|KANSAS COLLECTION BOOKS|
|PART 1:||Natural Features | Map and Population | Iowa And Sac Mission | Squatters' Association|
|PART 2:||Troubles of '55 | Defunct Towns | Political Organization | County Officers | Fair Association|
|PART 4:||Biographical Sketches (Albertson - Hutchins)|
|PART 5:||Biographical Sketches (Kuehl - Winzer)|
|PART 6:||Geary City and Brenner|
|PART 8:||Biographical Sketches (Bailey - Johnson)|
|PART 9:||Biographical Sketches (Miller - Zimmerman)|
|PART 10:||White Cloud | Biographical Sketches (Arnold - Dunkin)|
|PART 11:||Biographical Sketches (Farrow - Wakefield)|
|PART 13:||Biographical Sketches|
|PART 14:||Iowa Point | Fanning|
|PART 17:||East Norway | Wathena|
|PART 18:||Elwood | Union Township|
|PART 19:||Marion Township | Burr Oak Township|
DONIPHAN County, situated in the extreme northeast of Kansas, makes but a small showing on the general map, but a great one in the history of the State. It is bounded on the south by the Missouri River, the State of Missouri and Atchison County, Kansas; west by Brown County; north by the State line and the Missouri, and east by the Missouri River and the State of Missouri.
The county has, according to the Government survey, twenty-five per cent of bottom and seventy-five per cent of upland. Forest covers sixteen per cent of the county and rolling prairie and bluffs the other eighty-four per cent.
Timber is found quite plentifully along the Missouri River, and averages one mile in width. Along the minor streams it runs from one-quarter to one-half of a mile. The principal varieties of forest trees are black walnut, hickory, oak and cottonwood.
The land is watered by Wolf River, which passes through the towns of Leona and Severance, then turns northeast and finally north, passing through Fanning, and at last emptying into the Missouri, Clear and Mission creeks, running north through the west part of the county to the Missouri, and Independence, Rock and Brush creeks running south to the Missouri. There are also many small streams which are either nameless or have merely local names not in universal use.
Of the 242,560 acres of land in the county, about sixty per cent is under cultivation. Doniphan County is not rich in minerals, no coal having been discovered, and, although building stone is believed to exist, no quarries have yet been developed.
MAP OF DONIPHAN COUNTY.
1870. 1880. ----- ----- Burr Oak Township 1,015 1,014 Center Township, including Troy City 2,248 2,177 Iowa Township, incl. Highland City and White Cloud City 3,531 3,607 Marion Township 658 619 (a) Union Township 816 Washington Township, including Elwood City and Wathena City 2,513 1,865 Wayne Township, incl. Doniphan City 2,070 1,961 (b) Wolf River Township, including Severance City 1,934 2,198 ------ ------ 13,969 14,257 Troy City 639 694 Highland City 282 441 White Cloud City 843 825 Elwood City 323 Wathena City 710 Doniphan City 528 518 Severance City 375 (a) Organized in 1878, from part of Wolf River. (b) Organized in 1878, from part of Union.
IOWA AND SAC MISSION.
The earliest settlement within the present boundaries of Doniphan was the Iowa and Sac Mission, which was opened under the auspices of the American Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, the work being in charge of Rev. S. M. Irvin, who came to Kansas in 1837, and was the first white man to take up permanent residence in the then unorganized county. His wife accompanied him. Six months after the arrival of Mr. Irvin, Rev. Wm. Hamilton came to the Mission. The first mission buildings were of logs, but before many years the grand old Mission building, part of which is still standing, was erected. It was situated about one mile east of the present town of Highland. This was a monster structure for the times. Its dimensions were 170x37 feet, and it had three stories. The basement was of fine cut stone, quarried near the river, and the brick for the superstructure was made on the spot by men from St. Joseph, Mo. The lumber came from Pittsburgh, Pa., and made an exact steamer load. Starting at Pittsburgh it came down the Ohio and Mississippi to St. Louis, and thence up the Missouri to the river bank opposite the Mission, where it was discharged. Notwithstanding the great size of the building, it was put up quite cheaply, the brick costing but three dollars per thousand and the men's wages averaging ten dollars per month. After serving its purpose for more than a quarter of a century, this historic building was sold in April, 1868, to J. P. Johnson, of Highland. A quarter of it was at once taken down with the intention of using the material in the construction of the University building. This project was not, however, carried out, and the cut stone still lies near the house of J. P. Johnson, in Highland, the other material being scattered. The remainder of the building, which brought $7,500 at auction in New York, is still standing to the north of the road to Highland Station, on the Atchison & Nebraska Railway, and about midway between the two points.
At the old Mission, from 1842 onward, a number of grammars and text books in the Indian language were set up and printed, the work, both literary and typographical, being done by Rev. S. M. Irvin and William Hamilton. The title of one of these books, still in the possession of Rev. S. M. Irvin, runs as follows
"AN IOWA GRAMMAR, illustrating the principles of the language used by the Ioway, Otoe and Missouri. Prepared and printed by Rev. Wm. Hamilton and Rev. S. M. Irvin under the direction of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions Ioway and Sac Mission Press 1848."This book is interleaved with, white pages for the convenience of annotation. It is a 16 mo of 152 pages. The old press upon which it was printed is still in the possession of Rev. S. M. Irvin, at Highland.
After the opening of the Territory and the sale of the Iowa trust lands, the Indian reservation was made to embrace a narrow strip on the north of the county, where the remnant of the once powerful tribe is now located. They have there a small village called Nohart, after a famous warrior of the tribe in the days of Indian supremacy.
"Immediately after the treaty with the Kickapoos, in 1854, a meeting of the squatters was called, and held at J. R. Whitehead's, June 24, and organized a Squatters' Sovereign Association. A. M. Mitchell, of St. Joe, was chairman. J. R. Whitehead, secretary. An executive committee was appointed, consisting of John H. Whitehead, H. Smallwood, J. B. O'Toole, J. W. Smith, Sr., Sam. Montgomery, B. Harding, J. W. Smith, Jr., J. J. Keaton, T. W. Waterson, C. B. Whitehead, Anderson Cox and Joseph Siciliff.The first record upon the books of the County Commissioners of Doniphan County records the meeting "of the Squatter Association of Kansas Territory, held at Whitehead on the 22nd of July, 1854, in accordance with a resolution passed by an adjourned meeting of the 24th of June." The proceedings of their meeting are spread upon the records as follows:
Thomas W. Waterson was called to the chair, and James R. Whitehead appointed secretary of the meeting.Following this record comes the filing of claims by the squatter settlers. Many of these bear date July 1st, and give the time of taking possession of the land at various dates, the earliest being that of James R. Whitehead, who "claims the above described parcel of land by right of actual settlement and peaceable possession of the same from the first day of November, 1851." This claim is also stated to be "composed of two fractional quarter sections supposed to contain 160 acres," and is located by giving the names of adjoining claimants, and also by stating that it is opposite the southwest quarter of Section 34, Township 58, Range 36, in Missouri.
Entry number eighteen, bears date of July 4, and states the time of residence of the claimant, Andrew J. Branson, as beginning March 28, 1854. Across the face of this entry appear the significant words, "The above claim was awarded to Mewer on the 15th day of July by the Vigilance Committee, J. R. Whitehead, recorder."
On August 19th, 1854, the Squatter Association met at Whitehead, and the following business was transacted: James B. O'Toole was appointed chairman, and James R. Whitehead. secretary. It was resolved,
"That from and after this date all disputes in relation to claims, shall be referred to a committee of three to be appointed by the Vigilance Committee, who shall be authorized to settle all disputes so referred. Provided, however, that any persons feeling themselves aggrieved, have the right of appeal to the Committee of Vigilance previously appointed, which shall hold its meetings on the first Monday of each month, at Whitehead."On October 15, 1854, the Squatters' Association met and proceeded to the consideration of the first case of forcible ejection of a claim holder who had "jumped" the land of another. A committee was appointed to draw up appropriate resolutions which were at once reported, and were as follows:
Whereas it appears from the records of this association, that George Jameson on the --- day of --- 1854, took possession of a claim owned by W. K. Richardson, which was in Kansas Territory, within the jurisdiction of this association, and that on the --- day of --- 1854, said Jameson at the instance of said Richardson was duly notified to appear before the Vigilance Committee of this association for the purpose of contesting the validity of his claim if he had any, and whereas he failed to appear before said committee, and judgment was in consequence thereof rendered against him by default, and the Marshal of this association was required to notify said Jameson of said judgment, and to require him to leave said claim before the 5th inst., and whereas he refuses to leave said claim and is still thereon in defiance of the judgment of the Vigilance Committee and the notice to leave,At the December meeting of the Vigilance, but little of moment occurred. The only resolution offered being one calling for total disregard of complaints from persons not residents of the Territory, unless they should make oath of their intentions to become bona fide settlers. With this entry closes the record of the Squatters' Association, and the next proceedings were those of the Court of County Commissioners called on September 17, 1855, at the town of Whitehead.