|KANSAS COLLECTION BOOKS|
COUNTY ORGANIZATION AND COUNTY SEAT TROUBLES.
The county was permanently organized in February, 1867. On the 5th of November following, an election for county officers was held, which resulted in electing the following officers by the vote attached to their respective names: Commissioners, W. C. Pender, 533; P. G. Noel, 330; Johnathan D. Busk, 335; Probate Judge, J. B. Hodgens, 337; District Clark, L. Williams, 334; County Clerk, William Little, 331; Register of Deeds, C. A. Keithly, 333; Sheriff, W. G. Seright, 323; Treasurer, J. J. Goodner, 336; Surveyor, J. C. Lucas, 512; Assessor, Clinton McMickle, 443; Coroner, A. Lynch, 494; Superintendent of Instruction, William Givens, 329. On the proposition to strike the word "white" out of the Constitution, the vote stood 220 for 299 against; on the proposition to strike out the word "male" the vote stood 232 for, and 269 against; and on the proposition to limit the exercise of the elective franchise to loyal persons, the vote was 404 for it, to 86 against. At that time the county had been divided into the following townships: Pleasant View, Shawnee, Spring Valley, Lyon, Lola, Salamanca, Ross, Sheridan and Neosho.
The first meeting of the Commissioners was held at Pleasant View. at which time Sidney Smith was appointed to fill the vacancy in the board caused by the failure of Jonathan D. Busk to qualify, and the first account allowed was that of John D. Coulter as County Attorney, for $11.40. The second meeting was held February 6, 1868, at which John Mansfield was appointed County Treasurer to fill the vacancy caused by the failure to qualify of J. J. Goodner. The Treasurer's bond was fixed at $16,000. D. R. Martin was appointed Superintendent of Public Instruction. A grand jury was called to meet May 4, 1868, at Baxter Springs.
An election was held in November, 1869, which is important as showing the sentiment of the settlers on the question of contesting Mr. Joy's title to that portion of the Neutral Lands which he bad purchased of the Secretary of the Interior, as Trustee for the Cherokee Indians. The "Anti-Joy" settlers had formed a " Union " in every township, and had declared themselves in opposition to land monopolies, corruption in office, and wrong and oppression in every form. They opposed the presence of troops on the Neutral Lands, and severely censured Sheriff Seright for his certificate to the Governor setting forth his inability to execute the laws and asking for troops, and denounced the certificate as false, scandalous and malicious.
The Settler's Union elected one Commissioner out of three by a majority of 22 out of a total vote of 1,166; the other two Commissioners being elected by the "Joy" settlers, by a majority of 18 and 2 respectively out of about the same total vote. For Representative in the Legislature according to the face of the returns, J. B. Hodgens, "Joy" candidate, had 589 votes, while Amos Sanford, "Anti-Joy," had 587; but upon a contest it was decided that a few illegal votes had been cast for Hodgens, and this gave the seat to Mr. Sanford. J. S. Vincent, "Anti-Joy" candidate for Sheriff, was elected by a majority of two over his opponent, F. C. Turner, the vote being 581 to 579. J. C. Dunlavy, "Anti-Joy" candidate for Register of Deeds, was defeated by a majority of 2 by John Little; S. S. Smith "Anti-Joy" candidate for Treasurer, was elected by a majority of 9, over J. J. Goodner; J. H. Walker, "Anti-Joy" candidate for Coroner, was defeated by a majority of 8, and J. Wallace, "Anti-Joy" candidate for Surveyor, was elected by a majority of 69. These results show that the electors were very nearly equally divided on the question of buying land under the "Joy contracts."
Originally, the county seat was temporarily located at Freepoint, but so far as can be ascertained no business was transacted at this point, and in 1867, the county seat was temporarily located at Pleasant View. An election was held November 5,1867, for the permanent location of the county seat. The total number of votes cast was 139, of which Baxter Springs received 136, and Cherokee Center 3. The last meeting of the Commissioners Pleasant View was held April 10, 1868, and the first at Baxter Springs April 14. Thomas Little was allowed $5 for moving the records from one place to the other.
A vote was then taken May 12, 1868, but as no place bad received a majority of the votes, another election was held May 26, and as the result of this election Baxter Springs was declared to have received a majority of the votes, and so retained the county seat. The geographical center of the county had competed with Baxter Springs for the prize and had lost, as many believed, through fraud. The Commissioners, therefore, upon application, granted another election which was held February 17, 1869. It was firmly believed by those who favored the geographical center, that if a fair election could be held, the question would be decided in their favor. But they learned through espionage that certain parties at Baxter Springs were determined to win as they had done before - by stuffing the ballot box. It was therefore decided by these favoring the geographical center (Columbus), to cast if necessary more fraudulent votes than Baxter Springs, and thus to win in any event. One township was thereupon selected to cast the number of votes necessary to defeat Baxter Springs no matter how many fraudulent votes the latter place might cast. This township was Lola. The vote was canvassed on the 20th of February, and it was found that Baxter Springs had in her favor a total vote of 1,118. Of this number the town of Baxter Springs had furnished 1,045, the balance of the county having cast 73 in her favor. The returns from the whole county were in except those from Lola Township, and it was found that Columbus had but 799 votes. The party intrusted with the transmission of the returns from Lola Township, upon arriving at the court where the vote was being canvassed, found that he had "lost" the returns. He thereupon immediately set out to find them. He soon returned, having found them "in the lining of his overcoat," and then it was found that little Lola had done her duty nobly, she having come up smiling with 352 votes for Columbus, thus bringing up the total vote for Columbus to 1,151 - a majority of 33 over Baxter Springs.
As showing the fraudulent character of the vote cut at this election, the following comparisons are useful: The total vote on county seat was 2,276, while the total vote for President in November, 1868, was but 1,358, Lola Township having cast but 102, and Baxter Springs but 112. And in 1882, the total vote for Governor in Lola Township was only 203, while in Baxter Springs, it was 182, and the total vote in Spring Valley Township in which Baxter Springs is located, including the vote of Baxter Springs, was but 376.
Columbus having become the county seat, a "temporary court house" was erected in the winter of 1870-71, at a cost of about $1,400, on the northeast corner of the public square. It is an incommodious two-story frame building, and still is occupied for the purpose for which it was erected.
The State Representatives elected from this county, with date of election, have been follows; C. C. McDowell, 1869; Amos Sanford, 187O; George W. Wood 1871; George W. Wood and S. T. Kennedy, 1872; A. F. Childs and C. W. Harvey, 1873; L. T. Stowell and L. Conklin, 1874; H. H. Angell and W. E. Cowan, 1875; J. H. Smith and J. R. Hallowell, 1876; A. F. Harreld, S. W. Smith and H. W. Crowell, 1877; H. T. Helmick, T. P. Anderson and J. S. Gillespie, 1879; V. L Browning, C. R. Webbert and H. R. Hubbard, 1880; John T. Stewart, T. P. Anderson and W. B. Stone, 1882.
SCHOOL AND OTHER STATISTICS.
The public schools of the county have advanced with its growth. There are 100 districts, and 100 schoolhouses- 1 log house, 1 brick, 3 stone and 95 frame. The total number of school rooms is 117. The enumeration of school children for 1882, was 8,154 -4,217 males, 3,937, females; the total enrollment was 4,513 - males, 2,374; females, 2,139; the average attendance was 1,992 -males, 984, females, 1,OO8. The number of teachers employed was 159 - males, 74, females, 85; the average monthly wages for male was $35.50, for females, $27.90. The total valuation of school property was returned at $106,340, this is known to be too low, and $125,000 is deemed a fair estimate. The average tax for school purposes was 8 2/3 mills; the total receipts were $42,185.99, and the total expenditures, $42,185.99.
Crops.-The acreage of the principal crops in 1882 was as follows: Winter wheat, 28,804; rye, 463; corn, 71,360; oats, 14,700; buckwheat, 23; Irish potatoes, 700; sweet potatoes, 106; sorghum, 360; castor beans, 872; cotton, 68; flax, 8,270; millet and Hungarian, 3,536; pearl millet, 63; meadow-timothy, 854; clover, 136; other tame grasses, 240; prairie, 31,654; pasture-timothy, 278; clover, 29; other tame grasses, 1,663; prairie, 39,760.
Horticulture. - were 23 acres to nurseries and the following numbers of fruit trees: Apple-bearing, 143,716, not bearing, 87,308; pear-bearing, 5,116, not bearing, 5,310; peach-bearing, 105,000, not bearing, 92,167; plum-bearing, 6,817, not bearing, 5,770; cherry-bearing, 31,549, not bearing, 17,577. Of vineyards there were 67 acres, and 16 gallons of wine were made during the year.
The coal mining industry of Cherokee County is a very important one. The first mining was done in 1870, since which time the aggregate amount of coal raised has steadily increased, though at particular mines the amount has in some cases diminished. In 1872, there were raised upward of 16,000 tons; In 1881, there were 135,OOO tons mined at Stilson, Scammonville and Weir City, the value of which to the county could not be less than $270,00O. It is estimated that for 1882, not less than 300,000 tons were mined, the value of which to the county would be at least $600,000.
In 1860, the population of the county was 1,501; in 1870, 11,038; in 1875, 12,223; in 1878 17,770; in 1880, 21,907; in 1882, 23,232, divided among the townships and cities as follows: Pleasant View, 1,057; Cherokee, 1,332; Mineral, 1,224; Ross, 1,235; Sheridan, 1,644; Lola; 1,307; Salamanca, 759; Crawford, 1,031; Shawnee, 930; Lowell, including Galena, 3,721; Gardner, 1,128; Spring Valley, 1,373; Lyon, 942; Neosho, 1,237; Baxter Springs, 1,237, Empire City, 1,054 and Columbus, 2,021.
There are two main lines of railroad in this county-the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf, and the St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad; the former extends from north to south, and the latter from east to west, intersecting at Columbus. The Short Creek & Joplin Railroad extends from Baxter Strings northwestwardly through Empire City, to Joplin, Mo. The total number of miles of railroad in Cherokee County is 60. No county railroad bonds have been issued.
COLUMBUS, PART 1.
Columbus, the county seat, is beautifully located at the geographical center of the county and at the intersection of the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf Railroad with the St. Louis & San Francisco. It was named Columbus by F. Fry, after the capital of Ohio, and is now a lively and flourishing city of about 2,300 inhabitants.
The first settler on what is now the town site was John Appleby, who, in February, 1868, built a box house on Lot 17, Block 16, of the original plat of the town. The next house was commenced by Judge Fry in May following. When completed, the Judge opened therein the first hotel in the town; but, in the meantime, Martin Jones completed a dwelling house in June.
In the spring of 1868 a town company was organized, consisting of fourteen members, which laid off for a town site the southwest quarter of Section 13. As far as can be ascertained, the following were members of this company: Dr. Bailey, William Little, Z. Williams, H. Scovell, John Hanson, E. Hall, S. Houston, John Appleby, F. Fry and M. Jones. Some time in the early summer, a new town company was organized, consisting of four members, each of whom owned a quarter of Section 13, and each of whom donated a portion of his quarter-section, so that in the aggregate the town site consisted of about 100 acres, and was in the center of the section. This new town company consisted originally of F. Fry, John Appleby, H. Scovell and H. A. Scovell. Early in 1969, Dr. J. N. Lee bought Appleby's interest, and S. S. Smith bought H. A. Scovell's interest.
The first store opened in Columbus was by Dr. J. N. Lee, on December 25, 1868, the building having been completed in November. The second business established was a grocery store by Scovell & Hanson, in the spring of 1869, and the third was a drygoods and grocery by Bliss & Middaugh in August following. Dr. J. H. Walker was the first practicing physician, John Appleby the first Justice of the Peace, and F. Fry the first lawyer, though Martin Jones conducted the first law suit, before Justice Appleby. The first blacksmith was George Thorp, who started his shop in the spring of 1869. The first birth was that of Mary Ann Fry, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. F. Fry, November 7, 1868. The first marriage was that of John Stone to Miss Mary Burger, in March, 1869, and the first death that of a daughter of Jeremiah Shuck, in the spring of 1869. The first school teacher was Miss Anna Wilson, now Mrs. Judge Miller, who taught a select school in the spring of 1870 in the Baptist Church. The first public school was taught in the spring of 1871 in a stone schoolhouse, erected the fall and winter previous.
From the time the county seat question was settled in favor of Columbus, the town made rapid progress. Additions were made to the town site to the population and to the business enterprises, and when on March 24, 1870, the M. R., Ft. S. & G. R. R. Company's graders broke ground for the building of a depot, the permanency and prosperity of the town were assured. At that time, important events followed each other in rapid succession. On the 8th of April, the first freight train entered Columbus; on the 11th, the first passenger train arrived, and, on the 18th, the people of Columbus enjoyed a free excursion to Fort Scott.
On the 11th of April, Columbus was incorporated as a town, the Trustees appointed by the Probate Judge being as follows: Samuel Freligh, J. R. Hallowell, J. S. Hunt, J. N. Lee and C. E. Middaugh. On the next day the Trustees met, and organized by electing Samuel Freligh President and J. R. Hallowell Clerk. At this time the town had 400 inhabitants.
At the April election of 1871, the town was organized as a city of the third class, with a population of 700, and in the spring of 1882 as a city of the second class, with a population of 2,200. The Mayors, with the dates of their election, have been as follows: Leland E. J. Webb, 1871; John N. Ritter, 1872; T. P. Anderson, 1873; J. H. Ludlow, 1874 and 1875; C. A. Saunders, 1876; George Hoyt, 1877; W. C. Lykins, 1878; S. 0. McDowell, 1879-80-81 and 1882.
In January, 1873, on account of the high price at which lots were held, a movement was inaugurated to remove the town to a new site, one-half mile east of its present location, onto the farm of George Theis. A joint stock company was organized and incorporated, a contract made by this company with Mr. Theis, and subscriptions to the stock of the company in shares of $100 each received. Each holder of a share was entitled to draw one business and two resident lots in the "Eastern Addition to Columbus." The plat of this addition was filed March 5, 1873. At the drawing excitement ran high, preparations were immediately made thereafter made to remove several residences from the old to the new site, and for a time every indication betokened [sic] a general moving of the town; but, just in time to prevent it, the owners of lots in the old town site reduced the price of their lots, and the movement was thus prevented.
In the summer of 1873, the Fort Scott & Gulf Railroad Company made an addition to the city of a row of blocks on the south and west of the original site; on the 11th of March, 1875, Lee's First Addition was made on the north; on the 14th of December, 1876, Lee's Second Addition was made, north of the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway; on the 16th of April, 1878, the Gulf Railroad Company made their second addition, on the south; on the 8th of April, 1880, the same company made a third addition, between Main street and the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway; on the 10th of May, 1881, they made a fourth addition, east of their own depot; on the 17th of the same month. Slem Lisle made an addition east of the Gulf Railway, and between Main street and the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway, which is named Park Addition, and in January, 1883, he made another addition, east of Park Addition. The several additions have increased the town site to the aggregate of about one section of land.
The first considerable fire in Columbus occurred early on the morning of January 3, 1883. Ten frame buildings on the south side of the public square were consumed. The total loss was $19,950, upon which there was an insurance of $5,825.
The following is the proportion of solids in the Columbus mineral waters, in grains: Chloride of sodium, 31.20; chloride of potassium, 1.94; sulphate of potassium, 2.01; nitrate of sodium, 6.05; carbonate of iron, 4.11; carbonate of calcium, 20.95; arsenicum, 0.50; silica, 7.00; organic matter, 0.40; total number of grains, 74.16.
The mean temperature of the water at the bottom of the well is 56 [degrees] Fahrenheit. The combinations of the salts of iron with the alkaline carbonates causes the precipitation of fernic hydrate, while in contact with the acids of the stomach, and carbonic acid gas is produced.*
SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES.
The present two-story stone school building was erected in the winter of 1870-71, and the first public school in Columbus was taught therein in the spring of 1871, by 0. W. McNulty. Since this time, the schools have grown with the growth of the town, and steadily improved with the general progress made in the art of teaching. To W. H. Timberlake is due great credit for the enviable position maintained by the public schools of Columbus before the people of the county. Under his superintendency, which lasted from 1874 to 1879, a public school library was established, a monthly school journal was published, and a lecture course instituted. An impetus was thus given to the cause of education, which was widely felt, and has been of lasting benefit.
Six teachers are now employed, and there is a school population of 642. Prof. L. M. Cutler is at the present time in charge of the schools, as Superintendent, and is assisted by six teachers - Sallie Hutsel, Annie Snevely, Ida Vincent, Marilla Odell, Nellie Patty and Mr. Robbins.
The first Baptist church was organized, with twelve members, at a meeting held March 20, 1870, over which Elder C. A. Bateman presided. The first regular pastor was Rev. Mr. Maver, the second Rev. J. M. Lappin, who remained until March, 1872. Then followed, in succession, Revs. Messrs. Post, Lewis, Pierce and C. T. Floyd, who served about a year, commencing in April, 1875. The church was then without a regular pastor until July, 1882, when Rev. F. Bowman, of Missouri, was called, and who now preaches twice a month. The present membership is twenty-two.
The Columbus Union Sunday School was organized in the Baptist Chapel May 8, 1870. Dr. A. F. Childs was elected Superintendent, and J. S. Vincent, Secretary. This Sunday school continued five years. The Baptist Sunday school was organized August 22, 1882, with thirty-two scholars, L. D. Dana being elected Superintendent.
The, Methodist Church was organized, with fifteen members, May 22, 1870. Before this time, there had been preaching by Rev. J. Kirchner, in 1869, and by Rev. Boyd Lowe, in March, 1870, the latter of whom was the first regular minister of the church, holding services once in four weeks. He has been succeeded by the following ministers: Rev. S. W. Bliss, came in October, 1870; F. H. Burrows, February, 1871; Clement Combs, May, 1871; H. H. Scaggs, May, 1872; A. Thorntrue, 1873; William Sibley, March, 1874, assisted by Mr. Marey; John Kirby, 1875; David Griffith, March, 1877; L. W. Thrall, 1878; Hugh McBirney, 1879, and A. G. Robb, the present pastor, in 1881.
Religious services were at first held in the court house, and afterward in the opera house. The building of the present church was commenced in 1873; it was inclosed in 1874, and completed in 1875, at a total cost of $4,000. The present membership is 210. The Sunday school was organized In December 1871, S. 0. McDowell being first Superintendent; L. L. Doubleday was elected Superintendent in 1874, and John N. Ritter, the present Superintendent, in 1877. There is an average attendance of 120 scholars.
The Christian Church was organized in October, 1870, with forty members, by J. A. Murray who served the church in the capacity of preacher for two years. He was succeeded by W. R. Cowley, who was for some years the regular minister. From this time until 1880, when Rev. Kirk Baxter was called, the church was without regular services, and depended upon Messers. Murray and Cowley for occasional sermons. Kirk Baxter remained until December 1, 1882, when he was succeeded by Elder C. C. Deweese. The present church building was erected in July, 1880, at a cost of $3,000. A Sunday school was immediately afterward organized, and Mrs. S. A. Mentzer elected Superintendent. At first, there were 80 scholars; now there are 125. The school meets regularly every Sunday; is well attended, and is a source of great promise and pride to the church.
The Presbyterian Church was organized in 1871. The pastors of this church have been Rev. Messers Hawkins, Warren Mayo, W. Coleman and H. D. Moore, the present pastor, who am called to the charge in the early part of 1881. The present church is building, a substantial stone structure, was erected in 1878, at a cost of $4,500. The present membership of the church is sixty-five.
SOCIETIES AND NEWSPAPERS.
Prudence Lodge, No. 100, A., F. & A. M., was organized under dispensation December 15, 187O; a charter was granted October 19, 1871, at which time there were thirty-five members. The principal charter officers were S. S. Smith, W. M.; G. W. Hoyt, S. W; G. A. Foster, J. W.; H. C. Pursel, Secretary, and C. D. Nichols, Treasurer. The present membership is sixty.
Columbus Lodge, No. 14, A. 0. U. W. -This lodge was organized June 13, 1879, by Deputy Grand Master C. W. Bugbee. The first officers were A. J. Baney, M. W.; M. W. Coulter, G. F.; W. R. Cowley, 0.; C. A. Saunders, Recorder. The original membership was 23; there have been in all 80 members, and the present membership is 41. The present officers are J. Doran, N. W.; H. Wright, G. F.; J. P. Archer, O. A. Guffin, Recorder.
Columbus Lodge, No. 12, K. of P., was instituted April 23, 1880, with eighteen members. The first officers were T. P. Anderson, P. C.; J. W. Henry, C. C.; J. H. Abbott, V. C.; A. T. Lea, P.: C. W. Blair, K. of R. and S.; B. B. Alford, M. at A.; I. P. West, M. of E.; C. L. Woodruff, M. of F.; B. L. Henley, I. G.; Al Strope, 0. G. The lodge now has fifty-three members and is in a flourishing condition.
John A. Dix Post, No. 59, G. A. R.-This post was organized April 26, 1882, with thirteen members. The first principal officers were C. D. Nichols, P. C.; A. Hood, S. V. C.; R. H. Stott, J. V. C, and W. H. Timberlake, Surgeon. The present membership is forty-five.
Columbus Chapter, No. 23, R. A. M., was organized by J. D. Rush, D. G. H. P., of Fort Scott. The dispensation was granted June 13, 1873, and the charter is dated October 14 following. The original membership was thirteen, and the principal charter officers were David Kelso, H. P.; S. S. Smith, E. K.; Jonathan Hunt, E. S.; H. C. Pursel, Secretary, and G. W. Hoyt, Treasurer. The present officers are H. C. Pursel, H. P.; H. Radley, E. K.; S. S. Smith, E. S.; C. D. Nichols, Secretary and Treasurer. The chapter has lost four by death; has a present membership of twenty and is in a flourishing condition.
Columbus Lodge, No. 56, I. O. O. F., was instituted, June 7, 1870, with five charter members-S. S. Smith, George W. Wood, William Martin, Sylvester Altic and Bruce Miller. At the first meeting seven members were admitted, and the following officers elected: S. S. Smith, N. G.; George W. Wood, V. G., and John N. Ritter, Secretary. The lodge is in a good healthy condition, having a membership of seventy-six.
Tancred Division, No. 3, Uniform Rank, K. of P., was organized on January 27, 1883, by Past Grand Chancellor Joseph H. Lyon, of Leavenworth, with thirty Sir Knights, and officered as follows: J. H. Abbott, Sir Knight Commander; H. B. Daniels, Sir Knight Lieutenant Commander; S. 0. McDowell, Sir Knight Herald; W, L. Tilton, Sir Knight Recorder; T. M. Meads Sir Knight, Treasurer; D. M. Bliss, Sir Knight Guard, and R. B. Alford, Sir Knight Sentinel.
The Columbus Courier was started September 29,1874, by J. F. McDowell, as a seven-column weekly, independent reform paper. S. 0. McDowell purchased the office and material in March, 1876. In February, 1877, the Cherokee County Republican was consolidated with the Courier, and the new paper published by McDowell & Lea, as the Republican-Courier until February, 1879. At this time Lea sold his interest to McDowell, who changed the name back to the Columbus Courier, under which name it is still published by S. 0. McDowell. In politics it is Republican.
Lea's Columbus Advocate was established May 5, 1882, by Lea & Crewson. The paper is published from the office of the Courier, and was the first paper printed by steam power in the county. On the 1st of August, Crewson sold his interest to J. M. Roach. Mr. Lea bought out Roach January 1, 1883, and is now sole owner and editor. The Advocate is Prohibition-Republican in politics.
The Times was established at Baxter Springs, October 16, 1878, by J. F. McDowell, as a seven-column folio, and as a Greenback, Anti-monopoly, Labor Reform paper. On the 1st of August, 1880, the Times was removed to Columbus and consolidated with the Border Star. On October 1, 1882, the paper was purchased by a joint stock company, Mr. McDowell retiring from the management. It is now owned and controlled by "The Times Printing Company," with S. S. Butler as editor.
The Working Man's Journal was established at Columbus, October 29,1869, by the Neutral Land Printing Company, with Amos Sanford as editor. In August, 1870, Mr. Sanford purchased the paper and continued its publication until September, 1871, when he sold it back to the Printing Company. In January, 1872, C. D. Nichols and J. F. McDowell became the purchasers. In July Nichols retired, and it was published until October, 1874, by McDowell & Higgins, when it passed into the hands of Higgins & Co., and was by them published as the Columbus Journal until February, 1875, when it was discontinued. The Journal was honestly and ably conducted, and was devoted to the interests of the "Anti-Joy" settlers on the Neutral Lands. Historically it is valuable, containing as it does complete arguments in opposition to Mr. Joy's title to the lands.
The Border Star was re-issued by R. T. Ballard in the fall of 1881, who continued its publication for some two months, when H. C. Jones and L. E. Allbright became its proprietors. In March, 1882, L. E. Allbright retired, and H. C. Jones became sole proprietor. It is still run by him, claiming the patronage of the public. It is the official organ of the county.
The Reporter was started in January, 1882. It is devoted to the interest of the city and county. It is published by Caldwell & Co., edited by C. D. Nichols, and has a circulation of 5,000 copies. It is the only paper in Southeastern Kansas devoted exclusively to immigration.