Kansas Collection Books:  This book was contributed by Gertrude HarrisGo to Contents



FOOTNOTES

INTRODUCTION

1. Albert Brownstein, "A Letter to My Grandchildren," undated, p. 5. Copies in the possession of members of the Brownstein family, including Jerald J. Brownstein, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania.

2. Ibid.

CHAPTER I

1. Mary Antim, From Plotzk to Boston (Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press, 1899), p. 12.

2. George M. Price, "The Russian Jews in America," trans. Leo Shpall, The Jewish Experience in America, ed. Abraham Karp, vol. 4: The Era of Immigration (Waltham, Mass.: American Jewish Historical Society, 1969), pp. 269-70; Ande Manners, Poor Cousins (New York: Coward, McCann & Geohagen, Inc., 1972), p. 57.

3. Manners, Poor Cousins, p. 57.

4. American Israelite, 28 July 1882.

5. Brownstein, "A Letter to My Grandchildren," pp. 3-5.

6. The Pale of Settlement comprised that area of czarist Russia in which the Jews were legally authorized to settle. The Pale covered an area of about 386,000 square miles, from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. By 1897, slightly less than 4,900,000 Jews lived there, forming 94 percent of the total Jewish population of Russia and about 12 percent of the population of the area.

7. Manners, Poor Cousins, p. 24.

8. Leo Shpall, "Jewish Agricultural Colonies in the United States," Agricultural History 24 (1950):125-26.

9. Stanley Feldstein, The Land That I Show You (Garden City, N. Y.: Anchor Books, Doubleday, 1979), p. 101; Manners, Poor Cousins, p. 27; Darwin S. Levine, "A Brief Survey of the Activities of Jews in American Agriculture" (M.A. thesis, Columbia University, 1939), p. 37.

10. Shpall, "Jewish Agricultural Colonies in the United States," p. 126.

11. Feldstein, The Land That I Show You, p. 103; Manners, Poor Cousins, p. 50; Antim,From Plotzk to Boston, p. 12.

12. Manners, p. 51.

13. Ibid., pp. 51-53.

14. Shpall, "Jewish Agricultural Colonies in the United States," p. 126.

15. Feldstein, The Land That I Show You, p. 102; Shpall, p. 127; Uri D. Herscher, Jewish Agricultural Utopias in America, 1880-1910 (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1981), p. 21.

16. Manners, Poor Cousins, pp. 54-56.

17. Philip Cowen, Memories of an American Jew (New York: International Press, 1932), pp. 94-95.

CHAPTER II

1. American Israelite, 10 February 1887.

2. "A Colony in Kansas--1882," American Jewish Archives 17 (November 1965):114.

3. American Hebrew, 2 December 1881.

4. Herscher, Jewish Agricultural Utopias in America, 1880-1910, pp. 22-26; Shpall, "Jewish Agricultural Colonies in the United States," pp. 126-28.

5. Elbert L. Sapinsley, "Jewish Agricultural Colonies in the West: The Kansas Example," Western States Jewish Historical Quarterly 3 (April 1971):157-69.

6. Ibid., p. 159; Shpall, "Jewish Agricultural Colonies in the United States," pp. 126-28.

7. American Israelite, 17 November 1882.

8. Sapinsley, "Jewish Agricultural Colonies in the West: The Kansas Example," p. 160.

9. James A. Rudin, "Beersheba, Kan.: 'God's Pure Air on Government Land,'" Kansas Historical Quarterly 34 (Autumn 1968): 282-98; American Hebrew, 13 January 1882; Levine, "A Brief Survey of the Activities of Jews in American Agriculture," p. 39.

10. Rudin, "Beersheba, Kan.: 'God's Pure Air on Government Land,'" p. 283.

11. Feldstein, The Land That I Show You, p. 104.

12. American Hebrew, 2 December 1881.

13 Manners, Poor Cousins, p. 57.

14 Lipman Goldman Feld, "New Light on the Lost Jewish Colony of Beersheba, Kansas, 1882-1886," American Jewish Historical Quarterly 60 (December 1970):159; Rudin, "Beersheba, Kan.: 'God's Pure Air on Government Land,'" pp. 283-86; Manners, Poor Cousins, pp. 171-78; Feldstein, The Land That I Show You, p. 106.

15 Manners, Poor Cousins, pp. 74-76.

16 American Hebrew, 31 March 1882.

17. Feldstein, The Land That I Show You, p. 105.

18 American Hebrew 23 May 1882.

19 Feldstein, The Land That I Show You, p. 105.

20., A Colony in Kansas--1882," p. 114.

21 American Hebrew, 20 April 1883.

22. American Israelite, 7 July 1881.

23 Ibid., 8 August 1881.

CHAPTER III

1. American Israelite, 4 August 1882.

2. Manners, Poor Cousins, pp. 70-76.

3. Carol Gendler, "The First Synagogue in Nebraska: The Early History of the Congregation of Israel of Omaha," Nebraska History 58 (Fall 1977): 329.

4. William M. Kramer, "The Western Journal of Isaac Meyer Wise, Western States Jewish Historical Quarterly 4 (April 1972): 163.

5. American Israelite, 26 August 1881.

6. Ibid., 18 November 1881.

7 Ibid.

8. Ibid., 2 December 1881.

9. Ibid., 26 May 1882.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Robert E. Riegel and Robert G. Athearn, America Moves West (Hinsdale, Ill.: The Dryden Press, Inc., 1971), pp. 382-83.

13. American Israelite, 30 June 1882.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid.

CHAPTER IV

1. A Colony in Kansas--1882," pp. 130-31.

2. Ray Allen Billington and Martin Ridge, Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1982), pp. 629-43.

3. Ibid., pp. 646-47; Charles C. Howes, This Place Called Kansas (Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984), pp. 45-49.

4. Barbara Oringderff, True Sod (North Newton, Ks.: Mennonite Press, Inc., 1976), pp. 21-104.

5. David F. Costello, The Prairie World (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., Inc., 1969), p. 48.

6. A. T. Andreas, History of the State of Kansas, vol. 1 (Chicago, Ill.: A. T. 1883), p. 668.

7. Charles Nordhoff, The Communistic Societies of the United States (New York: Schocken Books, Inc., 1965), pp. 375-382.

8. Katrina S. Douthit, "Shortlived Experiment: Esperanza Colony at Urbana," Kanhistique 6 (August 1980): 5.

9. Avrahm Yarmolinsky, A Russian American's Dream (Lawrence, Ks.: University of Kansas Press, 1965), pp. 45-81.

10. Thomas Peter Christensen, "The Danish Settlements in Kansas," Collections of the Kansas State Historical Society 17 (1926-1928): 300-05.

11. A Socialist Colony," Fort Scott Weekly Tribune, 17 August 1899.

12. Frank J. Adler, Roots in a Moving Stream: The Centennial History of the Congregation B'nai Jehudah of Kansas City, 1870-1970 (Kansas City, Mo.: Congregation of B'nai Jehudah, 1972), p. 49.

13. Yarmolinsky, A Russian American's Dream, p. 54.

14. Herscher, Jewish Agricultural Utopias in America, 1880-1910, pp. 45-z-47; Manners, Poor Cousins, p. 167.

15. American Hebrew, 10 October 1884.

16. Yarmolinsky, A Russian American's Dream, p. 105.

17. Emory Lindquist, "Some Aspects of the History of Jews in Kansas," paper presented at the Wichita Hebrew Synagogue, Wichita, Ks., unpublished, 10 November 1975, pp. 1-4; Marvin Litvin, The Journey (Galesburg, Ill.: Galesburg Historical Society, 1981), pp. 369-430; "Trail Blazers of the Mississippi West," American Jewish Archives 8 (October 1956): 92-93.

18. "Trail Blazers of the Trans-Mississippi West," P. 93.

19. Ibid.

20. Adler, Roots in a Moving Stream, p. 49.

21. Ibid.; Elias Eppstein, Kansas City diary, 1880-83, holograph in American Jewish Archives, Cincinnati, Ohio.

22. Ibid.

23. American Israelite, 2 April 1883.

24. Ibid., 28 July 1882.

25. Ibid.

26. "A Colony in Kansas," p. 119. All material of pages 41-51 of Sod Jerusalems can be documented from "A Colony in Kansas," pp. 119-34.

27. American Israelite, 1 September 1882.

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid.

30. "A Colony in Kansas--1882," pp. 133-34.

CHAPTER V

1. American Israelite, 20 July 1883.

2. Ibid., 1 September 1882.

3. Ibid., 23 July 1883; "A Colony in Kansas--1882," p. 136.

4. Ibid., 1 September 1882.

5. Ibid., 28 July 1882.

6. Larned Optic, 11 August 1882.

7 Larned Chronoscope, 25 December 1882.

8 American Israelite, 20 October 1882.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. A. J. Myers, "Long Time Resident of Lane County Writes of Early History of Ravanna," Dighton Herald 18 Feburary 1953; Eppstein, Kansas City diary.

13. American Israelite, 19 January 1883.

14. Manners, Poor Cousins, p. 177.

15. American Israelite, 25 December 1882.

16. Ibid.

17. American Israelite, 19 January 1883.

18. Ibid., 1 September 1882.

19. Myers, "Long Time Resident of Lane County Writes of Early History of Ravanna."

20. Ibid.; American Israelite, 29 December 1882; Rudin, "Beersheba, Kan.: 'God's Pure Air on Government Land," p. 292.

21. Myers, "Long Time Resident of Lane County Writes of Early History of Ravanna."

22. American Israelite, 15 June 1883.

23. Myers, "Long Time Resident of Lane County Writes of Early History of Ravanna."

24. American Israelite, 19 January 1883.

25. Ibid., 9 February 1883.

26. Ibid., 2 March 1883.

27. Ibid., 13 April 1883.

28. Ibid., 25 May 1883.

29. Ibid., 20 July 1883; "A Colony in Kansas--1882," p. 134.

30. "A Colony in Kansas--1882," p. 135. All material of pages 63-66 of Sod Jerusalems can be documented from "A Colony in Kansas--1882," pp. 135-38.

31. Richard Singer, "The American Jew in Agriculture: Past History and Present Condition," (unpublished prize essay, Hebrew Union College, 1941), pp. 467-68.

32. Rudin, "Beersheba, Kan.: 'God's Pure Air on Government Land,'" p. 296; Manners, Poor Cousins, p. 177; Sapinsley, "Jewish Agricultural Colonies in the West: The Kansas Example," p. 167.

33. American Israelite, 6 June 1884.

34. Ibid.

35. Ibid.

36. Hamelitz, St. Petersburg, Russia, 14 March 1884.

37. Jewish Gazette, 26 February 1885.

38. Cowland Chieftain (Cowland, Ks.), 14 August 1885.

39. The New West (Cimarron, Ks.), 8 August 1885.

40. Jewish Free Press (St. Louis, Mo.), January, 1886.

41. Feld, "New Light on the Lost Jewish Colony of Beersheba, Kansas, 1882-1886," pp. 167-68.

CHAPTER VI

1. Garfield County Call (Eminence, Ks.), 23 September 1887.

2. Land records, Finney County Courthouse, Garden City, Kansas.

3. Nelson Antrim Crawford, "The County That Never Was," ' Kansas Magazine (1944):l; Robert W. Baughman, Kansas Post Offices (Topeka, Ks.: Kansas Postal History Society, 1961), pp. 248-56.

4. Baughman, Kansas Post Offices, pp. 81, 181.

5. Crawford, "The County That Never Was," p. 2.

6. Cowland Chieftain, 30 April 1885.

7. Crawford, "The County That Never Was," p. 2.

8. Ravanna Chieftain (Ravanna, Ks.), 22 April 1886.

9. Ibid., 29 April 1886.

10. Crawford, "The County That Never Was," pp. 2-7.

11. Garfield County Call, 2 September 1887.

12. Crawford, "The County That Never Was," p. 5.

13. Ravanna Chieftain, 22 April 1886.

14. Ibid., 29 April 1886.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., 24 June 1886.

17. Ibid., 7 October 1886.

18. Ibid., 21 October 1886.

19. Ibid., 28 October 1886.

20. Ibid.

21. Garfield County Call, 23 September 1887.

22. Ibid.

23. Land records, Finney County Courthouse, Garden City, Kansas.

24. Ravanna Chieftain, 29 April 1886.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid., 4 November 1886.

27. Ibid., 6 January 1887.

28. Ibid., 17 August 1887.

29. Garfield County Call, 19 August 1887.

30. Ibid., 16 September 1887.

31. Ravanna Chieftain, 27 January 1888.

32. Ibid., 2 February 1888.

33. Ibid., 18 April 1888.

34. Ibid., 20 March 1888.

35. Garfield County Call, 17 August 1888; 29 March 1889.

36. Ravanna Chieftain, 4 November 1886; 7 April 1887.

37. Garfield County Call, 1 June 1888.

38. Myers, "Long Time Resident of Lane County Writes of Early History of Ravanna."

39. L. David Harris, "Lest We Forget Beersheba," The Wichitan 4 (February 1981):48, 63.

40. Garfield County Call, 27 July 1888.

41. Crawford, "The County That Never Was," pp. 6-7.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid.

44. Interview with Mrs. Payne Ratner, Wichita, Kansas, 4 November 1984; William Frank Zornow, Kansas, A History of the Jayhawk State (Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1957), pp. 258-62.

45. Joseph Schultz, ed., Mid-America's Promise: A Profile of Kansas City Jewry (Kansas City, Mo.: Jewish Conununity Foundation of Greater Kansas City, 1982), p. 155; Adler, Roots in a Moving Stream, pp. 49-50.

46. The New West, 7 March 1885.

47. Garden City Daily Herald (Garden City, Ks.), 20 September 1887.

48. Katherine K. Powell, ed., "The Teitelbaum Family in Garden City," research paper, 28 July 1983, available from the Finney County Historical Society, Garden City, Kansas.

49. Kansas City Times, 4 June 1929; Finney County Historical Society, History of Finney County, Kansas, vol. 1 (Garden City, Ks.: Finney County Historical Society, 1950), p. 187; Kris Rumberg, "Old Tope," New West, 5 June 1982.

50. Garden City News (Garden City, Ks.), 29 June 1933.

51. Ibid.

52. Ibid.

53. Ibid.

54. Crawford, "The County That Never Was," p. 7.

CHAPTER VII

1. American Hebrew, 8 April 1887.

2. Ibid., 31 July 1885.

3. Jewish Messenger, 14 November 1884.

4. Angie Eubank Eads, "The Story of Mt. Nebo School District No. 25," undated, research paper, available from Mrs. Eads, Pratt, Kansas.

5. Jewish Messenger, 14 November 1884.

6. American Hebrew, 31 July 1885.

7. Pratt County Press (Pratt, Ks.), 27 August 1885.

8. American Hebrew, 8 April 1887.

9. Pratt County Census Records, 1885, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas.

10. Land records, Pratt County Courthouse, Pratt, Kansas.

11. American Hebrew, 8 April 1887.

12. Pratt County Press,9 April 1885.

13. Ibid., 27 August 1885.

CHAPTER VIII

1. Gabriel Davidson and Edward A. Goodwin, "The Jewish Covered Wagon," Jewish Criterion 29 January 1932; Gabriel Davidson and Edward A. Goodwin, Our Jewish Farmers (New York: L. B. Fischer, 1943), p. 223.

2. American Israelite,11 January 1884.

3. American Hebrew, 8 April 1887.

4. Louis Greenberg, The Jews in Russia: The Struggle for Emancipation (New York: Schocken Books, Inc., 1976), p. 166; Herscher, Jewish Agricultural Utopias in America, 1880-1910, p. 24.

5. Greenberg, The Jews in Russia: The Struggle for Emancipation, p. 166.

6. Herscher, Jewish Agricultural Utopias in America, 1880-1910, pp. 53-55.

7. Davidson and Goodwin, "The Jewish Covered Wagon;" Davidson and Goodwin, Our Jewish Farmers, pp. 221-25.

8. American Hebrew, 8 April 1887.

9. Ibid.

10. Davidson and Goodwin, "The Jewish Covered Wagon;" Davidson and Goodwin, Our Jewish Farmers, pp. 221-25.

11. Ibid.; Our Jewish Farmers, p. 223.

12. American Hebrew, 8 April 1887.

13. Letter from David Robinson, Portland, Oregon, to Dr. Jacob R. Marcus, director, American Jewish Archives, Cincinnati, Ohio, 19 June 1956.

14. Brownstein, "A Letter to My Grandchildren," p. 6.

15. American Hebrew, 31 July 1885.

16. Ibid.

17. Shpall, "Jewish Agricultural Colonies in the United States," pp. 140-41.

18. Brownstein, "A Letter to My Grandchildren," p. 6.

19. Ibid.

20. American Hebrew, 31 July 1885.

21. Ryansville Boomer (Ryansville, Ks.), 28 May 1886. 3

22. Ibid., 2 July 1886.

23. Ford City Boomer (Ford City, Ks.), 29 October 1886.

24. Ibid., 8 October 1886.

25. Dodge City Globe (Dodge City, Ks.), 5 November 1886.

26. Land records, Ford County Courthouse, Dodge City, Kansas, and Clark County Courthouse, Ashland, Kansas.

CHAPTER IX

1. Kiowa Herald (Kiowa, Ks.), 10 December 1885.

2. Barber County Index (Medicine Lodge, Ks.), 28 March 1884.

3. Ibid.

4. Land records, Barber County Courthouse, Medicine Lodge, Kansas.

5. Barber County History Committee, Chosen Land, A History of Barber County, Kansas (Medicine Lodge, Ks.: Barber County History Committee, 1980), p. 42; Letter to the author from Mrs. Wesley Cline, Lake City (Barber County), Kansas, 28 June 1983.

6. American Hebrew, 8 April 1887.

7. Ibid.

8. Medicine Lodge Cresset (Medicine Lodge, Ks.), 5 November 1885.

9. Barber County Index, 24 April 1885; Nellie Snyder Yost, Medicine Lodge: The Story of Kansas Frontier Town (Chicago: The Swallow Press, Inc., 1970), pp. 106-16; Barber County History Committee, Chosen Land, pp. 34-35.

10. Barber County Index, 24 April 1885.

11. Medicine Lodge Cresset, 5 November 1885.

12. Ibid., 12 November 1885.

13. Ibid., 26 November 1885.

14. Ibid., 3 December 1885.

15. Ibid., 10 December 1885.

16. Ibid.

17. American Hebrew, 31 July 1885.

18. Medicine Lodge Cresset, 31 December 1885.

19. Kiowa Herald, 10 December 1885.

20. Ibid., 14 January 1886.

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid., 4 February 1886.

24. Ibid., 11 February 1886.

25. Ibid., 25 February 1886.

26. Ibid.

27. Ibid., 24 December 1885.

28. Ibid., 7 January 1886.

29. Ibid., 11 January 1886.

30. Medicine Lodge Cresset, 31 December 1885.

31. American Hebrew, 31 July 1885.

32. Medicine Lodge Cresset, 29 July 1886.

33. Interview with Robert Shklar, Kiowa, Kansas, 29 June 1984.

34. Ibid.

35. Medicine Lodge Cresset, 8 July 1886.

36. Kiowa Herald, 24 June 1886.

37. Bill O'Neal, Henry Brown, The Outlaw Marshal (College Station, Texas; Creative Publishing Co., 1980), pp. 128, 132-33.

38. Letter from Dr. Marc R. Lampl, Kansas City, Missouri, to Richard Lampl, Washington, D. C., 16 July 1981; Mrs. Samuel Marcus, "Date of Arrival--Old Jewish Families of Wichita, 1869-1920," unpublished paper, researched for the Institute of Cultures Exhibit, Wichita, Kansas, 1 February 1970; Interview with Richard Lampl, Washington, D.C., 20 April 1982; Interview with Dr. Marc Lampl, 21 April 1982.

39. Letter from Dr. Marc R. Lampl to Richard Lampl, 16 July 1981; Interview with Dr. Marc Lampl, 21 April 1982.

40. Jewish Chronicle (Kansas City, Ks.), 26 February 1982; Interview with Mrs. Sarah Peltzman, Kansas City, Missouri, 8 June 1984.

41. Ibid.

42. Barber County History Committee, Chosen Land, p. 42; Letter from Dan Lake, Lake City, Kansas, to Robert Goldstein, Museum of American Jewish History, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 10 March 1977.

43. Barber County Index, 11 January 1888.

44. Barber County History Committee, Chosen Land, p. 42; Letter from Dan Lake, 10 March 1977; Land records, Barber County Courthouse, Medicine Lodge, Kansas.

45. Interview with Mrs. Sarah Peltzman, 8 June 1984.

46. Interview with Mrs. Edith Goldschmidt, Wichita, Kansas, 27 April 1983.

47. Letter from Mrs. Wesley Cline, Lake City, Kansas, to author, 28 June 1983.

48. Letter from Lillian Goldansky Goodman to family members, undated, in possession of Mrs. Harry (Reva) Kauffman, Kansas City, Missouri; Interview with Mrs. Harry (Reva) Kauffman, Kansas City, Missouri, 24 June 1984.

49. Interview with Mrs. Harry Kaufman, 24 June 1984.

50. Schultz, ed., Mid-America's Promise: A Profile of Kansas City Jewry, pp. 32-33.

51. Marcus, "Date of Arrival--Old Jewish Families of Wichita, 1869-1920"; Wichita Eagle Beacon, 28 June 1960.

52. Aetna Clarion (Aetna, Ks.), 11 March 1886.

53. Comanche County Historical Society, History of Comanche County (Coldwater, Ks.: Comanche County Historical Society, 1981), pp. 48-51.

54. Ibid., pp. 26-27.

55. Land records, Comanche County Courthouse, Coldwater, Kansas.

56. Evansville Herald (Evansville, Ks.), 5 March 1886.

57. Aetna Clarion, 11 March 1886.

58. Ibid., 24 June 1886.

59 Evansville Herald, 6 August 1886.

60. Ibid., 28 January 1887.

61. Comanche County Historical Society, History of Comanche County, p. 27.

62. W. V. Jackson, "The 'Last Roundup' of the Once Famous Comanche Pool," Kiowa News Review, Kiowa, Kansas, 8 April 1935.

63. Ibid.

CHAPTER X

1. American Hebrew, 4 June 1886.

2. Kearny Coyote (Hartland, Ks.), 24December 1887; 7 January 1888; Kearny County Advocate (Lakin, Ks.), 21 January 1888.

3. American Hebrew, 4 June 1886.

4. Ibid.; Pioneer Democrat (Lakin Ks.), 24 July 1886; Kearny County Advocate,3 April 1886.

5. American Hebrew, 4 June 1886.

6. Ruth Samuels, Pathways Through Jewish History (New York: KATV Publishing House, Inc., 1977), pp. 310-313.

7. Land records, Finney County Courthouse, Garden City, Kansas.

8. American Hebrew, 4 June 1886.

9. Ibid.; Pioneer Democrat, 24 July 1886; Kearny County Advocate, 3 April 1886.

10. Kearny County Historical Society, History of Kearny County (Lakin, Ks.: Kearny County Historical Society, 1979), P. 196.

11. Pioneer Democrat, 1 May 1886.

12. Kearny County Advocate, 31 July 1886.

13. Ibid., 3 April 1886.

14. Pioneer Democrat, 20 November 1886.

15. Ibid., 26 February 1887.

16. Ibid., 2 April 1887.

17. Kearny County Advocate, 3 April 1887.

18. Ibid., 4 June 1887.

19. Pioneer Democrat, 23 July 1887.

20. Kearny County Advocate,6 August 1887.

21. Ibid.

22. Kearny County Historical Society, History of Kearny County, p. 101.

23. Pioneer Democrat, 13 November 1886.

24. Kearny County Coyote (Chantilly, Ks.), 14 May 1887.

25. Ibid., 28 May 1887.

26. Pioneer Democrat, 2 July 1887.

27. Kearny County Coyote, 2 May 1888.

28. Ibid.,16 May 1888.

29. Garden City Daily Telegram (Garden City, Ks.), 8 May 1947.

30. Joy Cumonow, Fred N. Reiner and Kay S. Hymnowitz, eds. The Spirit Unconsumed: A History of Lhe Topeka Jewish Community (Topeka, Ks.: Temple Beth Sholom, 1979), p. 25.

31. Kearny County Advocate, 21 May 1887.

32. Ibid.

CHAPTER XI

1. American Israelite, 18 November 1881.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Sholom Aleichem, The World of Sholom Aleichem (New York: Harper and Row Co., Inc., 1943), pp. 26-27.

5. Kiowa Herald, 10 December 1885.

6. Irving Howe, World of Our Fathers: The Journey of the East European Jews to America and the Life They Found and Made (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1976) p. 10.

7. Medicine Lodge Cresset, 10 December 1885.


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