Andreas' History of the State of Nebraska

Cheyenne County
Produced by
Connie Snyder.


Cheyenne County | Early History | Organization
Indian Troubles | Stock Raising | Agriculture


Sidney:  The Sidney of To-day | Biographical Sketches

List of Illustrations in Cheyenne County Chapter

Part 2



   This is the county seat of Cheyenne County, and was, as has been before stated, laid out in the fall of 1867, at the time of the completion of the Union Pacific Railroad to this point. The town was laid out by the railroad company, and the first building was one of logs, which had been the ranch of French Louis, some four miles south of here, but the Indians having made frequent raids, stealing his stock till he was nearly ruined, he removed to this point, where he occupied his building as a whisky saloon and sold supplies to the railroaders. This building is now occupied as the county hospital. Early in 1868, Charley Moore erected a building used as a hotel; also as a general store and whisky saloon. About the same time, Tom Kane erected a store for the sale of general merchandise. Let it be understood by the reader that in these times whisky was a staple article in trade in all grocery or general stores. Mr. Kane also kept the post office here, he being the first Postmaster. D. Carrigan at this time erected a building, which he occupied as a saloon.

   No town at this time was nearer than 100 miles in any direction, and, as this settlement was in the very center of a stock-growing region, it soon grew to be a prosperous little village. The railroad company made Sidney a freight division, and at once erected a round house and other necessary buildings.

   Though prosperous as a frontier town, Sidney had a population of only about 500, till after the discovery of gold in the Black Hills country. That region was opened up in 1876, and, as Sidney was the best located point, there were stage and freight stations soon established, and the greater portion of the immense travel was direct from this town. In the great rush of travel to the Black Hills, hundreds of strangers thronged the streets daily. Large and commodious business houses were erected and stocked. The population soon increased to 1,000 or more; all was activity, and money seemed to literally flow into the town from all directions. A bridge was built across the North Platte, to accommodate the stage and freight companies, as well as the vast stream of private wagons and conveyances that continued to pour into the Black Hills country by way of Sidney.

   Thus was the route opened, not only to the Black Hills, but to all the military posts and Indian agencies to the northwest, including the Big Horn and Powder River Districts. The wholesale houses of Sidney did an almost fabulous amount of business, in the sale of goods to supply all this country. A large number of six-horse mail coaches, making time at the rate of ten miles per hour, were put on the route. The freight business carried on along this route was immense. It was no uncommon event for 1,000,000 pounds of freight to leave Sidney daily. One business firm alone frequently shipped as high as 400,000 pounds of freight per day.

   With these large crowds of strangers, many of them a rough class of adventurers; with this as a common center for the cowboys for hundreds of miles of country; with this as headquarters for hundreds of "bull-whackers"--as the ox team drivers on the freight road were termed--and the drivers of mules and horse teams on this route--known as ''mule-skinners "--it is not strange that they, when at rest from their labors and "turned loose," as it were, among the saloons and dance-houses of the town, soon became, not only objects of wonder and curiosity, but of terror as well. The rush, buzz, noise, cracking of whips, shouting of drivers, orders of ''bosses," etc., served to create a din and noise to be heard throughout the town and many times their broils and reckless use of fire-arms endangered the lives of peaceable citizens and mere lookers-on. Then in the evening and through the entire night, when every store, saloon and other business house was brightly lighted, the billiard balls clicking merrily as they chased each other over the green cloth in the billiard halls; the rattling of drinking glasses; the breathless silence of the faro rooms; the boisterous shouting and laughing in the bar-room; the half wild, and often, half intoxicated men and women in the dance-houses; the busy merchant, flushed with excitement, as he flits about the store to attend upon his waiting customers who pay down the cash for everything--when all these are described, the reader has a good idea of Sidney as it was in 1876 and for a few years following.

   Sidney was then emphatically a rough frontier town, and, with the gathering of this motley crowd, it is not surprising that murders were frequent and that crime ran rampant. Though murder was so frequent, yet there has never to this day been a murderer executed legally, though in some instances the people have taken the law into their own hands and occasionally lynched a desperado. One of these events that created some excitement at the time was the hanging of Charles Reed, in May, 1879, for the murder of Henry Loomis. Mr. Loomis was a young man generally respected, and the circumstances attending the murder and hanging were about as follows: Loomis and others, one evening, were walking up street, and, passed the house of a woman, the mistress of Reed. This woman was standing outside her door, and Loomis addressed her. She chose to regard his remark as an insult, and called upon Reed for protection. The latter immediately drew a pistol and shot Loomis, inflicting a wound in the thigh, from the effects of which he died the next day, after having his leg amputated. Upon his death, Sheriff Zweifel began a search for Reed, found him concealed in the bluffs north of town and brought him back, lodging him in jail. All day long, a crowd was gathering in the street for the purpose of lynching Reed, should Loomis die. Some time during the following night, a large crowd, thoroughly armed, that the guards might be beaten back, proceeded to the jail and quietly took Reed out and hanged him to a telegraph pole, giving him the choice of being pulled up by the neck, or of having the rope placed around his neck and then to climb up a ladder and jump off. He chose the latter and coolly bade the crowd good-bye, and, jumping off, was soon in eternity.

   It would be unnecessary to give an account of the scores of murders committed, or of the lynchings, as these affairs are greatly similar in detail. Sufficient is it to say that the town is becoming more moral in its tone, there now being only four murderers in jail here, and their crimes were all committed outside of the town. The last lynching that has taken place was in March, 1881, when one McDonald was hanged. The town had generally been under control of a gang of gamblers, and, early in the year 1881, it was determined by a number of the citizens of Sidney to break up the gambling and disorderly houses of the town. A raid was therefore made on them and considerable trouble between the two factions was engendered. The Sheriff being absent, William Strate was made a jailer, and left in charge of the jail and was made a Deputy Sheriff for the time, and he was one of the leaders of this movement. The gamblers resisting, a general row ensued, during which many of them, and among them an ex-Sheriff of the county, were arrested and incarcerated in the jail. The man McDonald, with some others, resisted, declaring they would not be arrested, and that they would shoot the man that attempted it. These threats were made in the excitement of the moment, and there was probably little idea of carrying them into execution. However this may have been, there was trouble, and McDonald, who had been one of the leaders of this opposition, and a few of his associates, were arrested and confined in the jail. During the night, and it is supposed, with the connivance of the jailer, McDonald was taken out and hanged to a telegraph pole. McDonald, though a rather hard character and a gambler, was perhaps no worse than scores of others, and, aside from his petty lawlessness and the threat of violence made during this excitement, nothing detrimental to his character was known.

   The above was the last lynching that has occurred, though there was serious talk of taking out and hanging one of the murderers confined in the jail for a cowardly and brutal murder committed in the early part of the present year, but better judgment prevailed.

   It will be worthy of mention that Sidney is the place where the famous outlaw, "Doc" Middleton, now confined in the State penitentiary for life, committed his first crime. In a fight with a number of soldiers, he killed one in self-defense, and, fearing that trouble would ensue, he fled to the unsettled country to the northward and became a highwayman. Occasionally, however, he, with his band, came in the vicinity of Sidney. On one of these occasions, in April, 1869, Charles Reed, who was hanged the following month for the murder of Loomis, undertook to betray Middleton and his associates into the hands of the authorities. Middleton and his men had stolen some horses near Ogallala, and were pursued by Sheriff Hughes, of Keith County, with a number of men, and, with the assistance of Reed, they were discovered in the bluffs west of town, and, though Middleton escaped, one of his men, Joe Smith, was shot and killed. The next day, Middleton, meeting one of his acquaintances, whom he knew before going to the bad, sent in word that if he could be assured of a pardon for the killing of the soldier in 1877, he would willingly give himself up and stand his trial for the other crimes committed by him. This being refused, he kept up his wild life, till some time after he was captured by detectives, some sixty miles north of Columbus, and taken to Cheyenne, where he was tried for crimes committed in Wyoming, and sentenced to prison for life.

   For some years murders were so frequent in and about Sidney that the citizens became hardened and careless as to the taking of life, and but little attention was given to murders committed in drunken broils. It was quite frequent in the dance-houses here that some one would be killed during a quarrel, but no attention would be given to the matter further than to tumble the corpse into a corner out of the way until the dance and the amusements of the evening were over, and then take the corpse out for burial. That the reader may have some idea of the disregard for life common to the frontier, we give an account of a single dance at one of the ranches. During the winter of 1881, a dance was gotten up at a ranch north of Sidney; women and whisky were provided and arrangements made to have a good time. The men in attendance were soldiers, cow boys and border desperadoes. The dance proceeded without serious interruption till about half-past 10 o'clock, when the effects of bad whisky began to be seen. Men and women became noisy, boisterous and quarrelsome; but still no one was killed till a soldier accidentally shot himself, death resulting in a few moments. As his body obstructed the floor, it was thrown into a corner, and the music and dance went on. Quarrels were numerous, and after awhile a row ensued, shooting being commenced between Jack Page, who is now in jail at Sidney awaiting trial, and another party. Shots were fired among the crowd, and the shooting soon became general. Several men were wounded and one woman was shot in the back, but Page killed his man and his body was also thrown into the corner, out of the way, and the dance was again resumed. But it was only a short time till there was another outbreak. The lights were then blown out, another man was killed, and finally, the dance was broken up.

   Now, while so much has been written here in reference to the roughness of the town, it must not be understood that there was no good society. While, as a frontier town, law was disregarded, yet a man could seek almost any society to which he was inclined. If the stranger attended his own affairs, and kept away from drinking and dance houses, he was perfectly safe. The business houses were as free from quarrels as they are in more Eastern towns. The class that made the trouble were not residents, but desperate characters drawn together from all parts of the world, who, of course, when they came into town, proceeded to have a good time in their own depraved manner, and the rows were generally confined to the streets or the saloons. It is true, loose women and gamblers made Sidney a temporary residence, and, during the great rush of travel to the Black Hills, reaped a rich harvest. These, however, have nearly all gone, and the days of lawlessness in Sidney may be said to be past. The present Prosecuting Attorney of this Judicial District, V. Bierbower, is a resident of Sidney, and, being familiar with the crimes peculiar to the frontier, will doubtless prosecute until crime becomes unpopular in his district, judging from the fact that during the last term of court, out of twenty-eight prisoners arraigned, he succeeded in convicting twenty-seven.


   The greater part of the Black Hills travel by this point has ceased, and Sidney is beginning to settle down as a quiet and prosperous little town in the center of the strock-growing region. Its trade throughout Sioux County on the north, and with the stock ranches, insures its continued prosperity.

   The schools of the town have been described on another page, and we only say litre that they are in a thriving condition.

   The only two churches having houses of worship erected are the Catholic, with Father Conway in charge, and the Methodist, with Rev. J. Turner as Pastor. There are also many citizens here representing the Episcopal, Lutheran and Presbyterian Churches, though these are not organized; but services are sometimes held.

   The Sunday schools are in a flourishing condition.

   There is one newspaper published here--the Plaindealer-Telegraph--it being a consolidation of the old Telegraph and the Plaindealer. The history of the two papers is as follows: The Telegraph was founded in May, 1873, by L. Connell. In December, 1875, he sold it to J. B. Gossage, who, in January, 1876, admitted G. B. Darrow as a partner. In 1879, the Telegraph was again sold, and a joint-stock company was formed, with Brainard & McNulty as Editors. In 1880, James McNulty assumed entire control, and continued to publish a creditable paper until March, 1881, when the Telegraph was sold to A. C. Drake, editor of the Plaindealer.

   The Plaindealer was established in October, 1878, by W. H. Michael, who, upon retiring from the profession, sold it to A. C. Drake. As before stated, this gentleman purchased the Telegraph, and the two papers were consolidated. Mr. Drake continued the paper until his death, when Mrs. A. C. Drake took charge of it and still continues to publish the Plaindealer-Telegraph, the only newspaper in the county. It is a bright and newsy paper.

   Fort Sidney is still located here, and is still quite an important station for operations to the country northwest of here.

   The cemetery here is well filled, when we consider the fact that it is only a little more than ten years since it was started by the burial of a man killed by Indians. There are about two hundred graves; only a few of those buried here, however, died of natural death. There are a few children buried here who died from natural causes, but of the adults, only a very small percentage. Some were killed by Indians, but by far the greater number were either murdered or killed in drunken brawls. Many of these were soldiers. There are also a few Pawnee Indians, who either died of disease or were killed in fights with the Sioux while engaged in the service of the United States Government as soldiers.


   VIC BIERBOWER, District Attorney for the Fifth Judicial District of Nebraska, with headquarters in Sidney, Neb. Mr. B. located in Nebraska City in 1871, and engaged in the practice of law up to 1876, when he moved to Sidney and opened a law office. Since connected in the practice of his profession, he has frequently been assigned as special U. S. Attorney on important cases. He was appointed District Attorney by the Governor of Nebraska in 1880, and was unanimously elected to the same position by both parties in November, 1881. Out of forty-five cases tried, he has convicted forty-two, among which are four murder cases, two for manslaughter, twenty for shooting with intent to kill, and the remainder for horse-stealing. He was born in Shelly's Island, Dauphin Co., Penn., March 30, 1847; lived in his native State until 1866, entering Dickinson College at Carlisle, Penn., in 1862, and graduated in 1866. He was admitted to the bar in Keytesville, Mo., and for three years edited the Marshall Banner, of Marshall, Mo., with Charles Maynard, firm of Maynard & Co. He was also Superintendent of Public Instruction in his county. Their newspaper office was attacked by a secession mob, and twice set on fire. Maynard was shot and crippled for life and Mr. B. was severely cut and wounded. The same was occasioned by hostile feelings engendered by the late war. They kept up the publication of their paper until Mr. B. came to Nebraska. He was a delegate to Chicago National Convention, June, 1880, and is also Western attorney for U. P. R. R. Co. He is a brother of Ellis L. Bierbower, U. S. Marshal of Nebraska.

   C. E. BORGQUIST, dealer in a general line of drugs, medicine and liquors. Opened business in April, 1871, carry a stock to the value of $5,000. He came to Sidney in 1869, as Hospital Steward in the U. S. Army, and as soon as he was discharged he opened the above business. He enlisted in 1849, in Company C, First Regiment Mounted Rifles of Regular Army. He served in the latter regiment five years, a part of which time was Sergeant. He enlisted in Fifth Cavalry in Company K, and served four and one-half years; served during the rebellion as Hospital Steward. Has participated in many Indian skirmishes. He was born in Sweden, May 14, 1826, and came to America in 1849. He was married in Boston, Mass., August 19, 1862, to Miss Mary Kinney, of Ireland. They have two children--Paul Ray and Mary Christina. He was elected County Treasurer of Cheyenne County, Neb., in 1870. He is one of the original school officers of Sidney acting in that capacity in the latter place on the organization of the first school in Cheyenne County. He owns and occupies the best business building in Sidney, which he erected in 1876; it is built of concrete, the walls of which are two feet thick and fire proof. The size of the building is 44x53, two stories high, and cost $10,000.

   FRED E. CLARY, firm of Maple & Clary, dealers in drugs, medicine, stationery, notions, etc., etc. Opened business in May, 1878, alone, Dr. Maple becoming a partner in the spring of 1880. They carry a stock of $3,500. Mr. Clary came to Sidney, Neb., in 1875. Was appointed Postmaster in 1878. Held the office until January 1, 1882. He was born in Maquoketa, Iowa, September 9, 1851, and lived in his native State until he was twenty-two years of age. He learned telegraph operating, and followed the business until 1878, in Nebraska, Wyoming and Utah, and operated in Sidney until he was appointed Postmaster. He was married in Maquoketa, Iowa, in November, 1877, to Miss Rose F. Van Evera of Canajoharie, N. Y.

   E. DORAN, firm of Doran & Tobin, proprietors of Capital Billiard Hall. Opened in May, 1880, and keep all kinds of wines, liquors and cigars. He located in Sidney, in 1877. Worked on a stock ranch for his brother-in-law a year; then went into the liquor business in another part of the village of Sidney, until he moved to his present place. He was born in Waddington, St. Lawrence Co., N. Y , January 3, 1838. He owned and operated a woolen mill, also kept a hotel, etc. He was married in his native place in 1867, to Miss Catharine Behan of the same place. They have four children--Henry T., Charles E., Rebecca J. and Wallace S. He enlisted in the fall of 1861, in Company G, Sixtieth Regiment New York Volunteer Infantry, as private, and served one year and a half; he was then made drummer of his company and served until the close of the rebellion, being mustered out in July, 1865.

   SAMUEL O. FOWLER, Sheriff of Cheyenne and Sioux Counties, came to Sidney in August, 1876, and went into the employ of the Sidney & Black Hills Stage Company as blacksmith, and a portion of the time as messenger on their treasury wagon, remaining in their employ three and one-half years. He was appointed Sheriff of Cheyenne County, Neb., in April, 1881, and by election has since held the office. During this term of office he has arrested three murderers, two of whom are serving life sentences, and the third is serving out a term of twenty years in the Nebraska State Prison. He has also arrested many horse thieves and notorious characters; by strategy and perseverance he was the means of the capture in Nemaha County, Kan., of the notorious murderer and robber, H. B. Coyne, who has a life sentence. Mr. F. was born in Madison County, N. Y., September 7, 1853, and was raised in a village and learned the trade of blacksmith. He went to Del Norte, Colo., in 1871, being one of the pioneers in that country. He was one of the first prospectors in the San Juan mines in the latter State, and was one who assisted to lay out the plat of Ouray City, Colo. He also spent some time in New Mexico, Texas, etc., being gone five years, and following various occupations during the time. He has taken the 32d degree in Masonry, now being a member of the Scottish Rite.

   A. J. HASKELL, dealer in a general stock of groceries and provisions, hardware, lumber and all kinds of ranchers' and miners' supplies, wholesale and retail. He opened the hardware and lumber business in May, 1877, and the grocery and provision business in September, 1881. He carries a stock of $15,000. He erected his own store buildings, one of which is 30x120, and another of 30x110 feet. He has erected and now owns thirteen dwelling houses, which he rents. He first located in Sidney in 1876, and followed contracting and building until 1877. He was born in Medford, Mass., August 27, 1832. He learned the carpenter and joiner trade in his native place, also carried on and owned a sash, door and blind factory in Plymouth, Mass., a year. He enlisted in August, 1861, in the Fourth Regiment, Kansas Volunteer Infantry; served fourteen months, being Orderly Sergeant, and participated in the battle of Osceola, Mo. He ran a ferry-boat on the Missouri River from Belmont to St. Joseph, Mo., one year; he then engaged in contracting and building two years in Belmont and Troy, Kan.; followed the lime business three years; farmed three years near Beaver Creek, Neb., after which, he went to Sidney, Neb. He was married in Rockport, Mass., in 1854, to Miss Adeline Pool of the latter place. They have one daughter--Lucy C. Haskell, now married to Mr. J. Papst, and living in Sidney, Neb.

   GEORGE H. JEWETT, Postmaster, located in Camp Sheridan, Neb., in 1873, as post trader, where he remained four years. Then went to Sidney, and engaged in contracting and forwarding Government supplies, for the use of Government troops in Camps Robinson, Sheridan and Red Cloud Agency, which business he still continues. He was appointed Postmaster December 15, 1881. The office does an average business of $3,500 per month in money orders and sells stamps to the amount of $3,000 per annum. Mr. J. was a member of the State Legislature of Nebraska in 1879-80. He was born in Rochester, N. Y., in 1848. Was raised on a farm. Enlisted, in September, 1864, in Company E, One Hundred and Forty-second Regiment, New York Volunteer Infantry, and participated in Butler's attack on Fort Fisher and many skirmishes, etc. He was mustered out June 8,1865. He afterward clerked in the Quartermaster's department for the Government in Forts Rice and Randall, D. T., and clerked for the post trader at Fort Randall two years. He was married in Niles, Mich., in December, 1877, to Miss Minnie Mead, of the latter city. He is a member of the Masonic order of Sidney and the I. O. O. F., of Yankton, D. T.

   S. KELLNER, dealer in dry goods, clothing. boots and shoes, hats and caps, etc., opened business in the spring of 1877. He has a store 72x21 feet and employs three men in the business. He was born in Hungary, Europe, September 14, 1853; came to America in 1865, and located in Cleveland, Ohio, seven years. He located soon afterward in St. Louis, Mo., and was with his father in business until 1876; then went to Laramie City with a brother, in the dry goods business, where they owned and operated a store, until he came to Sidney, Neb. He is a member of the Sidney Fire Department. Mr. K. began business with a very small capital. By attention to business and fair dealing he has now the most extensive dry goods store in Sidney. He is a thoroughly wide-awake business man and merits the patronage of the public.

   JAMES J. McINTOSH, County Clerk of Cheyenne County, Neb., located at Brady Island in February, 1869; engaged as operator in the employ of the U. P. R. R. Co., where he remained three months; then went to Potter, Cheyenne County, as agent and operator, five years; after which he came to Sidney. He was elected County Commissioner in 1873, but resigned after one year's service. He was also interested in the cattle business at the same time. He afterward moved on his stock ranch, twenty-eight miles west of Sidney, and lived two years; then disposed of his stock interest and moved to Sidney. He was elected County Clerk in the fall of 1877, and by re election has since held the office. He was born in the Province of Ontario, Can., at a place named St. Andrews, June 17, 1850. He was married in Omaha, Neb., in 1871, to Miss Mary Heelan, of Chicago, Ill. By their union they had two sons--John Thomas and James L. His wife died in April, 1875. He was again married, in May, 1880, in Sidney, to Miss Mollie Kelly, of Grand Island, Neb. They have one daughter--Grace. He is a member of Frank Welsh Lodge, No. 75, of Sidney, Neb.

   DR. J. B. MAPLE, physician and surgeon, associated with Dr. F. B. Winnett for practicing medicine; also engaged in the drug business, under the firm name of Maple & Clary; they deal in a general line of drugs and stationery. Dr. Maple is Pension and Examining Surgeon for Western Nebraska. He located in Sidney in March, 1879, and continued the practice of medicine and engaged in the drug business in 1880. He was born near Hammondsville, Ohio, February 7, 1838; was raised on a farm and taught school three years of his life when living at home, and began the study of medicine, entering the Ohio Wesleyen University, in 1860, and remained a year. He enlisted in the Eighty-sixth Ohio Regiment, in the one hundred day service; served his time and returned to the latter university and remained until 1863. He entered the Michigan University, in Ann Arbor, in the medical department, in 1864, and remained through one course of lectures. He then went to Washington, Ind., and engaged in business a year; then to Clayton, Ill., two years; then to Southern Illinois and began the practice of medicine, where he continued until 1870; moved to Stonington, Central Illinois, and practiced until 1879. He entered the Medical College of St. Louis, Mo., in 1878, and graduated in March, 1879. He is now Moderator of the Sidney School Board. He was married in Clayton, Ill., in 1866, to Elizabeth McWhinney, of the latter place. They had two daughters--Dolly and Pearle. His wife died in Sidney, Neb., in July, 1879.

   JUDGE JULIUS NEUBAUER, County Judge, Cheyenne County, Neb., settled in Lincoln, Nab., in the fall of 1874, and engaged in the hotel business until February, 1877, when he sold out and moved to Sidney, where he kept a restaurant until December 4, 1877, when his place burned. He then kept the Moore Hotel and was Justice of the Peace, which he followed some time; then built a new restaurant and kept the same until 1878; was elected County Judge in the fall of 1879, and by re-election has since held the office. He was born in Prussia, Germany, October 31, 1836; came to America in 1856, in company with a brother, and located in Chicago. Ill., where he followed various occupations two years; then went to Kansas City, Mo.; remained there about two years ; then to Lawrence, Kan., and worked as before until 1861, when he enlisted in the Second Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry, Company D, and served six months. He then settled in Fort Scott and followed different occupations, and in 1864 went to Germany; remained six months; returned to Fort Scott for some time; returned to his native country and lived four years, in the settlement of his father's estate; returned to Fort Scott in 1870, and went into the bakery and restaurant business until 1874, when he went to Lincoln, Neb. He was married in West Point, Neb., in 1871, to Miss Maria Siewert, of his native place--Germany. They have three children--August Leslie, Maria Dorethia Walleska and Julius Caesar. Mr. N. is a member of the E. V. Sumner Post, No. 12, G. A. R., and Frank Welsh Lodge, No. 75, A., F. & A. M.; also Sidney Lodge, No. 91, I. O. O. F., and a member of the Sidney Fire Department. He is the Commander of the E. V. Sumner Post and Past Master of the Masonic order of his place, and present United States Commissioner of the First District Court.

   JOSEPH OBERFELDER, firm of Oberfelder & Co., dealers in a general line of clothing, revolvers, ammunition, saddlery, pocket cutlery, blankets, chaperjos, oil slickers, etc. Opened the business January 6, 1877. Carry a stock of $20,000. They also own a similar store in Council Bluffs under the firm name of Oberfelder & Newman, and a branch house in San Francisco, Cal., under the firm name of the Amazon Distilling Company. He was born in New York City September 18, 1857. He graduated from Grammar School No. 19, New York City, at the age of thirteen. He then began book-keeping, and remained in the city until February, 1876, then went to Omaha, Neb., in the employ of Max Meyer & Co. as cashier and book-keeper, taking charge of the entire financial part of the business a year. He soon afterward became identified with the above firm in Council Bluffs, Sidney and San Francisco, Cal. He went to New York City in 1881, and was married to Miss Hannah Rosenthal February 2, 1881. During his life in New York City, he was Secretary, and afterward President of the Cooper Union Literary Class. Was President of the Charles Sumner Literary Union and Secretary of the Hamilton Literary Society, all of New York City. He is County Superintendent of Public Schools of Cheyenne County, Neb.

   ROBERT S. OBERFELDER, firm of Oberfelder & Co., located in Sidney, Neb., in 1876. He was born in New York City December 8, 1854. He entered Grammar School No. 13, and graduated from that school at the age of thirteen. He also attended the Thirteenth Street High School in the evenings. He was employed as decorator and designer for the large furniture house of B. L. Solomon & Son five years. He came to Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 1874, and went into the employ of Oberfelder & Newman, and became a member of the same firm in two years afterward, where he remained until 1876, then came to Sidney and opened business as before stated. He has since, in company with his brother and other parties, opened branch houses in San Francisco, Cal., and 266 Canal street, New York City. During his life in the latter city he was President of the Cooper Union Literary Class and Dramatic Director of the Shakespeare Dramatic Association, also Director of Murray Hill Dramatic Association and Vice President of the Jefferson Literary Union.

   E. A. POWELL, JR., business manager for J. Sutherland & Co., a large grocery house of Sidney, Neb. He was born in Northport, Tuscaloosa Co., Ala., January 31, 18?5. He entered Eastman's Commercial College in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., May 31, 1873, and graduated from the same September 30 of the same year. He then returned to his native place as book-keeper for McLester, Hayes & Co. one and a half years. He then went to Buffalo, Colo., and engaged in the stock business which he is now carrying on in company with his brother, W. J. Powell. They have about 500 head of cattle of all kinds. He came to Sidney, Neb., in July, 1877, and engaged in book-keeping for D. Carrigan in a general store until November, 1877, when he returned to his native place and was married, November 29, 1877, to Miss Allie Lee, of Livingston, Ala. They returned to Sidney in March, 1878. He then engaged as book-keeper for Kennard & Simpson, which he continued some time, then went to Colorado and took charge of their cattle ranch until October, 1880. Returned to Sidney as book-keeper for J. W. Haas, then in the forwarding and commercial business, and from the latter proprietor to J. Sutherland & Co., taking charge of the latter business. They have two children--Agnes Lee and William James, Jr.

   A. A. RICKER, dealer in boots and shoes, leather, findings, etc. Employs two workmen in the manufacture of boots and shoes, and keeps $3,000 worth of stock. Opened business May 1, 1880. He was born in Buckfield, Oxford Co., Me., April 17, 1837; lived in his native State, enlisting September 10, 1862, in Company C, Twenty-third Regiment Maine Volunteer Infantry. Was mustered out in Portland, Me., July 15, 1863. He went to Milwaukee, Wis., in 1864, and clerked in a wholesale grocery house about two years, when he returned to his native State and farmed until 1880, then went to Sidney, Neb. He was married in Buckfield, Me., in February, 1859, to Miss Josephine B. Stevens, of Vermont. They have two children--Albert E. and Angie M. He is a member of E. V. Sumner Post, No. 12, G. A. R.; also Director of Sidney School Board.

   I. RUBEL, of I. Rubel & Co., dealers in liquors, cigars, etc., wholesale and retail; carry a stock worth about $15,000. Opened business in February, 1879, locating in Sidney about that time. He was born in Bavaria, Germany, May 26, 1851. Came to America in 1869, locating in Chicago, Ill., where he engaged as traveling salesman. He afterward moved to Platteville, Wis., and engaged in the liquor business until he came to Nebraska. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., Sidney Lodge, No. 91.

   SIMON RUBEL, dealer in hides, furs, etc., opened the business in Sidney in the fall of 1880. He is stationed in Sidney, and employs a buyer on the road. He does a good business, and is known as a good business man. He was born in Bavaria, Germany, April 21, 1854. Came to America in 1869 with his brother and located in Chicago, Ill., and engaged as traveling salesman six years. He then went to Platteville, Wis., and embarked in the liquor business until 1879, and afterward went on the road as salesman until he settled in Sidney, Neb. He is a member of the A. O. U. W., of Platteville, Wis.

   JOSEPH SHARMER, President of the Sidney Exchange Bank, and a member of the firm of J. Sutherland & Co. He is also largely engaged in stock-raising. He located in Sidney in 1874, bringing stock with him for a stock ranch. He was born in Germany May 25, 1829. Came to America in 1847; followed the sea for a number of years; went to California in 1853, and engaged in mining and stock-raising and other business until 1869; then went to Nevada and engaged in stock-raising until 1871. Went to Brookville, Kan., in the latter year, and followed the same business until the spring of 1874, when he came to Sidney as before stated.

   DR. J. J. SOLOMON, homoeopathist physician and surgeon, located in Sidney in February, 1881, and continued his profession. He was born in Old Mexico March 11, 1846, and began the study of medicine at the age of twelve years and entered the Parcilesis College, of his native city, and graduated in March, 1873. His father was a physician and surgeon. He then went to Brackettsville, Texas, and practiced his profession about two years; then to New Orleans, La., and finally traveled in many of the Southern and Eastern States, locating in Sidney as above noted. He was married in Colorado, in 1879, to Miss Ella A. Ellison, of Minnesota. They have two children--Jennie and Alonzo. The Doctor is a member of the Masonic Order, I. O. O. F., and K. of P. He enlisted in 1862 in Company C, Forty-seventh Massachusetts Regiment. Was assistant physician part of his service. He was mustered out in 1863. He participated in several skirmishes. He is now a member of G. A. R. of Golden, Colo.

   JAMES SUTHERLAND, Cashier of the Sidney Exchange Bank, with Joseph Sharmer, President, the above being a private bank organized and opened for business in February, 1880. The average annual deposits equal $30,000. The above parties are also owners of a large grocery store, doing a wholesale and retail business under the firm name of J. Sutherland & Co. The same parties also own a large warehouse on the north side of the Union Pacific Railway, where they transact a heavy forwarding and commission business, and now handle nearly all the freight for the Black Hills country. They also do a large trade with the stock ranchers of the surrounding country. Mr. J. S. first located in Sidney in the spring of 1875, and engaged in railroading, merchandising, etc., until he began to be interested as above noted. He was born in Scotland April 27, 1851. His parents came to America in 1853, and settled in Canada West, where he lived and attended school until he was eighteen years old. He then went to Negaunee, Mich., and engaged in book-keeping for the Iron Cliffs Company five years. He then went to Marquette, Mich., as station agent on the M. H. & O. R. R. one year; then to Chicago, Ill., and worked for Sherer & Parsons in a wholesale grocery house a few months, when he removed to Sidney, Neb. He was married on Shelly's Island, in the Susquehanna River, Penn, September, 1881 to Miss Ida Shelly, of the above island. He was elected County Treasurer of Cheyenne County, Neb., in the fall of 1881, and was appointed to fill vacancy in March of the same year. Mr. Sutherland and Mr. Sharmer are large owners of the most desirable real estate in the village.

   DR. F. B. WINNEIT, physician and surgeon, associated with Dr. J. B. Maple for the purpose of practicing medicine only. Dr. W. located in Sidney in the spring of 1877, and began the practice of medicine. He was born in Washington County, Penn., August 10, 1848. Began the study of medicine at eighteen years of age, entering Hogue's Summit Academy in the study of Latin in connection with other branches, and remained three years; then went to Beallsville, Washington Co., Penn., under a medical preceptor two years. He then entered the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, Penn. He graduated the summer of 1870 at Long Island College Hospital. He began the practice of medicine at Scenery Hill, Washington Co., Penn., and continued eight years. After five years of successful practice in the latter place, he received the degree of ad eundem. He is largely engaged in sheep-raising in Cheyenne County, Neb., now owning several sheep ranches, and has 10,000 sheep now on the same. He in company with Dr. Maple are surgeons for the Union Pacific Railroad from North Platte to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and from Denver Junction to Sterling. They also have charge of the Cheyenne County Hospital work. He was married in Washington County, Penn., in 1868, to Miss Isabelle Scott, of the latter county, Penn. They have two children--John Elmer and Wray Biddle.

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