KANSAS COLLECTION BOOKS

William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas


COWLEY COUNTY, Part 4

[TOC] [part 5] [part 3] [Cutler's History]

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES (ALEXANDER - CURNS).

COL. J. M. ALEXANDER, merchant and fruit-grower, was born in Cortland County, N. Y., in 1822; son of Leonard and Sally Alexander. Was educated at the Cortland Academy. At the age of sixteen engaged in teaching. Two years later, commenced reading law at Honesdale, Penn. Was admitted to the bar at the age of twenty-one, and commenced practice. In 1846, was married to Miss Anna T. Atwater, niece of the late Dr. Gardiner Spring, of New York, who has borne him three children - Blanche A., Belle J., deceased, and Lizzie M. In 1852, he became editor and proprietor of the Luzerne Union one of the prominent Democratic papers of the State, published at Wilkes barre (sic), Penn. Conducted that enterprise for two years, and in 1854 came to Kansas. Located at Leavenworth City and engaged in the practice of his profession, and remained until 1870, when, on the opening up of the Osage Indian Reservation, he removed to Winfield, in Cowley County, and opened a law office, and continued until 1882, when, on account of his health, he went with the family to Florida, where he is extensively engaged in merchandising and fruit-growing. He to also an extensive land and property owner in this county. He owns 320 acres of land adjoining the city of Winfield, all improved, and a large amount of business and resident property in the city. He is a Democrat in politics, but devotes his energies to the practice of his profession rather than politics, and success has rewarded his efforts. During the early territorial times, he was involved in the troubles of that date, but being conservative in his views, did much in saving the lives and property of the citizens. He was elected State Senator in 1871, but it was subsequently decided that the district was not entitled to a Senator. He was a member of, and a successful practitioner in the Supreme Court of Kansas. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, A., F. & A. M., and of the I. O. O. F. The title of Colonel was derived by commission from Gov. Bigler, of Pennsylvania, who appointed him one of his Aids in 1854, with that rank.

G. H. ALLEN, agent of Wells & Fargo Express, was born in Plymouth County, Mass., in 1848; son of Charles C. and Phoebe Allen. He was raised in Massachusetts. At the age of twenty-four, he removed to New Hampshire, where he was engaged for three years in landscape gardening and engineering. He afterward spent one year in Massachusetts. In 1876, he came to Kansas, and located in Humboldt, where he was engaged for a short time in the grocery business, and then took the agency of the Adams Express, which position he occupied for about four years; one and one-half years of that time he was located at this place. In 1881, he took the agency of the Wells & Fargo Express for Winfield. When he took the agency at Winfield the business amounted to about $800 per month. It is now about $3,000. The business is primarily produce for Western shipment. Mr. Allen has given the business his personal attention, and has succeeded in building up a good trade. He was married, in 1874, to Miss Ella Hastings, daughter of Samuel Hastings, of South Deerfield, Mass. He is a member of the A., F. & A. M., K. of H., and of the K. & L. of H., of which Mrs. Allen is also a member. He is a graduate of the Massachusetts Agricultural College.

HENRY E. ASP, attorney at law, was born in New Boston, Mercer Co., Ill., in 1856; son of John H. and Christina Asp. Received his elementary education at the common schools. At the age of eighteen, he entered the business college at Rock Island, Ill. Commenced to read law in 1874. In December, 1875, he came to Kansas, and located at Winfield, where he resumed the study of law in the office of Judge E. S. Torrance. Was admitted to the bar in 1877. Commenced to practice the same year, and has devoted himself exclusively to his profession, and has met with the most flattering success. He has an extensive practice, and is one of the best criminal lawyers in Southern Kansas. He was married, in 1880, to Miss Nellie M. Powers, daughter of N. M. and Ellen M. Powers. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, a Republican in politics, and takes an active part in all the public interests of the city in which he lives.

A. E. BAIRD, proprietor of the New York Store - dry goods, boots and shoes - was born in St. Charles, Ill., in 1842; son of A. H. and M. A. Baird. He came to Kansas in 1859. At the breaking-out of the war he enlisted in Company D, Fifth Kansas Cavalry, and participated in the engagements of Little Rock, Pine Bluff, Helena, and other engagements of his command. Much of the time, his regiment was engaged in pursuit of bushwackers. He enlisted a private, and was promoted to a Sergeant. Was mustered out in September, 1861, and was subsequently employed by the Quartermaster's Department at Little Rock, Ark. At the close of the war, he returned to Mound City, where he engaged in mercantile business for one year, and then engaged in farming near Lawrence. Subsequently, he removed to Elk City, and engaged in merchandising. Remained until 1876, when he located at Winfield, and engaged in business in the firm or Harter Brothers & Baird. Soon after the firm was changed to Baird Brothers, who continued the business for three years. In 1882, they divided the stock, and the subject of this sketch continued the business, which is located on Main street, near Tenth avenue. Owns the entire store, 25 x 100 feet, two stories and basement, built of brick and stone. His business has increased about 300 per cent since its establishment. He was married, in 1867, to Miss Maggie Curry, daughter of Thomas Curry. They have five children - Mamie, Pauline, Flora, Waldo and Eugene. He is a member of Knights of Honor Lodge, No. 479.

FRANK BARCLAY, plumber, steam and hydraulic engineer, was born in Ohio in 1827; son of Robert and Laura Barclay. He was raised in Ohio. In early life, he chose the profession of an engineer, and for twenty-three years he was engaged as an engineer on the boats of the Mississippi River. He came to Kansas in 1877, and spent some time in the Neosho Valley, Wichita, and El Dorado, engaged at his trade. He then located at Winfield, and established his business at this place. The business the first year amounted to $2,000, which has increased to $12,000 in 1882. He has the superintendency and construction of the Winfield Water-works now in course of construction. He has the agency of Dunning's self-regulating and self-feeding, low pressure, steam boilers for heating residences, public buildings, blocks, etc. He has the agency of all the territory lying west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains, and also of the Springfield, Mass., gas machine for the same territory. He is also dealer in bronze and ornamental gas fixtures, artistic mantles, grates and fenders; also a great variety of the finest plumbing goods, statuary and fountains. He represents the finest goods of the above line of any establishment in Southern Kansas. He was married, in 1862, to Miss Fanny Hydon, by whom he has three children - Frank, Homer and Zaide.

SAMUEL BARD, of the firm of Harris & Bard, real estate and land agents, was born in St. Louis, Mo., in 1835; son of James and Rachel Bard. Mustered in as First Lieutenant, Company A, First Regiment Arkansas Infantry Volunteers, February 14, 1863. Promoted to Captain, in 1864, of Company I, First Arkansas Infantry, which commission he held until the close of the war. He participated in the engagements of Lone Jack, Prairie Grove, Fayetteville, Little Rock, Selma River, and others of his command. Was wounded at Lone Jack, by a gunshot in the right leg. Was mustered out in August, 1865. He married, in 1862, Miss Martha A. Williams, daughter of David and Mary Williams. They have had six children, five of whom survive - Josephine, Ida, Mattie, Gracie and Charlie E. After the war, he was engaged in the reconstruction in Arkansas. Was editor and proprietor of the Monmouth Echo and the Fayetteville News. In 1868 was Representative of Washington County, in the Arkansas Legislature. Was appointed, in 1871, Assessor of that county. In 1873, was appointed Judge. In 1876, went to California, and there engaged in the real estate business. He came to Kansas in 1881, and located at Winfield, and, in 1882, formed a partnership with T. J. Harris in the real estate and loan business. The father of the subject of this sketch was taken prisoner at Pilot Point, Tex., in 1864, and was murdered in prison by a desperado named Huston Holt, who is now serving life sentence for the crime. Mr. Bard is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Knights Templar, and of the Royal Arcanum.

L. L. BECK, Police Judge, was born in Columbiana County, Ohio, in 1838, son of Israel S. and Cornelia Beck. In early life, Mr. Beck engaged in merchandising, which pursuit he followed until 1877, when he came to Kansas and located in Cowley County, and engaged in farming. He was also extensively engaged in dealing in stone for building material. In the spring of 1880, located in Winfield, where he engaged in transfer and coal business for one year, and then engaged in the grain business in the firm of Bartlet & Co. Last year, the firm handled 250,000 bushels of grain at this place. Mr. Beck was elected Police Judge in the spring of 1883. He was married to Miss Ruth Bradfield, daughter of John and Catharine Bradfield. He has seven children - Charles, Elgi, William C., John, Mary J., Catharine and Lewis S. He is a member of the Christian Church and of the Masonic fraternity.

E. S. BEDILION, Clerk of District Court, was born in Ohio County, W. Va., in 1844, son of Abram and Margaret B. R. Bedilion, natives of Pennsylvania. Mr. B. lived with his parents until obtaining his majority; was educated at Washington, Penn. After completing his studies, was engaged for one year as clerk for the Provost Marshal in Wheeling, Va. then for two years as bookkeeper and traveling salesman, and for one year as hotel clerk. In 1871, came to Kansas and located in Winfield, when there were but a very few houses in the place. In l872, he was appointed Deputy Postmaster of the Winfield office, and in 1873, he was appointed Deputy Clerk of the District Court. Held that appointment in 1873-74, and in the fall of 1874, was elected Clerk of the Court, and has been re-elected each succeeding term from that time, now serving his fifth term. Was Clerk of Winfield Township four years and was Deputy Register of Deeds for six years. Mr. B. was married in 1869, to Miss Ella J. Ellis. Has three children - Maggie R., born in 1870; Sarah G., in 1874, and Paul E., in 1879. Mr. and Mrs. B. are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he is one of its trustees; he is also a member of the I. O. O. F., Winfield Lodge, No. 101.

CHARLES C. BLACK, of the firm of Black & Rembaugh, editors and publishers of the Telegram, was born in Hampton, Ill., in 1853, son of Francis and Charlotte E. (Bretton) Black. Graduate of "Little Blue" school, Farmington, Me. Came to Kansas in 1871, and located in Winfield, engaged in the cattle trade. Subsequently, read law and was admitted to the bar in 1877, and followed the practice of his profession for three years. In 1880, he engaged in the newspaper business by purchasing the Telegram publishing establishment, a Democratic paper established by Mr. Allison in 1872. Mr. Black in 1882, sold a half interest to Mr. Rembaugh, and now the paper is published and edited by Black & Rembaugh. Mr. Black built the Telegram office, which is 30 x 80 feet, two stories, built of stone, one of the best and most complete offices in the State. He also built the Bretton House, a three-story and basement hotel, 55 x l00 feet, built of cut magnesian limestone, at a cost of $28,000. Lighted with gas, heated by steam, every room supplied with water in marble basins, the most complete in all of its appointments of any hotel in the State. Mr. Black has done much to advance the interests of the city; is a large property owner in business and residence property. He was a candidate on the Democratic ticket for State Treasurer in 1876, and for State Senator in 1880. He was married in 1874, to Miss M. E. Braidwood, a daughter of Thomas and Marion Braidwood. Has three children - Marion E., Frances and Charles B. He has been a member of City Council two terms.

T. A. BLANCHARD, farmer, Section 7, P. O. Winfield, was born in Perry County, Ind., in 1833, is a son of I. A. and Margaret Blanchard. His mother died in Cowley County in l870. He was married in 1857, to Miss Sarah E. Allen, daughter of John C. and Margaret Allen. They have four children - Mary E., John D., Lammie and Elphia. He came to Kansas in 1865, and located in Woodson County, where he engaged in f arming and stock-raising. He was Sheriff of that county one term. In 1869, he moved to the farm where he now resides. He has an orchard of 100 peach, 120 apple and a variety of other fruits. He was in the war of the rebellion, enlisted in 1861, in the Seventh Missouri Cavalry, Company I. He was in the battles of Lone Jack, Bloomfield, Cape Girardeau, Springfield, Little Rock, Brownsville, Branchford, Chalk Bluff and Duvall's Bluff. In 1863, he re-enlisted in the First Missouri Veteran Cavalry, and was in the battle of Marks Mill, Camden, Saline River, Pine Bluff and in other engagements of his command, and was mustered out in 1865 a First Sergeant. Mr. B. was Township Clerk for four terms, is now Trustee of Walnut Township; was one of the first County Commissioners of the county. He is a member of the Old Settlers Association of Cowley County, of the A., F. & A. M., G. A. R., Winfield Post, and of the I. O. O. F.

C. A. BLISS, of the firm of Bliss & Wood, proprietors of the Winfield Mills, was born at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., in 1831, son of James and Anna Bliss. At the age of twenty-one, he went to Michigan, and at the end of two years he went to Beloit, Wis., where he was married in 1854, to Miss Julia M. Tuttle, daughter of Chauncey and Amy Tuttle. Had two children, one of whom survives, Blanche. Mrs. Bliss died in 1882. Mr. Bliss came to Kansas in 1866, and removed his family the following spring, located at Topeka, and engaged in the carpenter business for one year, then engaged in the grocery business, which he followed for fifteen years. He removed to Cowley County in 1870, and located in Winfield. In 1872, he built a flouring mill on the Walnut River, with two run of stone for wheat and one for corn, that was the first mill built in Cowley County. From that time, Mr. Bliss made such improvements in this mill as the development of the country demanded until 1880, when he sold to Mr. Wood and soon after purchased a half interest and Bliss & Wood made still greater improvements and were adding iron rollers at the time it was burned. The capacity of the mill at the time it was destroyed was 125 barrels per day. Mr. Bliss being a pioneer in this county and fully realizing what the growth and development of this section of the State demanded, concluded that the best was not too good for Kansas, and to-day their fine mill stands as a perpetual reminder of the enterprise and ability of the firm of Bliss & Wood. Mr. B. is a member of the Baptist Church, a zealous worker for the cause and was one of the active ones in devoting his time and means to the erection of the Baptist Church building, of which he, with every other citizen of Winfield, may feel proud. He is also a member of the Masonic fraternity and of the A. O. U. W., also of the Select Lodge of the same order. He is a strong temperance man, liberal in his views in regard to public enterprise, and ever active in the interests of the public good.

O. BRANHAM, agent of the K. C., L. & S. K. Railroad, was born in Indiana in 1847, son of Preston and Emily Branham. He commenced railroading at the age of fourteen, and has followed that business as freight clerk, telegraph operator, train dispatcher and agent. He came to Kansas in 1868 and located at Sheridan on the K. P. Railroad and at other places in this State as his companies required. He was located in New Mexico for a short time, but soon returned to Lawrence, this State, and accepted a position of telegraph operator and assistant to the superintendent of Telegraph; subsequently, his present position of agent at Winfield for the K. C., L. & S. K. Railroad; was married in 1871 to Miss Cassie E. Mitchell, daughter of William and Harriet Mitchell, who has borne him two children, one of whom survives, born in November, 1873. He is a member of the Congregational church. He was in the late war; enlisted in Company B, One Hundred and Thirty-second Indiana Volunteers in 1864, and was mustered out 1865.

REV. WILLIAM BRITTAIN. Episcopal clergyman, was born in Ireland in 1828; son of Matthew and Anna Brittain. He was educated in the diocesan school of Ossary & Ferns, an institution connected with the University of London; he was ordained in Ireland and transferred to the American church in 1863. He labored for some time in the East and South, and has but recently entered upon his present charge at this place. He was married in 1861 to Miss Sarah King, a native of England, who has borne him five children, four of whom survive - Julia, Arthur K., Elith and Emmelius - all of whom are married. Mr. Brittain has devoted his life exclusively to the ministry.

T. R. BRYAN, grocer and City Treasurer, was born in Missouri in 1839, son of W. H. and Jane A. Bryan; he being left an orphan at the age of fourteen, went to live with his uncle in Bloomington, Ill. He was educated at Eureka College, Eureka, Ill., and immediately after graduating in May, 1861, enlisted in Company G, Seventeenth Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry. A short time after his enlistment, he was taken with a severe illness and was disabled from service for seven months. In 1862, he was appointed Quartermaster Sergeant, which position he held until the fall of the same year, when be was detailed to the Commissary Department of the Third Division, Seventeenth Army Corps, where he remained until the close of his term of service, when he was mustered out May 24, 1864, remained with the army until the capture of Atlanta, Ga., in September of the same year. He was married in December, 1864, to Miss Eleanor R. Jones, daughter of Joshua and Sarah V. Jones. They have had six children, five of whom survive - William H., Jay J., Thomas P., Fannie I. and Parke Bryan. He came to Kansas in 1870, and located on a farm in this county, where he remained for six years. He was a Representative in the Kansas Legislature from Cowley County in 1875. He was elected County Treasurer in November, 1876, and held the office four years. At the expiration of his term of office, he engaged in the real estate business for two years and then formed a partnership with J. B. Lynn, and engaged in the grocery, queensware and glassware trades. The business is located on Main street, one door north of Lynn's dry goods store. Their store is 25 x 75 feet, with basement, built of stone, with iron front. Mr. B. is a member of the Christian Church, and the K., of H. He has been a member of the City School Board, and is now serving his second term as City Treasurer.

G. H. BUCKMAN, attorney at law and Justice of the Peace, was born in Tazewell County, Ill., in 1853; son of Calvin F. and Mary S. Buckman. He received his elementary education at the high school of Delavan, and his legal education at the Michigan University of Ann Arbor, where he graduated in the class of 1876. He came to Kansas in June of the same year, located at Winfield, and commenced the practice of his profession. He has devoted his time exclusively to his profession. He was elected Justice of the Peace in the fall of 1877, which office he held until the spring of 1881, when he resigned, but was appointed to the same office in December of that year, and was re-elected in 1882. He is a Republican in politics, and has ever taken an active part in the public interests of the community in which he lives. He was married, in the fall of 1877, to Miss Annie Newman, daughter of J. and Harriet Newman. Has one child - Stella L. Buckman. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church and of the K. of P., Chevalier Lodge, No. 70; also of the Royal Arcanum, Kansas Council, No. 540.

DR. F. H. BULL, surgeon, dentist, was born in Perrysburg, Wood County, Ohio, in 1840; son of Dr. T. J. and N. W. Bull. He was educated at Dubuque, Iowa, and commenced the practice of his profession in 1860. In the fall of 1864, he enlisted in Company C, Twenty-eighth Regiment Illinois Volunteers. Was in the engagement and capture of Spanish Fort. Subsequently was detailed as clerk, and held that position until he was mustered out, in October, 1865. After leaving the service, he went to Warsaw, Ill., and engaged to the practice of dentistry with his father until 1867, when he removed to Albia, Iowa. After practicing in Iowa until 1877, he removed to Kansas and located at Winfield. His office is located on Main street, first building north of Johnson's drug store. He has met with eminent success in his profession, being an accomplished workman. He has an extensive practice in the best class of trade. He was married, in 1869, to Miss Julia A. Millspaugh. He has three children - R. T., Clyde and Clint. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., and A. O. U. W., No. 18.

JAMES R. BULLEN, firm of James H. Bullen & Co., lumber dealers, was born in Maine in 1836; son of Joshua and Clarissa H. Bullen. He was raised in his native State. At the age of eighteen, he went to St. Paul, Minn., and engaged in lumbering four years. He came to Kansas in 1857, located at Leavenworth, where he remained for twelve years, engaged as Superintendent of lumber yard. He than located in Sumner County, and engaged in farming six years. He then came to Winfield, and established the lumber business at this place. In 1881 he formed a partnership with his brother, C. A. Bullen, of Eau Clair, Wis., under the firm name of J. H. Bullen & Co. Their lumber yard is located on South Main street. He has built up an extensive business, his sales for the last year amounting to $16,000. He was married, in 1857, to Miss Alma Greenwood, daughter of Nathaniel and Hulda Greenwood. They have five children, three of whom survive - Harry B., Clara H. and Florence. Mr. B. was Justice of the Peace four years in Sumner County.

S. E. BURGER, farmer, Section 17, P. O. Winfield, owns 163 acres, 140 in cultivation, 5 in orchard and 23 in native timber. Dwelling 14 x 30, with ell l2 x 6; 1 1/2 stories. Also a tenant building, large stone corral and outbuildings. Mr. B. was born in Missouri, December 2, 1843, and was raised on a farm and had a good common school education. In 1863, he enlisted in Company G, Eighth Missouri Volunteer Cavalry, and served with his command in Missouri and Arkansas, mostly engaged in fighting and dispersing guerrilla bands, and followed Price on his raid into Missouri, after which he returned to Davall's Bluff, where he was mustered out in the summer of 1865. In 1865, after return from the war, he moved to Iowa, and came from there to Kansas in 1869, stopping at Emporia the first few months and locating here January 31, 1870. Mr. B. has served as Justice of the Peace for three years, and on the School Board for one term. Is now Contract Superintendent of the Poor, and has been since 1880; has at present seven individuals under his charge. Is a member of the Masons, Blue Lodge, Chapter and Commandery.

REV. JAMES CAIRNS, Baptist clergyman, was born in Scotland in 1824, son of Peter and Elizabeth Cairns. Was educated in Scotland. Came to the United States in 1849, and engaged four years in mechanical and mercantile pursuits. In 1854, commenced the work of the ministry. He was called to ordination by the Towanda Baptist Church, of Illinois. Was ordained at Bloomington. His first pastorate was the Towanda Baptist Church, and for twenty-four years he devoted himself to the work in Illinois. In 1878, came to Kansas and located in Winfield, and took the pastorate of the First Baptist Church of that place, which he still retains. During his ministry he has baptized 600 converts, has dedicated twenty-two churches and built six church buildings. The Baptist Church in Winfield, a most imposing and beautiful structure, was built under his administration at an expense of $15,000, and was dedicated free from debt. He was married, in 1848, to Miss Sarah S. Ewart, daughter of Robert and Hannah Ewart. They have ten children, seven of whom survive - Elizabeth H., George R., John W., James A., Mary E., Lucy E. and Margaret A.

WILLIAM B. CATON, proprietor of the Cowley County Marble Works, was born in Ohio in 1849. Removed with his parents to Missouri in 1858. In 1861, his father enlisted in the army, and the subject of this sketch, who was then but thirteen years old, enlisted in the Missouri State Militia, and in 1862 enlisted as bugler in Company E, in the Merrill Horse, where he served for three years in the regular army. Was in the engagements of his command. Was mustered out in October, 1865. He then learned the marble trade, and has followed that business. He came to Kansas in 1880, located at Winfield and established the Cowley County Marble Works, located on Ninth avenue. Owns the building where he carries on the business. His business has increased about 500 per cent since its establishment. Has the largest business in his line in the county. Was married, in 1869, to Miss Julia Blankemeister, who has borne him three children, two of whom survive - Harry and Lottie. Mrs. Caton is a daughter of J. P. and L. W. Blankemeister, natives of Germany, of French descent. She was educated in the female college at Boonville, Mo.; graduated in 1868. She has been engaged in teaching for five years, and for ten years has been teacher of music; for two years taught German in the college where she graduated, and for three years in the public schools of Winfield. Mr. Caton is a member of the A. 0. U. W., the Select Knights, and of the Winfield Post of the G. A. R.

JETHRO COCHRAN, farmer, Section 32, P. O. Winfield, was born in Indiana in 1848, son of James and Matilda Cochran. His parents moved to Iowa when he was seven years old, where he was engaged in farming. In 1870, he came to Kansas and located on the farm where he now resides. Owns 160 acres of land, of which he has 90 acres under cultivation. His principal crops are wheat and corn. His orchard consists of 1,000 peach, 130 apple, and a variety of other fruit. He is engaged in farming and hog-raising, at which he is very successful. Mr. Cochran was married, in 1875, to Miss Frances Prater, daughter of Giles W. and Harriet Prater, who has borne him three children - Maud, Mable and James G.

J. W. CURNS, real estate, loan and insurance agents, of the firm of Curns & Manser, was born in Clinton County, Penn., in 1843, son of John R. and Jennett W. Curns. Came to Kansas in 1866, located at Fort Scott and engaged in teaching for two years and then worked at his trade, which was that of a stone-cutter. He was married to Miss Fannie V. Hulse in Fort Scott in 1870. In the spring of 1871, he removed to Winfield and there worked at his trade for one year. He was then appointed Deputy Register of Deeds. In 1873, he formed a partnership with Mr. G. S. Manser, and engaged in the real estate, loan and abstract of title office, to which they added insurance in 1874. They now have the agency of twelve fire insurance companies and one life and accident company. Their firm is the oldest in Cowley County, and they have an extensive business. Their office is located on Main street, between Eighth and Ninth avenues. Their business has increased 500 per cent since its establishment. Mr. Curns is an Elder in the Presbyterian Church. He has held the office of Justice of the Peace for two years and Police Judge two terms.

[TOC] [part 5] [part 3] [Cutler's History]