she never saw so lovely a country, -- thinks it would be pleasant to have a summer home here, with a winter home in Boston. Before we took our drive into the country, she received her first lesson in horseback riding and caused us many a hearty laugh by her fearfulness, calling "Whoa!" "Whoa!" to the horse, when he was standing as still as anything could, and after at last going a little distance asking, in most plaintive tones, for some one to come and turn the horse around.

24th. -- The report of Mr. Dawson's declining the appointment of governor of Kansas is confirmed; also that Wilson Shannon, of Ohio, has been appointed in his place, and will accept the appointment. Coming, as Mr. Shannon does, from the free state of Ohio, where the principles of truth and freedom are engraven on the hearts of her people, deeply and indelibly, we ought to expect a man in whose heart are large sympathies, whose mind is enlightened. But from all the antecedents of his life, his course in Mexico, his daily life of dissoluteness and debauchery in California, which was a shame and burning disgrace upon his countrymen, we have nothing good to expect. Such a man will naturally be the tool of Missouri and the administration. No other could accept the appointment as the second choice of the President since Governor Reeder's removal. We have only to endure with patience the administration of government under such men, still looking forward to the "good time coming."

30th. -- There is a Hungarian doctor here, who pretends he has in open field fought for Hungary by the side of Louis Kossuth. Yet, strange as the fact seems to us, he has openly espoused the side of the oppressor here, and for the Hoppers and Sam Salters become a champion. He rolls up his sleeves and daily walks the streets threatening peaceable citizens with annihilation. At the slightest disturbance or refusal of our people to be overawed by him, he rung for bowie-knife and revolver. Threats of "I'll cut your heart out!" "I'll shoot you!" or "Drive the d--d Yankees from the territory!" are of every-day occurrence.

Sept 1st. -- The new governor arrived at Westport, Missouri, and was received into full fellowship, and with demonstrations of joy. Before setting foot in the territory, or looking upon his real constituents the bona fide settlers of Kansas, full of whiskey and elation of office, he made to them a speech. He told them in it repeatedly of their Legislature, the laws they had enacted, and assured them with great fervor of manner, that he should call upon them to aid him in their enforcement. All this the people of Westport, Missouri, received with cheers and hurrahs; and, in loud bursts of enthusiasm, they expressed their joy that the tool was sure. Governor Shannon's son quietly asked of a bystander "if board could not be obtained in Lawrence," and hinted, in pretty plain terms, that he should prefer to live where there was less whiskey, and men of less ruffianly look. When the boat reached the landing, at Kansas city, a large number of the Missourians went on to meet the governor, and introduced themselves to him as "Border Ruffians." A carriage was soon sent over from Westport, to convey him thither. So, in the course of his rule in Kansas, we shall see what we shall see.

4th. -- Emigration again begins to pour into the territory. During the last two months there has been little in this part of the country. Cholera has raged on the river, and summer heats have been too great for any comfort in travelling; but now the prairies are again dotted with white-covered wagons of the western emigrant. They come bringing everything with them in their wagons, their furniture, provisions, and their families. Their stock, also, is driven with the teams. Their wagons to them are a travelling home; many of them having a stove set, with pipe running through the top. They often travel far into the territory; it matters to them little how far, so that they get a location which pleases them. Then they build a cabin, and, with a fixed habitation, they will become the strength and sinew of the country. Being used to the emergencies and the hardships of pioneer life, Kansas will depend upon them mostly, in this early settlement, for the ground work, the substratum, upon which to build up a glorious new state. While they, for the most part, settle in the country, and will gather into their garners of the golden treasures of the rich and fertile soil, eastern capital will form a nucleus, around which the young, the adventurous, the enterprising, will gather, and new cities, new towns, will spring up with rapid growth, emulating in thrift and intelligence those of the old states.

Another street broil occurred to-day. The Blue Lodge has decided to make an attack upon Lawrence before two months are past, so one of its members informs a gentleman of our acquaintance. Whiskey-drinkers in this country are quite apt to divulge secrets.

6th. -- Some gentlemen from Wisconsin have just arrived with their families, and two men, whom they hired in Missouri; one of them is a Missourian, the other a free black. Scarcely had they arrived in Lawrence before Dr. Wood called upon them, and, after a good deal of needless bluster, demanded that the free papers should be shown him. This the negro did. As the design was to create disturbance, and the free papers putting an end to this being done under any show of legality, his rage found vent in threats that the "negro should be thrown into the river, unless he returned to Missouri." However, there is sufficient love of justice, in Lawrence, to prevent any violence being done to any of its quiet citizens, be they white or black.

The weather is, indeed, most lovely. Shadows lie over the whole landscape, painting the prairie in green, from the lightest to the darkest shade. The music of the hay-cutters, with their large mowing-machines, has for days chimed in with the noise of many hammers, the cheerful voice of the teamsters, and the glad carol of singing-birds.

The appearance of the hay-makers is most novel, as they ride in among the tall grass, higher than their heads in many places, and bearing now a beautiful tasseled blossom of red, with yellow stamens, being seated upon their mowers as comfortably as when riding in a buggy.

7th. -- The gentlemen with whom the free negro came have hired a claim about two miles from town, and moved out. No attempts were made, last night, to carry out the threats of the pro-slavery men. To-night, however, we heard of loads of people going out to the claim, and shots fired. The facts are, simply, the Hungarian doctor, wishing to exhibit his prowess, and prove his bravery, as our people have invariably suggested that so much rolling up of sleeves, and baring of the bosom, inviting an attack was only the result of cowardice, selected this opportunity for a display of valor. Armed with gun and pistols, he took the route for the claim. Evans, the young Missourian, with whom the negro was "raised," and whom he says he will protect, at all hazards, came in town with a team. Two of our citizens, who knew the deadly intent with which Dr. Schareff left town, asked a ride with Evans, as he returned home, and they soon overtook the belligerent pill-pedler, who was puffing along in hot haste, as though empires were wavering in the balance at each moment's delay. As the cart passed, he asked for a ride, and sat in front, taking no notice of those behind. Presently, Evans asked him "where he was going;" to which he replied, "he was going hunting," which seemed a little singular, at this time of night. However, no comments were made. After some little desultory talk, the valiant doctor said, "I believe there is a negro out this way, and I am going there." Evans quickly replied, "It is just where I am going."

Doctor Schareff, supposing his errand must be like his own, commenced, at once, a vile tirade upon the negro, and avowed his intention to kill him. Evans heard him a while; then, with decisive tones, ordered him to give him his pistols, which he did unhesitatingly, and, trembling with fear, dropped his gun upon the bottom of the cart. Evans then commanded him to go on and state his real sentiments. His plaintive "Excuse me," in broken English, gained him no reprieve. He was obliged, while the tears were coursing down his cheeks, to talk, or be silent, at the bidding of young Evans. At one time he commanded him to say, "I eat my words." His sobbing "Excuse me" availed nothing, and upon the threat of "I'll shoot you," the same he had so often used to others, he repeated, "I'll eat my words." They soon arrived at the claim, and Evans, commanding him to be seated by the side of the innocent object of much tirade and excitement, said, quite proudly, "The negro is much the better looking of the two."

8th. -- The summer, for shortness, has indeed been without precedent. How we long for the good old days of childhood to come back, when a half-hour seemed a month, and the intervening time, between Sunday and Sunday, an age! Now birthdays and annual festivals scarcely knell their departure ere they return. Would there be such a crowding of duties then? One grows weary of doing; also of leaving duties undone.

The loveliness of the weather, the few months I have been here, has never been surpassed. Although the heat often rises high, a fresh breeze makes it in reality seem much less. I have never passed a summer with so little inconvenience from the heat, and have heard many people from Pennsylvania, as well as more northern states, say the same. Coming from the bleak and hilly north, where four months are all we boast of genial weather, free from frosts and north-east winds, -- where we cherish with utmost care our garden flowers, protecting them from summer's heat and winter's cold, -- where, of wild flowers, we have many a time returned rich, after a long tramp, with short-stemmed violets, one-sided dandelions, and blear-eyed daisies, -- to this country, where charming weather predominates from early spring until the new year comes, displacing the old, we have grown wild in our enthusiasm of this beautiful land. We have revelled in flowers growing under our windows and at our doors, which, with much tending, we have tempted to bloom meagerly in garden-borders and green-houses in New England, such as verbenas, -- velvet and sweet-scented, -- petunias, fox-gloves, phlox, larkspurs, spiderwort, etc., an endless variety.

In the pillared clouds of morning and evening, when the golden and sapphire mingle, we are reminded of the burnished gates, and the streets inlaid with pearl, of the New Jerusalem.

While watching the changing, flitting shadows, which at one moment make the distant landscape of a deep blue, and then of a brown color, with little green spots like oases in the desert, life's changes have been typified in the shadows and sunny light, and we have grown wiser, treasuring the lesson.

9th. -- Near the close of an unusually quiet Sabbath, we were attracted by the hasty, furious riding of a horseman upon the prairie going toward town. He soon returned, and others followed in squads of three and four. We heard the merry laugh, and occasional snapping of a gun. They were going out to the claim where the hunted negro lives. It was the hour for the meeting here; but owing to the excitement, few came. A lady, who came from that neighborhood, gave us the fact. A wagon-load of pro-slavery men about Lawrence, with some Missourians, had gathered at Mr. R.'s to take or kill the negro. Some person on a near claim, seeing the crowd, and suspecting the design, had hastily come to him for help. Those we saw passing out were some of the citizens. When the wagon-load of the mob arrived, the negro was out on the prairie, driving in the cattle. The gentleman of the house told them if they wished to fight him they could do so; but they could not have the negro. They left with threats of vengeance, and aid from Missouri.

14th. -- Gov. Shannon passed within a mile of Lawrence, to-day, on his way to Lecompton -- a little settlement some fourteen miles above here. A few little cabins are erected in a broken country; but its greatness lies in the future, as the Shawnee legislators have designated this site as the seat of government. It is also the place where Samuel J. Jones, postmaster at Westport, Missouri, and sheriff of Douglas County, Kansas Territory, has, in most wanton manner, burned down the houses of some free-state settlers. Gov. Shannon passed by us entirely, living in the largest settlement in the territory. Having received the right hand of fellowship from Missouri, what can we of the territory expect? He evidently does not desire the acquaintance of those whom he was sent to govern; but is himself to be governed by the border towns in Missouri.

15th. -- Gov. Shannon returned to-night. He stopped a moment at the Cincinnati House, and was waited upon by one of our leading citizens, with the request that he would come out and meet the people. He declined; he must go four miles further to-night, and his suite cannot be detained. The offer was at once made to carry him to Franklin, where his party propose remaining over night, after he should have been introduced to our people, and have exchanged mutual greetings. This, also, he declined; and, as he entered his carriage to drive away, smothered groans struck on his ear, -- the natural language of an indignation towards a man so weak, so pusillanimous, -- a man sent to govern a people, and refusing to meet that people on the most common terms of civility. We deprecate this expression of feeling, knowing that to bear is better than to retort, and to the office we should try to pay that respect of which the man plainly shows he is not worthy. With the Rev. Thomas Johnson, of the Shawnee Mission School, a slaveholder, he will pursue, on the morrow (Sunday), his way thither.

19th. -- A delegate convention was held at Topeka to-day to take into consideration the formation of a state constitution. The convention decided, after full discussion, to call a constitutional convention, to be held on the 22d of October, at Topeka, and organized a provisional government to superintend the election of delegates. The executive committee consisted of Messrs. J. H. Lane, Chairman; J. R. Goodwin, Secretary; G. W. Smith, C. R. Holliday, C. P. Schuyler, M. J. Parrott, and G. W. Brown.

Previous to this convention, the mass convention, held at Lawrence August 15th, had resulted in a call for this of the 19th, at Topeka. Also a delegate convention of the free-state party was held at Big Springs, September 5th, to fix a day for the election of a delegate to Congress, and to nominate a candidate. At this convention, the 9th of October was named for the election, instead of the 2d, the day fixed by the Shawnee Mission Legislature, and Ex-Governor Reeder was nominated for candidate. This convention, by resolution, referred the matter of a state organization to the Topeka convention, which was to represent all parties.

22d. -- For the last few days nothing had been thought of but company. The house was full all day, and nearly all night. There are also continued rumors of new invasions, which disturb us but little.

Yesterday Mrs. W. and I went out to Mr. N.'s. He has a most lovely location two miles from town, and himself and wife are well pleased with their Kansas home. Last evening there was a melon party at the hall, at which there was a general gathering of old and young.

About this time the people of Lawrence entered into a self-defensive organization. The street broils and outrages were becoming so frequent their lives were in daily peril. As soon as the organization was complete, and their badges gave evidence of a secret society, the outrages ceased.

24th. -- Rode down to Fish's, after tea with the doctor, who went upon business. There was quite a gathering there, and one of our western orators was making a speech. He said repeatedly, "I have saw," which is their frequent mode of expression. On our way back, we passed several parties camped by the way-side, sitting or lying in the light of the bright camp-fire, while the sentinel leaned against a tree. We passed others, where they had no fires, but slept in and under the wagon, on the bare ground. The air of this country is so pure that persons do not take cold from lying on the ground. Doctor is tired with his various and constant cares, and sleeps sitting in the bottom of the carriage, while I drive on homewards. It was eleven o'clock, and the moon was shining brightly.

30th. -- A gentleman called, and inquired for doctor. On being told that he was absent, he inquired for me. After saying to me, "Doctor is not at home," to which I assent, he said, "We have some news." A long pause followed, in which a thousand fears and anxieties rushed upon me. At last, by dint of questions, the following was the substance of the "news" I was able to gather:

Two regiments of men are on their way to Lawrence -- one thousand men in each regiment. They have the gallows erected upon which to hang Gov. Reeder, and the rifle loaded with which to shoot Col. Lane.

I raise doubts as to the probability of such a thing; but he is sure, having been Specially informed by one acquainted with their movements, and who saw them as far on their way as the Shawnee meeting-house."

In compliance with his urgent request, I promise to tell doctor the moment he comes, that "he may go down and advise with him." The moment he is gone we have a hearty laugh, at the expense of the timid man, whose courage consists in brave-sounding words, and would willingly be at some personal risk to witness his fright at a visitation from the Missourians. Some people are so sure that large numbers of Missourians are getting ready to attack Lawrence on Tuesday, that messengers are sent out to count the wagons. They return saying all is quiet.

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