|KANSAS COLLECTION BOOKS|
|PART 1:||Location And General Features | Map and Population|
|PART 2:||Early History|
|PART 3:||Early Political Troubles | Battle Of Hickory Point|
|PART 4:||Progress Of The County | War Record | Land Troubles And Railroad Bonds|
|PART 5:||County Affairs | Present Condition Of The County|
|PART 6:||Delaware Township | Valley Falls, Part 1|
|PART 7:||Valley Falls, Part 2|
|PART 8:||Biographical Sketches (Aitken - Friend)|
|PART 9:||Biographical Sketches (Gardiner - Northrup)|
|PART 10:||Biographical Sketches (Patrick - Young)|
|PART 11:||Oskaloosa Township|
|PART 12:||Biographical Sketches (Albert - Huron)|
|PART 13:||Biographical Sketches (Insley - Worswick)|
|PART 14:||Jefferson Township|
|PART 16:||Norton Township | Nortonville|
Kentucky Township |
|PART 19:||Osawkie Township|
|PART 20:||Rock Creek Township | Meriden | Biographical Sketches (Allen - Lowry)|
|PART 21:||Biographical Sketches (Mcquilkin - Warner)|
|PART 22:||Union Township | McLouth|
|PART 23:||Rural Township | Williamstown|
|PART 24:||Kaw Township|
|PART 25:||Sarcoxie Township | Fairview Township|
LOCATION AND GENERAL FEATURES.
Jefferson County is situated in the eastern part of the State, and is in extent twenty-six miles north and south, and twenty-two miles east and west. It is bounded on the north by Atchison County, on the east by Leavenworth, on the south by Douglas and Shawnee, and on the west by Shawnee and Jackson. Owing to the fact that the county was formed before the surveys were made, its boundaries are not on range and town lines; but the boundary lines are as follows: Commencing at the northwest corner of Leavenworth County; thence south on the west line of that county, to the north line of Town 1, south; thence west on that line to the point where it intersects the main channel of the Kansas River; thence up the center of the main channel of the river, to the intersection with the line between the first and second tiers of sections in Range 16, east; thence north on that section line, to the northwest corner of Section 25, of Township 7 south, of Range 16 east; thence east on that section line to the place of beginning.
The county is well watered by numerous streams, which intersect every township. The principal of these are the Kansas River, which forms a portion of the southern boundary; and the Delaware River which flows through the western half of the county, for north to south, emptying into the Kansas River near the town of Perry. The principal tributaries of the Kansas River are as follows; Muddy Creek, Prairie and Fish creeks, Stonehouse Creek, Mud Creek, Wild House and nine Mile creeks, and Buck Creek.
Next in importance to the Kansas River is the delaware, which flows through the county with a considerable volume of water, and with a quite rapid current, thus affording excellent waterpower, at a distance varying from two to five miles apart. Its principal tributaries on the west side, beginning at the north are Jeff Creek, Cedar Creek, Peters Creek Duck Creek and Rock Creek. Tributary to the Delaware the east side, are Coal, Walnut, Little Brush, Little Rock, Little Slough, Big Slough, Wild Horse and Newell creeks. Besides these are Crooked, Little Walnut, and Fall creeks, with a number of small ones, tributary to those named, which serve a good purpose for stock watering purposes. Throughout the county, springs are quite numerous. Good well water is found in abundance at a depth of from twenty to forty feet.
The general surface of the country is gently undulating, although in some places it is too rough for cultivation. Along the streams are level and gentile valleys, which vary from a few rods to two miles and more in width. From the bottoms to the uplands, the surface of the land is much diversified, ascending to steep buffs in many places, and in others rising gradually. The uplands themselves consist of high and gently rolling prairie. Intersected, as it is, by numerous streams and valleys, Jefferson County is peculiarly well adapted to all kinds of agricultural and manufacturing industries, and is unrivaled in beauty by any other county in the State. the surface is about 18 per cent bottom land, 82 per cent upland, 10 per cent forest, and 90 per cent prairie. The average width of bottom lands is nearly one mile.
The rougher parts of the county are along the Delaware, in Osawkie, Fairview and Kentucky townships, and in the northern part of Rural and Sarcoxie townships. Although in the above-named localities there is considerable rough land, most of it is covered with timber; the remainder being good tillable land, well adapted to pasturage.
The southern half of the county, east of the Delaware River, is about 18 per cent timber, and this is continually increasing with the rapid growth of young timer. The principal varieties are oak, hickory, ash, walnut, hackberry, elm, maple, and cottonwood. On the prairies the farms are well ornamented with groves of shade trees, but aside from this, tree planting has not been carried on to any great extent.
The soil is a rich black loam, and the products embrace all varieties of grain and vegetables common to the same latitude in other States, the yield being generally very great.
The county is well adapted to fruit growing, and this industry is already an important one among its resources. Large and productive orchards of apples, peaches, pears, plums, etc., are found in every locality, while almost every farmer raises an abundant supply of small fruits.
Good limestone, suitable for building purposes, is found, in abundance in every township of the county. Besides this, an excellent quality of sandstone is found in abundance in several localities.
The greater part of the county is supposed to be underlaid by strata of coal, but as yet it has been developed only to a small extent. Three beds have been discovered in several localities, at a depth of from five to twenty feet. These beds are only of a few inches in thickness, and the quality is hardly medium. The principal localities where it is found, are in Townships 8 and 9, of Ranges 17, 18 and 19 east. It is used to a limited extent for local and domestic purposes.
The farms of the county are well fenced, more than one-third of the fence being hedge, which makes rapid and substantial growth. The other kinds of material in general use for fencing, are stone, rails, boards and wire.
Unlike some counties of the State, there is no herd law, therefore each farmer has to protect his own crops, and attention is given to securing durable fence. This also tends to diversify farming and stock-growing interests.
There are no large manufactories in the county. There are a number of flouring mills, cheese factories, etc., on the various streams.
The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad enters the county from the north at Nortonville, thence extends in a southwesterly direction, crossing the Delaware River at Valley Falls, and leaves the county in the southwestern part of Rock Creek Township. The stations are Nortonville, Nichols, Valley Falls, Rock Creek and Meriden.
The Kansas Central (narrow gauge) Railroad starts at Leavenworth, enters Jefferson County from the east, at a point a little less than five miles from its northern boundary, extends west to Winchester and from that place to Valley Falls, thence northwest, up the east side of the Delaware, crossing the northern boundary of the county about four miles from the northwest corner. The stations are Winchester, Boyle, Valley Falls and Half Mound.
The Kansas Pacific Railroad traverses the southern part of the country, up the north side of the Kansas River, entering the country at the southeast corner of Rural Township. The stations are Buck Creek, Rural, Perry, Medina, Newman and Grantville.
The Leavenworth, Topeka & Southwestern Railroad starts from Leavenworth, enters Jefferson County on the eastern boundary of Union Township, and extends west to Oskaloosa; thence to Osawkie, where it crosses the Delaware River; thence extends southwest, forming a junction with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad at Meriden. Besides the above named stations there is one named McLouth, in Union Township.
Population 1870 1880 ----- ----- (a) Delaware Township, including Valley Falls City 1,943 2,722 (b) Fairview Township 705 (c) Jefferson Township 1,680 1,639 Kaw Township 749 838 Kentucky Township, including Perry City 1,976 1,556 (d) Norton Township 1,376 (e) Osawkie Township 1,600 965 Oskaloosa Township, including Oskaloosa City 1,613 2,000 Rock Creek Township 441 1,147 (f) Rural Township 1,027 (g) Sarcoxie Township 1,876 716 Union Township 648 872 ------ ------ 12,526 15,563 Valley Falls City 1,016 Perry City 319 Oskaloosa City 725 (a) In 1876, name changed from Grasshopper Falls. (b) Organized in 1871 from part of Osawkie. (c) In 1880, part detached to form Norton. (d) Organized in 1880 from part of Jefferson. (e) In 1871, part detached to form Fairview. (f) organized in 1871 from part of Sarcoxie. (g) In 1871, part detached to form Rural.